|Behavioral Strategies for Prevention in Safety|
|Sunday, May 27, 2012|
|9:00 AM–10:20 AM |
|604 (Convention Center)|
|Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: Nicole E. Gravina (Reaching Results)|
|CE Instructor: Nicole E. Gravina, Ph.D.|
Behavioral safety techniques have gained recognition for drastically increasing safe practices and preventing injuries in organizations. This symposium will include three data-based presentations that describe effective injury prevention strategies in different settings, including transportation, chemical manufacturing, and retail. Each presentation describes strategies that are different than traditional abehavior-basedsafety approach, providing attendees with new ideas to consider for research and practice.
|Keyword(s): Behavioral Safety, OBM, Transportation|
Aging Workers at Increased Risk of Fatal Transportation-Related Injuries
|RYAN B. OLSON (Oregon Health & Science University), Jaime Walters (Oregon Health Authority), Justin Karr (University of Victoria), Erika Zoller (Oregon Health & Science University)|
The Oregon Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (OR-FACE) program is currently investigating potential intervention strategies for preventing reducing occupational fatalities arising from transportation-related events. Based on Oregon and U.S. fatalities statistics during the past7 years, workers over the age of 65 are at significantly higher risk of being killed in transportation-related events when compared to their younger counterparts. Within Oregon, the prevalence ratio of fatalities to workforce size for workers 65 and older in the transportation industry sector is roughly 3 times higher than that of workers in younger age groups. To investigate potential causes of this heightened risk, we have set out to test 4 hypotheses about the causes of elevated fatality risk among older workers using prior published research and Oregon Workers Compensation data. These hypotheses are: (1) Hazard Exposure: increased exposure of older adults to hazardous work environments due to elevated employment in certain high-risk occupations, (2) Organization of Work: differences in job design and work organization for older workers employed by small and larger organizations, (3) Physical Fragility: due to changes in physical resilience with age, older workers are less likely to survive severe traumatic injuries than younger counterparts, and (4) Changes in Physical and Cognitive Capacity: increased risk of fatal transportation-related events due to normative changes with age in cognition, psychomotor, vision, and hearing abilities.
|A New Approach to Improving Safety Using Behavioral Science|
|NICOLE E. GRAVINA (Reaching Results), John Austin (Reaching Results)|
|Abstract: As behavioral safety has grown in popularity, it has manifested as a set of techniques such as peer observations and group feedback. Yet, further improvements are possible and more sustained change is likely if the local environment is fully considered in the selection and use of behavior change tools. One way to help organizations leverage the full strength of behavioral science is to teach leaders with the organization the fundamentals of the science and then support them in practicing those tools in the workplace. This presentation will describe using this approach in a chemical manufacturing organization. Sixty-four leaders were trained in a BMT safety course and completed projects including improving housekeeping, one to ones, and close call reporting. Many of the projects yielded substantial improvements and the overall course ratings were positive. Follow-up determined that leaders continued to conduct projects to improve leadership and safety months after the training was completed.|
The Use of Verbal Prompts to Increase Child Safety-Belt Use in a Grocery Store
|LEANNA MATTILA (Youngstown State University), Julie Blaskewicz Boron (Youngstown State University), Michael C. Clayton (Youngstown State University)|
In a study by Barker, Bailey, and Lee (2004) the authors used verbal prompts to increase the use of child safety-belts in shopping carts in two different settings. The current study was a replication and extension of this previous work. Using an ABAB reversal design, customers were verbally prompted upon entering the store to use child safety belts. In addition, the current study included data on the proportion of customers still using safety belts upon exit from the store, social validity data examining the acceptability of the procedures, and a 2-month follow-up. Results indicate that the procedure was effective at increasing child safety-belt use and that most patrons continued to use the belts until they exited the store. The social validity of the procedures was high, yet the 2-month follow-up indicated that, without vigilance by the establishment, customers ceased using the safety belts when no longer prompted to do so.
Leadership in Behavior-Based Safety and Implications for Integrating BBS and Process Safety
|JUDITH E. STOWE (Quality Safety Edge)|
This paper will present BBS results in two manufacturing and petrochemical companies based on the level of Leadership participation. Data will also compare outcomes within one of the companies when management participation varied over time. Based on the increasing evidence around the importance of Leadership support in BBS, this paper also explores Leader roles in the prevention of low probability high impact incidents which occur most often in the area of process safety. BBS has primarily focused on individual safety and yet major disasters such as the Deep Water Horizon spill, various mining and petrochemical explosions such as the TX City Refinery are clearly not outside of the domain of a behavior approach. As shown by Komaki (1998) utilizing critical pinpointed leadership behaviors and coaching skillful monitoring, Leaders play a critical role in all aspects of individual safety performance. Similarly, identifying key Leadership practices can also play a crucial role in the prevention of process disaster as well. Based on this and the work of Hopkins (2000, 2007), a strategy for how behavioral safety practitioners can integrate these approaches will be presented.