|Using Verbal Behavior Approach to Teach Skills to Children Diagnosed With Autism|
|Tuesday, May 29, 2012|
|9:00 AM–10:20 AM |
|Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: Junelyn Lazo (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)|
|CE Instructor: Junelyn Lazo, Ph.D.|
Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) has long been criticized as a work of theory. However, in recent years, many practitioners and researchers have applied principles of Verbal Behavior when working with individuals with or without disabilities. Many of them have shown when functional analysis of verbal behavior is applied to teach language, effective outcomes can often be obtained within short period of time. Four studies are presented in this symposium. In the first study, the2 types of verbal behavior, topography-based (The Picture Exchange Communication System) and stimulus-selection-based verbal behavior (American Sign Language) were taught to3 children with autism. The result shows that all3 children gained numerous mands in their repertoire with both types of verbal behavior. In addition, the barriers and decisions in selecting the types of verbal behavior to be taught were discussed. In the second study, the notion of joint control (Lowenkron, 1991; Tu, 2006) was applied when teaching manded selection responses to children with autism. The result shows that only after joint control training did the children acquired manded selection responses. The third study examines the effectiveness of social stories when changing challenging behaviors. The result shows that corresponding training between "doing" and "saying" is necessary to promote generalization of skills when social stories failed to do so. Finally, descriptive autoclitic training was implemented in an intensive early intervention program for a 4-year-old male with autism. Trainers captured and contrived opportunities for the participant to make contextually appropriate use of autoclitics. Result shows that children diagnosed with autism can acquire and generalize autoclitics.
Manding for Children With Autism: Comparing Topography-Based Verbal Behavior With Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior
|RHYSA MORENO (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)|
Michael (1985) categorized speaking, writing, and signing as types of verbal behavior where each different verbal relation involves a different topography as "topography-based verbal behavior." He also stated that pointing or in some way indicating the relevant verbal stimuli where response topographies do not differ from one verbal relation to another, can be categorized as "stimulus-selection-based verbal behavior." In this study, one type of stimulus-selection-based verbal behavior, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is used to teach mands for3 nonvocal children diagnosed with autism at the beginning of their in-home intensive behavior interventions. However, when other identified barriers that were interfering with acquisition of mands, topography-based verbal behavior were introduced into the intervention. The result shows that, all participants acquired and generalize mands using either type of verbal behavior. For Participant 1, 4 mands were mastered and generalized using signs, but 2 via PECS. For Participants 2 and 3, more mands were mastered using PECS than signs at the beginning of the programming. However, Participant 2 generalized 6 mands using signs but only 4 using PECS. Participant 3 generalized more than 20 mands using PECS but only 3 using signs. The implication of key programming decisions (when, why, and what forms of verbal behavior to introduce) will be discussed.
Using Joint Control to Teach Manded Selection Responses to Children With Autism
|JOHANNA F. LORCA (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)|
The notion of joint control (Lowenkron, 1991; Tu, 2006) is applied when teaching 3 children with autism manded selection responses. Typical discrete trial teaching methodology was used to teach manded selection responses to all 3 children at baseline. However, no responses were acquired during baseline after at least 3 months of teaching. Joint control procedures were then implemented. During joint control phase, joint echoic and tact control were established to evoke selection responses. All 3 participants acquired manded selection responses within a month. This is a multiple baseline across participants study. For Participant 1, the number of acquired manded selection responses in baseline was zero, whereas the number of acquired manded selection responses after joint control training was 11. For Participant 2, the number of acquired manded selection responses in baseline was zero, whereas the number of acquired manded selection responses after joint control training was 3. For Participant 3, the number of acquired manded selection responses in baseline was zero, whereas the number of acquired manded selection responses after joint control training was 8. The presentation will discuss specific steps to establish joint echoic and tact control and present a different way to teach manded selection responses to children with autism than the traditional discrete trial teaching methodology.
Correspondence Training Between "Doing" and "Saying" When Social Stories Failed to Promote Program Generalization
|HOANG THUY NGUYEN (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)|
Social stories are widely implemented and have been proven effective with children with ASD, adolescents, adults, and typical individuals (Gray, 1995). A social story provides information, social cues, perspective taking and responses individualized to the participant. However, when social story failed to produce program generalization, additional strategies will need to be implemented. Correspondence training is used in this study to promote generalization. Correspondence training is defined as a person giving a verbal report "saying" is followed by the actual behavior "doing," and the behavior is reinforced only when saying and doing is observed (Lima & Abreu-Rodrigues, 2010). This study examines the effectiveness of correspondence training when promoting generalization. Social stories were first used to teach appropriate social interactions for 3 children diagnosed with autism. Answering questions regarding the stories read, role play, and life-situation practice were also implemented immediately after reading of the stories. However, when these procedures did not produce program generalization, correspondence trainings were introduced. The result shows 100% generalization after the implementation of correspondence training.
Teaching Autoclitic Responses to Children Diagnosed With Autism
|CYNTHIA L. BOYLE (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Joyce C. Tu (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)|
Autoclitics are secondary verbal operants, which are dependent upon other verbal behavior, that is, they are always emitted along with some other primary verbal operants (Skinner, 1957). The autoclitic prepares the listener for what the speaker is about to say and increases the probability of an appropriate listener response. One category of autoclitics defined by Skinner (1957) is the descriptive autoclitic. These can modify the strength of a verbal response, for example, saying, "I guess you can come inside," versus "I insist you come inside." In the latter example, a sense of "urgency" is imposed upon the listener, thus increasing the probability of changing the rate of response. In the current study, descriptive autoclitic training was implemented within a 1:1 direct intervention program for a 4-year-old male with autism. Trainers captured and contrived opportunities for the participant to make contextually appropriate use of autoclitics. Trainers used playful and humorous conversations, or conversations about highly preferred reinforcers as a method for prompting autoclitic responses. Baseline data indicate no repertoire of autoclitic verbal behavior. Preliminary case study data indicate that descriptive autoclitics can be introduced within intensive early intervention programs for children with autism as early as 4 years of age. Implications for verbal behavior programs and social skill development in children with autism and directions for future research are discussed.