|Video Modeling: Evidence-based Practice for Teaching Students and Educators a Variety of Skills|
|Saturday, May 26, 2012|
|1:00 PM–2:20 PM |
|Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)|
|CE Instructor: Hillary Whiteside, M.S.|
The extensive research on video modeling has established this tool as an evidence-based practice due to its effectiveness in teaching learners to acquire a variety of new skills as well as reducing problem behaviors (LeBlanc et al., 2003; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004). Video modeling allows teachers to emphasize critical features and reduce extraneous stimuli and it also provides a consistent model for learners so that each viewing of the model is exactly the same, every time. Video modeling is a cost-effective intervention that is easy to use and easy to individualize to your learner. The following four studies were conducted at a non-public school with a range of learners. The researchers will provide supporting evidence for using video models to teach students essential social communication skills, including manding for assistance, offering help to others in need of assistance, and reciprocal play interactions between peers. Additionally, one study will show that video modeling is also effective in teaching paraprofessional teachers to implement complex instructional practices, specifically the use of most-to-least prompting procedures
|Keyword(s): Communication Skills, Social Interactions, Teacher Training, Video Modeling|
Video Modeling and Video Feedback in Training Paraprofessionals to Teach Daily Living Skills to Children With Autism
|SHERRY LACSON (The Institute for Effective Education), Yasemin Turan (San Diego State University)|
This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of video modeling and video feedback for training 3 paraprofessionals on use of most to least prompting procedures. A multiple-baseline design across participants was utilized to determine the effects of the intervention on paraprofessionals correct use of most to least prompting procedures to teach daily living tasks to students with autism. Following baseline, each participant was required to watch a 3-minute video of a teacher demonstrating a most-to-least prompting procedure to teach a typical daily living task. Video feedback was delivered as a secondary intervention to the paraprofessional when skill acquisition was not immediately observed after the video-modeling phase. Results indicated an improvement in most-to-least prompting skills for all paraprofessionals as well as quicker acquisition of skills for the corresponding students. These findings address the need for paraprofessional training in non-public schools and have similar implications for promoting staff development in public schools.
The Use of Video Modeling to Teach Children With Autism to Offer Assistance to Others
|ALICIA RITTER (The Institute for Effective Education), Hillary Whiteside (The Institute for Effective Education)|
The effectiveness of video modeling to teach social skills to students with autism has been well documented. The purpose of this study is to further this research and demonstrate that video modeling is an effective method to teach students with autism to offer help. In preliminary studies, the researchers used a multiple baseline design in which a video model with multiple exemplars was shown to 6 students across two different school settings (3 in each setting). The video models varied by people, environments and materials in order to facilitate generalization. After viewing the model, similar situations were directly presented. Offering help was measured on a per opportunity basis. Four of the participants acquired the skill by watching the video model alone. Two of the participants required either direct or indirect prompts to acquire the skill. Based on this research video modeling was then adopted into the school curriculum to teach helping behaviors. The researchers determined a follow up study expanding the video models to new helping scenarios would be valuable. Additionally the definition of the target behavior will be broadened (e.g., helping topography, latency of responding).
Teaching Social Reciprocity Between Peers With Autism Using Video Modeling
|HILLARY WHITESIDE (The Institute for Effective Education), Laura Hoge (The Institute for Effective Education)|
Individuals diagnosed with autism have difficulty developing and sustaining relationships with others due to qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication (American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, 2000). In the area of social interaction, persons with autism have problems responding to, sustaining and initiating reciprocal social interactions. In the area of communication, it is estimated that 50% of persons with autism may not develop spoken language or may have severely limited speech and language skills (Wing & Atwood, 1987), thereby increasing the difficulty for participating in meaningful social interactions. In a preliminary study, a video model was designed to teach a 9 yr. old, non-vocal child with autism to engage in basic conversation with a peer by utilizing an augmentative communication device (ACD). The peer tutor in the study, a 10 yr. old child with autism, communicated using vocalizations. The video model showed communicative initiations on the part of the peer tutor, as well as the participants responses from a point of view perspective. During the course of the intervention, two different prompting strategies were introduced (i.e., video prompting, gestures) to highlight each response for the participant, as video modeling alone was minimally effective. Ultimately, video modeling was reintroduced and mastery criteria was achieved and maintained. The authors of this subsequent study intend to expand upon these findings by conducting a multiple baseline design across 3 peer dyads with varying communication topographies. The effectiveness of a video model demonstrating reciprocal social interactions during play will be evaluated and the treatment effects on both the initiations of the peer tutor and the responses of the peer learner will be measured.
|Video Modeling to Teach Manding for Assistance|
|MATTHEW WILBAT (The Institute for Effective Education), Hillary Whiteside (The Institute for Effective Education), Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)|
|Abstract: This study will evaluate the effectiveness of video modeling on teaching young adolescents with autism to mand for assistance when encountering difficult steps within daily living tasks that require adult assistance (e.g., setting the time on a microwave, tying shoelaces, opening containers). A multiple baseline design across 3 subjects will be conducted. Data collected during baseline data revealed that the participants either skipped the difficult step, altering the outcome of the task, or gave up on completing the task all together after persisting without success. A point of view video model depicting 3 different scenarios in which help is requested will be shown to the participants. After viewing the video model, the participants will encounter one of the situations displayed on the video and helping responses will be recorded. By capitalizing on multiple exemplar training, the researchers hope to enhance the participant’s generalization of this skill across various situations and settings.|