Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Symposium #335
An Examination of Various Intervention Components With Explicit Timing Procedures to Increase Math Fact Fluency
Monday, May 28, 2012
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
611 (Convention Center)
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gary J. Duhon (Oklahoma State University)
Discussant: Christopher Skinner (Univesity of Tennessee)

A common area of referral in schools is mathematics, specifically in the skill development of numbers and operations (e.g., fact accuracy and fluency). The purpose of this symposium is to present three papers that investigated various intervention components with explicit timing procedures and evaluate the effect on digit correct per minute scores. The components under review included set size (i.e., the amount of items targeted) as well as various iterations of goal setting and performance feedback techniques. Participants in the symposium will be exposed to various combinations of explicit timing procedures and how to incorporate these into practice. Discussion will focus on how these components can be used to fit the needs of students with math fact fluency problems. Specifically, the presenters will speak about how these components can increase the efficiency of student growth. The presenters will also address limitations and practical concerns of adapting these intervention procedures to applied contexts.

Keyword(s): education, fluency, math intervention

The Effect of Math Fact Set Size on Student Learning Rates

BRIAN C. PONCY (Oklahoma State University), Megan Purdum (Oklahoma State University)

This study used a 3 x 1 stratified random group design across 3 classrooms to evaluate whether explicit timing procedures with various problem set sizes resulted in increased learning rates. The first group used 4 sets of 5 problems, the second group used 2 sets of 10 problems, and the third group continually practiced 1 set of 20 problems. Results indicated that using 4 sets of 5 problems resulted in the highest rates of learning, followed by 2 sets of 10, and lastly the set of 20 problems. Although, students reached criteria most efficiently under the small set conditions; post-test data combining all 20 problems showed demonstrable fall off in digit correct per minute scores. Discussion will focus on ways to manipulate the number of fact stimuli to increase the efficiency with which math fact fluency is developed and hypotheses regarding methods that could help ensure generalization and/or maintenance (i.e., reduce learning decay) across time.


A Comparison of Three Types of Goal Setting and Performance Feedback on Math Fact Fluency Scores

GARY J. DUHON (Oklahoma State University), Mary Giblet (Oklahoma State University), Colleen Mocco (Oklahoma State University)

This study used a 4 x 1 randomized group design to investigate the relative effectiveness of various combinations of goal setting and performance feedback techniques to increase basic fact fluency with explicit timing. Goal setting and performance feedback were provided in 1 of 4 ways: no goal setting or feedback (control), a graphed goal with graphed feedback, a written goal with written feedback, and a marked goal with marked feedback. Results indicated that graphed goal setting and feedback showed significant effects in student digit correct per minute scores while the written and marked approaches to providing goal setting and feedback showed digit correct per minute growth commensurate with the control condition. Discussion will focus on how, when, and if these approaches should be used to enhance explicit timing procedures in educational settings. Also, discussion will address the efficiency of these procedures on student learning rates. Lastly, authors will examine the practical and theoretical underpinnings important to the results.


The Effect of Math Fact Accuracy Feedback on Digit Correct per Minute Scores

GARY J. DUHON (Oklahoma State University), Kim Wiechmann Hastings (Oklahoma State University)

This study used a 2 x 1 randomized group design to examine the use of individualized accuracy feedback (i.e., providing feedback to accurate responding) to increase the effectiveness of a computerized implementation of explicit timing with goal setting and reward. Specifically, the study examined the effect of explicit timing with reward and goal setting with and without immediate feedback on student responding on basic math facts. To accomplish this immediate feedback regarding accuracy in the form of a short audio sound was provided after each correctly answered math fact. Analysis of group pre-test and post-test performance revealed that both explicit timing conditions resulted in significant gains. A between groups analysis determined that the addition of accuracy feedback to explicit timing, goal setting, and reward resulted in a significant gain over explicit timing, goal setting, and reward alone. Results indicate that the effectiveness of explicit timing can be significantly enhanced with the addition of immediate feedback for each response. Discussion focuses on the benefit of the application of this research to computer-based instruction and the unique characteristics of computer technology that makes these advancements possible.




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