Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #187
OBM Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 27, 2012
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)

The Effects of Goal Setting, Self-monitoring, and Reward on Eco-driving Behavior

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KYEHOON LEE (Chung-Ang University), Shin Jeong Choi (Chung-Ang University), Insub Choi (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung-Ang University)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-management on two eco-driving behaviors: reducing speed and shifting to neutral. Self-management consisted of three intervention components: goal setting, self-monitoring, and reward. Three office workers who drive regularly participated in this study. We adopted an ABCD multiple baseline design. After the baseline (A), participants set their own goals on driving behaviors (B). In the next phase (C), self-monitoring was added. At the final phase (D), participants were provided with rewards when the individual goal was met. Results showed that goal setting decreased speeding. Moreover, adding self-monitoring and reward further decreased speeding. Similarly, goal setting substantially improved the gear shifting behavior. Specifically, the gear shifting behavior of two participants reached to 100% when goal setting was introduced so that the effects of self-monitoring and reward could not be examined. The gear shifting behavior of the remaining one participant also substantially improved when goal setting was introduced and further increased when self-monitoring and reward were added.


The Effect of Behavioral Based Safety (BBS) Program on Safety Performance and Safety Climate: A Field Study

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KWANGSU MOON (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung-Ang University)

The present study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral-based safety (BBS) program in improving safety performance and safety climate. The BBS program was applied to a steel manufacturing company and a construction site. The BBS program consisted of goal-setting, feedback, and low cost reward. Feedback was delivered biweekly to the workers. A monthly goal was set and adjusted based on the safety performance in the previous month. Also, rewards were provided if the monthly goal was met. The effects of the program on safety performance were evaluated using an AB design. Safety climate were measured using a questionnaire (Neal, Griffin, & Hart, 2000), adopting one group pretest-posttest design. The results indicated that the mean percentage of observed safety behaviors increased after introducing BBS program. Also, the mean scores of safety climate significantly increased.


The Effects of Specific and Global Feedback on Safety Performance

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Sookhyun Jung (Chung-Ang University), Kyehoon Lee (Chung-Ang University), SHEZEEN OAH (Chung-Ang University)

This study compared the effects of specific and global of feedback on safety performance. Participants were 20 undergraduate students. They were asked to work on a computer-simulated work task and engage in seven target behaviors. Ten participants (skilled group) had a previous experience in working on the task and the other 10 participants (unskilled group) did not. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to one of two feedback conditions: global and specific feedback. In the specific feedback condition, participants were provided with information on safety performance of each target behavior. In the global feedback condition, participants were provided with information on overall safety performance across all seven target behaviors. Results showed that the specific feedback produced higher level of safety performance than the global feedback for both skilled and unskilled group.


An Examination of the Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Safety Rule Following Behavior under Two Different Schedules of Reinforcement

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
JAEHEE LEE (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung-Ang University)

This study examined whether positive and negative reinforcement has differential impacts on safety rule following behavior under two different schedules of reinforcement (FR1 and VR5). Participants were asked to work on a computerized task and follow safety rules. A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted and 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: FR1 positive, VR5 positive, FR1 negative, and VR5 negative reinforcement groups. The participants in the FR1 and VR5 positive reinforcement groups earned a base pay of 5,000 won at the beginning of the experiment, and could earn additional 50 and 250 won, respectively, if they followed all safety rules. The participants in the FR1 and VR5 negative reinforcement groups earned 10,000 won at the beginning, but they could lose 50 and 250 won, respectively, if they did not follow any of the safety rules. The results showed that there were no differential impacts on rule following behavior under the FR1 condition. However, under the VR5 condition, the negative reinforcement condition produced a significantly lower level of rule following behavior. This result suggests that effects of positive and negative reinforcement may differ depending on the type of reinforcement schedule.


Shaping Complex Inspection Behaviours Through Effective Leadership in a Petro-Chemical Plant

Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURA L. METHOT (CLG, Inc.), Geoff Smith (CLG, Inc.), Francisco Manuel Gomez (CLG, Inc.), Danielle Geissler (CLG, Inc.)

In todays competitive business environment, petrochemical refineries, oil platforms and manufacturing plants are expected to run at or close to nameplate capacity. Unplanned shutdowns result in lost production and profitability as well as increased maintenance costs. Furthermore, personnel and process safety risk exposures are higher during plant shutdowns and restarts than in running plant environments. Reliability Inspectors determine the probability and capacity of plant components to perform required functions for specific periods of time under certain conditions and they conduct inspections to ensure component integrity. Traditionally, inspections for critical equipment are specified on a time-based schedule. Reliability Inspectors employing risk-based inspections (RBI) consider multiple process variables, component materials, and other factors to identify probability and consequences of failure and adjust the frequency of inspection accordingly. Using RBI results in better reliability and lower cost but requires more complex behaviours from inspectors and a higher level of decision making and advanced stakeholder management. Results of a behaviour-based coaching programme show that as front-line supervisors engage in more effective field leadership, such as taking ownership of the findings instead of just sending a report, new inspector behaviours are shaped and new results delivered. This change has effectively avoided costs in excess of $100M which motivates ongoing analysis of which behaviours have the greatest impact.

6. Improving Trainer Data Accuracy Utilizing Strategies of Self-Monitoring and Feedback
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN DIANE BROWN PEARSON (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada,Reno)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis is a data-driven field. As researchers, we base most all of our decisions off of the data obtained through scientific studies in both laboratory and natural environments. In applied settings, the conclusions derived from these data often guide treatment decisions, such as whether to implement one type of treatment, no treatment, or a separate treatment. Thus, the importance of reliable and accurate data is of great importance, especially in applied settings. The aim of the current research was to examine potentially effective strategies for increasing the data accuracy of trainers working at a day center for adults with intellectual disabilities. Freeman and Dexter-Mazza (2004) used self-monitoring and adult feedback to increase the on-task behaviors of a young boy diagnosed with conduct disorder. Results showed that the implementation of a self-monitoring procedure led to small increases in on-task behaviors, while self-monitoring plus adult feedback proved more effective in increasing on-task behaviors. The current research utilized self-monitoring procedures as well as blanket and specific feedback to increase trainer data accuracy. Results suggest that giving specific feedback to trainers is the most important component in increasing the accuracy of their data.

Improving Low Frequency and Episodic Behavior Across Multiple Sites

Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TRAVIS G. MCNEAL (CLG, Inc.), Danielle Geissler (CLG, Inc.)

Over the years organizational behavior management has proven to be an effective tool to help improve target behaviors in organizations. Oftentimes OBM interventions focus on high frequency behaviors and frequently recurring behaviors. Occasionally key behaviors are needed for discrete periods and also with a time lapse between those discrete periods. This poster describes one approach to help an organization address episodic behavior.

8. The Effects of Positive Performance Feedback and Positive Reinforcement on the Implementation of a Reinforcement System
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CARON COSSER (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Stacey L. Shook (Northwest Behavioral Associates)
Abstract: Research has focused on increasing staff performance by setting performance goals, monitoring staff performance, and providing performance-based verbal and/or graphic feedback. However, this can be time consuming for supervisors and there is the potential for negative staff reactions to the addition of further expectations, monitoring, and corrective feedback. The purpose of the current study is to examine the extent to which positive performance feedback and positive reinforcement alone can increase the participation of case managers of children with autism in a reinforcement system for the children’s home tutors. A reversal design will be used to evaluate the effects of the intervention on case manager performance. The intervention will consist of providing public positive performance feedback and positive reinforcement for behavior increases once a month to case managers. Data will be visually summarized and discussed in terms of potential advantages in using positive performance feedback and positive reinforcement procedures to increase staff behavior.

Behavior Modification Program for Employees to Cope With Extra Organizational Stressors

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Maria Andrea Bravo (Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey), FERNANDA GARCIA GALIANO (Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey), Jose Antonio Garay (Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey)

The main objective of the investigation was to design and apply a modification behavioral program in order to help the employees of an organization cope with extraorganizational stressors. The main problem was the direct influence that extraorganizational stressors have on some employees performance, feelings, thoughts and health. There were three hypothesis: the treatment program will produce a significant variation in the subjects stress levels, the treatment will not produce a significant variation in the subjects stress levels; there will be a significant variation in the subjects stress levels but will not be caused by the program but by extraorganizational stressors. The treatment consisted in the administration of five main programs: first, the subject learning to relax efficiently by using deep muscle relaxation and diaphragmatic breathing; the second one consisted in listing and ranking stressful events by hierarchy and based on the hierarchy apply relaxation techniques; the fourth and fifth consisted in stress coping thoughts and applying coping skills into real situations. The sample consisted of two male subjects, with 23 and 25 years old, performing administrative roles, both of them suffering from acute stress disorder by the manifestation of disturbing thoughts and physical symptoms. Despite the fact that the disturbances were reduced after the treatment, there were some extra organizational stressors that interfered with our results, which lead us to accept the fact that there were significant variations in the subject stress levels that were not produced by the treatment program.

10. Extreme Makeover: House of Joe Edition
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
BETHANY P. CONTRERAS (Florida Institute of Technology), Scott A. Miller (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the layout of a coffee shop kitchen area in relation to how many tasks (defined by the experimenters) were required to complete an espresso-based order and/or a coffee order. The investigators used this information to redistribute the equipment in such a way as to reduce the number of tasks. Results indicated a mean decrease of 7 tasks from intervention to baseline for espresso-based drinks, with no significant change in the number of tasks for coffee drinks. Duration also did not change significantly, although less variability was observed.



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