|An Evaluation of Procedures to Address Mands for Information and Mands Maintained by Negative Reinforcement|
|Sunday, May 27, 2012|
|2:00 PM–3:20 PM |
|Area: VRB/PRA; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center)|
|CE Instructor: M. Alice Shillingsburg, Ph.D.|
Mand training is often a primary focus in early language training. Manding programs typically include those that are positively reinforced such as mands for specific items. However, mands maintained by negative reinforcement are also important skills to target for children with language delays. Additionally, as more simple mands are acquired, clinicians aim to develop programs that target more complex mands, such as mands for information, which include using the mands who? which? and how? This symposia will present data from four studies which investigate various procedures to develop mands for information and mands maintained by negative reinforcement. Shillingsburg, Bowen, and Valentino examined a procedure to develop mands for how? while focusing on establishing operation (EO) manipulation and generalization. Gaymen, Shillingsburg, Bowen, and Valentino examined strategies for evoking mands for who? and which? while focusing on EO manipulation and maintaining discrimination between the two mands. Powell, Shillingsburg, and Bowen will present data on mands for termination ensuring that mands are emitting under the proper EO conditions. Finally Coffman, Nauman, Stratz, and Ghezzi evaluated a procedure to teach mands under conditions of both positive and negative reinforcement and how it is beneficial to the development of socially appropriate behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the application of these procedures to the treatment of communication deficits in children with autism.
|Keyword(s): advanced manding, negative reinforcement, verbal behavior|
Utilizing Antecedent Manipulation to Facilitate Manding for Information via "How?" Mands in a Child Diagnosed With ASD
|M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (Marcus Autism Center), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center), Amber L. Valentino (Marcus Autism Center)|
To date, one study has evaluated procedures to teach children with autism to mand for information using how. However, procedures such as manipulation of establishing operations (EO), prompt fading, and differential reinforcement have been shown to be effective in teaching children with autism to ask wh questions such as what, who, and where. Procedures for teaching mands for how are unique in that additional challenges that are absent in teaching other forms of mands for information (e.g., what, who,) are present. Specifically, once the information regarding how to do something is provided once, the EO may no longer present. Thus, identifying alternative teaching procedures is warranted. One male diagnosed with autism completed the current study. The study evaluated a procedure to teach mands for information using how to obtain information to complete spelling tasks and other activities. The results showed that the participant began to correctly use the mand for information under EO present conditions and did not mand when the information was not needed (EO absent conditions). The results have implications for methods of teaching the mand for information how while paying close attention to EO manipulation and subsequent generalization of the skill.
The Use of Antecedent Manipulations to Evoke Mands for Information Using Who and Which
|CASSONDRA M. GAYMAN (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center), Amber L. Valentino (Marcus Autism Center)|
Many procedures have shown to be effective at teaching question asking behavior (manding for information) to children with autism. Studies have demonstrated that antecedent manipulations such as manipulation of the establishing operation (EO), prompts, and prompt fading are effective in teaching children with autism to ask a variety of wh questions such as what, who, and where. However, this is a skill area in which the research is limited, especially in relation to the types of questions taught. Additionally, little attention has been given to appropriately manipulate the presence and absence of relevant motivating operations and little is known about subsequent use of the information once given. In this study antecedent manipulations were used to teach three participants to mand for information by asking Which and Who in EO present and EO absent conditions. Procedures resulted in the acquisition of the mands for information using Who and Which in the EO present condition for all three participants and subsequent use of the provided information was recorded. Additionally, none of the participants emitted the mand for information during the EO absent condition following teaching sessions. A discussion of the importance of contriving relevant motivating operations and methods to examine the use of the provided information will be presented.
The Effects of an Antecedent Manipulation Procedure to Establish Mands for Termination in Children Diagnosed With Autsim
|NICOLE M. POWELL (Nationwide Children's Hospital), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center)|
Mand training is often a primary focus in early language training and programs typically include those that are positively reinforced such as mands for specific items. However, mands maintained by negative reinforcement are also important skills to target for children with language delays. Mands to remove aversive demands or to refuse an unwanted item appear to be the primary types of mands maintained by negative reinforcement reported in the literature. Another type of negatively reinforced mand important to target in language instruction involves the removal of a stimulus that blocks access to a preferred activity. The current study taught five participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to mand for removal of a stimulus in order to access the blocked preferred item. An evaluation was also conducted to determine if participants were engaging in appropriate use of mands by testing the mands in the presence and absence of an establishing operation (EO). All participants learned to mand for the removal of the stimulus under appropriate conditions.
Manding by Young Children With Autism: The Effects of Positive and Negative Contingencies of Reinforcement
|CHRISTY M. COFFMAN (University of Nevada, Reno), Lauren Nauman (University of Nevada, Reno), Sara L. Stratz (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)|
The focus of behavior analytic research on teaching manding to young children with autism is positive reinforcement. Mands maintained by negative reinforcement are understudied. The present study centers on both types in terms of their respective rates to acquisition, effects on inappropriate behaviors and impact on socially desirable behaviors. Following a baseline period, three young children with autism were taught to mand for preferred items (positive reinforcement) and for the removal of non-preferred items (negative reinforcement). Stimulus generalization probes were conducted at various points throughout the teaching phase. Once mastery was achieved, a one week follow-up was conducted to assess for maintenance of the mastered mands. The data show that teaching young children with autism to mand under conditions of both positive and negative reinforcement is beneficial to the development of socially appropriate behavior.