Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #266
PRA Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 27, 2012
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)
1. Using the 3-Step Prompting Procedure to Decrease Prompts and Increase Compliance of Preschool Children With and Without Developmental Delays
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID BICARD (Behavior Analysts of Central Alabama, LLC), T. Gayle McLemore (University of Memphis), Sara C. Bicard (Auburn University), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis)

This study evaluated the effects of training paraprofessionals to implement 3-step prompting on the frequency of caregiver instructions and the instructional compliance of preschool children with and without developmental delays. Training included a written description of the procedure, role-playing opportunities, and feedback. Paraprofessionals were newly hired staff members. Results showed the three-step prompting procedure was effective in decreasing the number of teacher instructions and increasing the compliance of preschoolers to teacher instructions on first opportunity.

2. CANCELED: Are We Testing for Stimulus Control or Creating New Stimulus Control?
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LARS INGE HALVORSEN (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)

This study replicated the research of Cook, Kwak, Hoffman, & Loftus (2009) where they looked at post-event activities that induces subjects to pick a wrong person in a forced choice identification procedure. The goal of the study was to investigate, does providing a neither option to a match to sample task increase the accuracy of responding. The subjects were asked to study three pictures of faces for 10 seconds. After which they were asked to pick out the face in a forced choice situation in which the subjects were presented with two comparison pictures and indicate their response by choosing the left or right picture. In the second phase they studied pictures of three other faces and were asked to pick out the face when presented with two comparison faces. This time in addition to the two choices they could also indicate a neither response. The results show that accuracy of responding increased when subjects were presented with a neither option. We also found that after having been exposed to the same faces one more time the subjects ability to discriminate between the visual stimuli in the neither condition decreased their ability to discriminate between the visual stimuli.

3. Achieving Academic Success With Emotionally and Behaviorally Disordered Middle School Students
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT M. SCHIENLE (University of Nevada, Reno), Benjamin N. Witts (University of Nevada, Reno), Kaycee Bennett (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno), Elizabeth Sexton (Washoe County School District)

This study looked at the relationship between a behavioral framework consisting of a level system with an embedded token economy, and academic outcomes for middle-school students identified as having emotional and behavioral disorder. To assess treatment integrity, behavior-analytic interns from a graduate program in behavior analysis conducted adherence assessments to intervention components. These components included providing points for appropriate behaviors, issuing response costs for inappropriate behaviors, and developing and achieving success with teacher-specific goals. To test for intervention success, appropriate and inappropriate student behaviors were assessed across the school year through direct observations. To test for academic success, standardized test scores and class grades are collected throughout the year. All outcomes were tested against general education students in the same class, as well as students with emotional and behavioral disorder who did not receive the same level of support. Data indicate that behavioral and academic success are more highly correlated with the implementation of the intervention as compared to general education and non-supported students with emotional and behavioral disorder.

4. Utilizing a Meta-Analysis to Evaluate the Follow Through of Recommendations Given by JABA Authors
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
JEFFREY B. SMITH (University of Memphis), Kimberly Noel Frame (University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis)

A meta-analysis was conducted to establish whether or not a variety of recommendations given by past Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) authors were being implemented by current authors. Specifically, were treatment integrity, social validity, follow-up (maintenance), and interobserver agreement consistently being included within JABA published articles from 2005 through 2010. As a means to promote further dissemination of applied behavior analysis and/or to ensure that behavior analysts are considering this purpose to publishing research among other experimental reasons, it is important to take into consideration that a variety of clinicians who may want to generalize or apply JABA authors procedures to their own clinical setting often look for how specifically treatment components are implemented, how long the behavior(s) targeted maintain over time, and/or whether the treatment/behavior has social significance. The meta-analysis revealed that only interobserver agreement was included in the majority (average of 83.1%) of JABA articles published between 2005 and 2010. However, there was a decreasing trend with it's inclusion within the research across the issues as years progressed. In regards to treatment integrity, it's inclusion within the publications averaged 19.1% across the6 years in which the analysis included. Unlike the IOA analysis, a slight increasing trend was established according to the treatment integrity data. Social validity data was included in an average of 7.7% across all JABA issues and indicated a decreasing trend. Follow-up (maintenance) data was only included in an average of 14.6% of the reviewed issues; however, there was an increasing trend as the years progressed. Interobserver agreement between researchers of this analysis averaged 97% across all 4 components.

5. A Review of the Literature on Error Correction Practices in Discrete Trial Training
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE P. CROTEAU (Surrey Place Centre), Michelle Turan (University of Windsor), Lianne M. Moroz (Surrey Place Centre)

Error correction strategies are essential considerations for behavior analysts implementing discrete trial training with children with autism. The research literature, however is still lacking in the number of studies that compare and evaluate error correction procedures. The purpose of this review was to compare and contrast the literature from the last 20 years on error correction strategies in discrete trial training. 8 studies are defined, analyzed and compared in this poster presentation, allowing for consideration of future research needs in the area of error correction.

6. Interventions for Self-injury in Young Children: A Review of the Literature
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER SHUBERT (University of Texas at Austin), Amanda L. Little (University of Texas at Austin), Ahilya Lakhanpal (University of Texas at Austin), Cindy Gervarter (University of Texas at Austin)

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) involves causing harm to one's own body which has proven to have serious damaging effects on an individual's long-term health, education, social interactions, and overall quality of life (Kurtz et al., 2003; Pragnell, 2009; Richman and Lindauer, 2005). SIB is a serious chronic problem that can continue well into adulthood (National Institutes of Health, 1989), and it has been reported that these behaviors are evident in children under the age of5 (Berkson, Tupa,& Sherman, 2001). This evidence suggests that research on the early emergence of SIB in young children with disabilities is warranted. An extensive review of the interventions used for individuals exhibiting self-injurious behavior was conducted by Kahng, Iwata, and Lewin (2002) examining participant characteristics, intervention trends, and the use of functional analyses. Using the quantitative approach of Kahng et al. (2002), the researchers conducted a literature review isolating for specific variables in order to examine those interventions being implemented for children ages birth through 10. The researchers report on interobserver agreement for inclusionary criteria, as well as demographic characteristics in the following categories: age group, gender, functional analysis or functional behavior assessment completed prior to intervention, interventionist, self-injurious behavior topography, intervention method, design, diagnosis, and results.

7. Data Collection: The Next Frontier
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
RYAN LEE O'DONNELL (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology), Mark Malady (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: With the recent advent of handheld smart phones as platforms for user-developed applications, there has been an online explosion of professional tools designed to increase efficiency and productivity in the workplace. One potential problem with early adoption of these tools is that some have the opposite effect of that intended, they slow the professional down. Once bitten, twice shy— professionals can then become hesitant to abandon practices and tools that already work. By training them to interact with those tools which are helpful, a behavior scientist can set a reinforcement trap to capture technological use. The purpose of this paper is to compare some current data collection methods and with potential tools available online for behavior analysts. These comparisons will be discussed in an effort to provide easily accessible information to disseminate behavioral packages which take advantage of some of the latest technological advances that are currently on the market.
8. CANCELED: Intensive Behaviour Intervention for Adults Living With Acquired Brain Injury: Three Case Studies
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
MARY ROBERTA HOADLEY (Parley Services Limited), Stephanie Grace Jull (University of British Columbia), Nadine K. Trottier (University of British Columbia)

Three case studies of adult males with long-term, escalating behaviour challenges after surviving brain injury are reviewed in this paper. All three survivors demonstrated remarkable outcomes after receiving a Functional Assessment of Behaviour and intensive Positive Behaviour Supports for rehabilitation and recovery. Among adults, behavioural disturbances and poor psychosocial adjustment are common after acquired brain injury (ABI), even in the presence of generally good neurological recovery. Acquired brain injury presents overwhelming organic motivating operations through manifestations that include social and sexual disinhibition, mood dysregulation, impaired social perception, anxiety, rigidity, amotivation, egocentrism, depression and other neurological dysfunction. Furthermore, rehabilitation for ABI regularly includes a process of behavioural change to successfully integrate novel activities, habits, routines and attitudes that may not have been in pre-injury behaviour repertoires. When any type of rehabilitation with potential for positive outcomes fails to progress, behaviour challenges are most frequently cited as cause for failure and the discontinuation of rehabilitative supports. These case studies show convincingly that intensive behavioural supports are effective, even when they occur long after the commonly accepted window of opportunity for post-injury rehabilitation. Furthermore, the outcomes show that the resolution of problem behaviours can support general recovery.




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