Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

Previous Page


Symposium #300
Does It Matter How We Measure Values?: Evaluating and Modifying the PVQ and VLQ
Monday, May 28, 2012
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
4C-4 (Convention Center)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Melissa L. Connally (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)

Valuing, as a verbal behavior, is an important aspect of many clinical interventions. Self-report measures like the Personal Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Blackledge & Ciarrochi, 2006) and the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ; Wilson & Groom, 2002) provide important data for researchers and clinicians. Making these measures comprehensible and pragmatically useful is an ongoing process. Consistent with such efforts, modifications to content have been explored. Additionally, some people are calling for change in administration and interpretation. It is important to evaluate the utility and validity of these changes. Therefore, this symposium will review the PVQ and VLQ and some recent modifications to them. Hernandez, Schmalz, & Murrells research on the PVQ examines the possibility of a two-factor solution assessing freely chosen valuing and valuing controlled by aversive contingencies. Drake and Keusch introduce modifications to the VLQ to better distinguish accomplishment of goals associated with motivation and investment in a college sample. VanderLugt, Polk, Hambright, & Drake will cover modifications to the VLQ to make it more user-friendly with veterans. Several presenters will discuss the psychometric properties of modified scales and the practical implications of using these measures in specific samples. Discussant Emily Sandoz will lead the audience in summarizing and considering the significance of presented findings.

Keyword(s): PVQ, self-report measures, valuing, VLQ

Measuring Values in Veteran Population: The Modified Valued Living Questionnaire

AMANDA C. ADCOCK (Togus VA Medical Center), Kevin L. Polk (Veterans Affairs Hospital), Jerold Hambright (Veterans Affairs Hospital), Chad E. Drake (University of South Carolina Aiken)

Togus Veteran's Affairs Medical Center is home to one of the briefest intensive outpatient programs (IOP) for posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in the nation. The IOP is a 5 day program based on an acceptance and commitment therapy model. The ACT model encourages ongoing assessment of the process and outcomes of the therapy. Thus, the following measures were given to each veteran in the program over a three year period: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the PTSD Checklist (PCL), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ), and the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ). The purpose of this presentation is to describe the use of the VLQ and AAQ in the Veteran population, modifications that were made with the hopes of making the VLQ more user-friendly, and the resulting psychometric properties of the modified version of the VLQ. The data below show the results of the reliability of the measures used in this study. The modifications to the VLQ resulted in one successful scale and one questionable scale. The data will be described in detail from the scale analysis (EFA), reliability (alpha and test-re-test) and validity (content reliability). This project was approved by the Togus VAMC Research and Development Committee and the Bedford VAMC IRB.


The Assessment of Valuing Among Undergraduates: Importance, Time, Difficulty, and Anxiety

CHAD E. DRAKE (University of South Carolina Aiken), Amber Keusch (Aiken Regional Medical Centers)

Motivation continues to be a challenging focus for clinical behavioral assessment. Although self-report measures have notable limitations, they may be used as a means of focusing subsequent efforts to assess clinically relevant constructs. The Valued Living Questionnaire is one self-report instrument that has generated preliminary supportive psychometric evidence. However, the VLQ measures responses to relatively generic domains of life functioning that may not adequately distinguish between the accomplishment of goals associated with motivation and investment in activities toward those goals. The current study introduces a modified version of the VLQ. Modifications include more specific items, a zero floor for each item, and two additional questions for each domain that may provide additional specificity in respect to motivation and action. The VLQ-M was administered to a collection of undergraduate students in the southeastern United States. A collection of additional measures was provided assessing psychological flexibility, social anxiety, the emotional valence of thoughts, and suppression. Results indicate noteworthy trends among the domains assessed by the VLQ-M that may merit further development of this measure.

Valuing in College Students: A Closer Look at the Personal Values Questionnaire
NIKKI CHRISTINE HERNANDEZ (University of North Texas), Jonathan Schmalz (University of North Texas), Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Existing literature varies when it comes to defining values and how to measure them or related overt behaviors. From an ACT perspective, values are freely chosen among alternatives, with or without reason, and not chosen based on the influence of others or in the avoidance of aversives. The Personal Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Blackledge & Ciarocchi, 2006) was designed to assess valued actions and related rule-governed behavior. To date, reports of the psychometric characteristics of the PVQ are limited. The present study provides psychometric data for the PVQ utilizing a sample of 278 undergraduate students. The overall internal consistency of the measure was a = .90. An exploratory factor analysis indicated two clinically relevant factors: Appetitive and Aversive valuing. Divergent validity is suggested as Appetitive valuing had Pearsons r correlations of .16 with the AAQ and -.33, -.22, and -.14 with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales of the DASS, respectively. Aversive valuing had Pearsons r correlations of -.24 with the AAQ and .23, .23, and .17 with the DASS scales, respectively. Psychometric properties, implications, and limitations of these findings will be discussed.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh