Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #265
EDC Poster Session 3
Sunday, May 27, 2012
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)

Class-wide Intervention Targeting Interactive Behavior for the Cooperative Learning Process

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KENICHI OHKUBO (Hokkaido University of Education)

To manage behavior of students in regular classroom, We need to discuss about class-wide intervention in parallel with individual support plan. In this topic, "cooperative learning" have received a lot of attention in recent years. There is a report that diversity of group member promotes the cooperative learning process. But, it will become difficult for making up peer group alone to effective cooperative learning. Johnson et al. (1993) points out that (1) it is not satisfied only by making up group and prompting collaboration, (2) students must have skills for cooperation, (3) cooperative behavior need to be reinforced. In this study, I intervened afifth grade classroom consisting of 31 students. The following is the procedure, (1) teaching "rule of discussion" and posted this rule in classroom, (2) let students evaluate self performance about frequency of speech in class and cooperative skills. As a result, interaction among students increased, and category of speech in class transformed. In addition, promoted class-wide on task behavior and most students became good listener.


Use of a Live Dog as a Motivating Prompt for Journaling in a Fourth Grade Classroom

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
VALERI FARMER-DOUGAN (Illinois State University), John Majewski (Illinois State University), David Wolfe (Eastern Illinois University), Amy Schumacher (McLean County Unit School District 5)

A golden retriever was introduced as a motivator for journaling in a 4th grade regular education classroom. Baseline samples of journal writing were collected over7 journal entries. Following this baseline, the dog was introduced to the children. The dog provided the story starter and responded to the childrens writing for 9 journal entries: The classroom teacher read the daily letter from the dog. The children were told that the comments on their journals were from the dog, and that they may write directly to the dog, if they wished. The first two authors of the paper provided the dog feedback. Following the first intervention, baseline was instated for 4 journal entries, with the classroom teacher once again providing the prompts, but this time reminding the children to use describer words. After this second baseline, the dog intervention was repeated for 5 journal entries, with the dog encouraging the children to write descriptively. The number of words, sentences, sentence fragments, and describer words used within a journal entry were collected. Results showed that, regardless of academic abilities, children significantly increased their use of descriptor words when writing to the dog. No changes were found in the number of words used or the number of sentences used. Interestingly, during the final intervention the number of sentence fragments increased, with the children adding describer words using sentence fragments. The results show that a simple intervention of using a live dog as a pen pal increases the motivation and complexity for writing in journals for late elementary school children.


An Independent Group Contingency to Maintain Appropriate Behaviors of Middle-School Students with Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CAROLYN S. RYAN (Institute for Children with Autism and Related Disorders), Lauren Perazzo (Carle Place School District)

The current report describes an independent group contingency that was implemented in a public special-education classroom serving four middle-school students with varying developmental disabilities. An independent group contingency is one in which reinforcement for each student in a classroom is dependent on that student meeting a criterion that is in effect for all members of the classroom (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Three target behaviors were identified: doing work, following directions, and sitting quietly. Target behaviors were defined and visually displayed for all students using a written daily schedule divided into nine equal intervals. Each student had the opportunity to earn one check for each behavior displayed throughout each interval, for a total of three checks. Three earned checks during any given interval were awarded one raffle ticket. Raffle tickets were entered into a lottery for a drawing at the end of the day. The method described above was repeated throughout the day. Data are reported for each of the three target behaviors for each student. Average daily percentage of checks earned ranged from 76% to 100% across students. The current method represents an efficient means of improving and maintaining appropriate behavior in a middle-school special-education program.

4. Applying Applied Behavior Analysis to the American Heart Association Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) Program: Shaping Behavior of Doctors and Nurses Who Assess and Treat Critically Ill Children
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD COOK (Penn State University)
Abstract: The American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course has become a required certification for many physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals who take care of acutely critically ill children. The course, now in its 24th year and 6th revision, emphasizes key concepts in the first phases of resuscitation of children, including teamwork, performance of medical skills, applying critical interventions, and evaluating their effectiveness. The program's evolution has increased the focus upon consistency in educational content thru the use of video presentations, and purports to place great emphasis on "hands on" learning. However, increased quantity of informational content, decreased time requirements, and lack of task analyzed specific guidelines for skill learning, skill performance, and equipment availability, result in decreased opportunity to learn "cold" the many skills, including the “skills” related to making judgments, conducting clinical evaluations, determining appropriate interventions, evaluating effectiveness, and making ensuing, immediate revisions to the treatment plan. Given the importance of learning psychomotor and algorithmic assessment skills, ABA is well suited for use in both assessing and improving (making more behaviorally consistent) the teaching methods, and in assessing and comparing that which students have learned in the various approaches. While consistency in the manner in which the course is offered is emphasized by the AHA, variations occur regularly not only between programs offered by the many different training centers and sites, but also within the program a given site offers. Task analysis allows one to compare learning of component skills, which can be linked to form habits. While the AHA notes incorporation of techniques for adult learners, evaluation from an ABA perspective quickly reveals areas for improving learning effectiveness, such as in having enough items of equipment to allow the student to develop discrimination, generalization, and maintenance. Some studies cited in support of the program's teaching effectiveness purport supportive conclusions, but fail to cite socially valid or clinically significant parameters or outcome variables, and lack the data to do so. This paper presents a behaviorally based evaluation of the program's teaching approaches, as well as suggestions for changes likely to foster more efficient, generalized, and maintained learning.

Repeated Writing and Students With Behavior Disorders

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AMY LYNN EVANS (The Pennsylvania State University)

Students with emotional and behavior (EBD) disorders tend to perform behind her same age peers on many academic tasks. Expressive writing is an academic task that many students with EBD find particularly challenging. Three middle school students with emotional and behavior disorders served as participants and learned strategy for writing called POW+TREE (POW: pick my idea, organize my notes, write and say more; TREE: topic sentence, reasonsthree or more, explain, ending). After successfully acquiring the POW+TREE writing strategy the students received an intervention called repeated writing. repeated writing had the students writing a response to a story starter each day for four consecutive days. The results show all students wrote more persuasive parts in their compositions and improved the quality of their written response. maintenance measures also indicated a positive outcome. The data are presented on standard celeration charts.


The Impact of Study Objectives on Exam Performance in Introductory Psychology Courses

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN M. POTOCZAK (Shippensburg University)

Study objectives are one component of Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) that is relatively easy to include as part of the typical structure of a university general education course, in addition to small, manageable units of material and frequent examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine their effectiveness as a learning tool within General Psychology, an introductory course for nonmajors. Sixty-two undergraduate students across 2 sections were provided with detailed study objectives for the4 even-numbered units in the course; no study objectives were provided for the4 odd-numbered units. All units were followed by a 50-question multiple-choice exam. A dependent-measures t-test of the nonstudy objective exam average across participants (M = 34.07) versus the study objective exam average (M = 35.94) was significant (t = -4.794; p = 0.00). Data from a follow-up questionnaire also indicated that students preferred studying using specific learning objectives (82%), and felt more confident when preparing for and taking exams (82%).

7. Effects of Implementing a Commitment Response on Module-Quiz Taking in College Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J.P. REILLY (West Virginia University), Sally Huskinson (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract: In Introductory Psychology courses at West Virginia University, 29% of students final grades are based on module quizzes taken outside of class throughout the semester. Taking these quizzes prior to the corresponding lecture is thought to have many beneficial effects on students class performance. However, instructors report that most students do not take the quizzes prior to lecture. We examined whether a commitment response would improve pre-lecture module-quiz taking for Introductory Psychology students, and whether increased pre-lecture module-quiz taking would correspond with increased exam scores. Twelve college students scheduled times and signed a contract stating that they would take module quizzes prior to lecture. The commitment response improved pre-lecture module-quiz taking, relative to baseline, for most participants, but these increases were not associated with higher exam scores for any participants. Because the commitment-response procedure used in the present study contained multiple components, it is unclear which component(s) were responsible for increased pre-lecture module-quiz taking. Future research is needed to address this question. Overall, the present study showed that the commitment-response procedure used may be an effective, antecedent-based treatment for increasing quiz taking.

Increasing Service Providers for Individuals With Autism: Outcomes From an Undergraduate Internship

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TRACY LOYE MASTERSON (John Carroll University), Francine Dimitriou (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Kristine Turko (Mount Union College), Allison Frazier (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Lauren Harville (Cuyahoga County Community College)

Secondary to the high demand for ABA-based interventions for the ASD population, it has been suggested that economical methods of training professionals/paraprofessionals is needed (Thompson et al., 2009). Developing ways to affordably educate undergraduates about autism/ABA, alongside opportunities to work directly with individuals on the spectrum, is one way in which the suggestions of Thomson and colleagues can be realized. Over the past 3 years, several universities have partnered with the Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism (CCCA) to form an innovative internship program in ASD. The goal of the current study is to analyze outcome data from the undergraduate internship program in ASD. Specifically, data from the 2009-2011 internship programs have been collected. Preliminary data suggests that the internship program has been very successful from the perspective of the interns (n = 36), staff, and organizations involved (Table 1). The majority (88.5%) of the interns noted that the internship was an "excellent" contribution to career goals and rated the internship as excellent (84.6%). Comparison of the pre-test and post-test of autism knowledge following internship completion revealed an increase in knowledge (t =6.528, p < .01). Moreover, the majority of students are continuing to work with individuals on the spectrum in a variety of contexts with 7 of the former interns hired as full-time employees at CCCA.


Semantics Maintained Equivalence Relation for Japanese-Kanji Reading Through Stimulus-Pairing Training for Children With Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MIKIMASA OMORI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)

Children with developmental disabilities often show difficulty in reading, especially in Kanji (ideogram). They also have difficulties acquiring the stimulus relationship between3 types of stimuli: pictures, written words, and sounds. Previous research suggested that children with autism acquired the Kanji reading skills and constructed other stimulus relationship by using stimulus-pairing training. However, their maintenance rates were very low and this may be the lack of semantics. In the present study, we examined controlling variables on acquisition and maintenance of Kanji reading skills, picture naming skills, and comprehension skill through stimulus-pairing trainings for children with developmental disabilities. For the semantics, we prepared the stimuli that participants could name the corresponded picture but could not read Kanji, in order for participants to refer the meanings. In a trial, three types of stimuli, Kanji, sound of Kanji, and corresponded picture, were presented simultaneously and sequentially on the computer. Each of stimuli was presented for 2 seconds and3 times. With 7 participants, results indicated that they could successfully acquire the Kanji reading skills, comprehension skill, and also showed the maintenance of their learning for more than 2 weeks. The result suggested that semantics facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of equivalence relation.


An Incentive Program to Improve Instructional Staff Behavior

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AUDREY ALBERSTADT (Matthew's Center), Stephanie Kerr (Matthew's Center), Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)

Incentive and rewards programs can be an effective means to reinforce and increase the likelihood of desired behaviors. Paraprofessionals working with students with developmental disabilities must exhibit specific behaviors in order to be effective with their students. When these behaviors do not occur, an incentive and reinforcement program may offer an effective solution. A withdrawal design was used to investigate the success of an incentive program on increasing targeted staff behaviors. A menu of items was created from a survey administered to staff in which they rank ordered preferences for a variety of items. Following baseline, staff were awarded "ProPoints" when they were observed engaging in the targeted staff behaviors. These points were then exchangeable for items off of the menu. Baseline intervention and follow-up data are reported to determine efficacy of the intervention.


Parental Involvement in the Positive Behavior Support to Address Young Children with Challenging behaviors: An Overview of the Research Literature

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MINKYUNG SUH (University of Washingon)

Under IDEA and Part C, behavioral intervention approaches are increasingly being used with focus on prevention and parental involvement in the natural setting. With the response to enactment of federal law, practitioners have put efforts toward promoting effective, meaningful, acceptable, and durable changes in child behavior and improving family quality of life. Over the past decade, researchers focused on positive behavior support (PBS) within the family context and have made significant impact on the improvement of the quality of family and the reduction of children' challenging behaviors. In positive behavior support, strategies for dealing with challenging behaviors are developed and maintained by social-ecological factors that affect children's development. It emphasizes the child's natural environment that includes parent-child relationships. This approach is heavily based on the theoretical and empirical literature on family support, which involves family ecological theory and behavioral parent training. This literature review focuses on integrating information and research findings for positive behavioral Supports for parents for children with autism spectrum disorder. Parenting training programs have (a) provided parents with the information and skills to reduce the stress that a child with autism puts on the family, and (b) promoted the child's behavioral control at home. Research showed that parents who attended to the training programs showed some gains in measures of stress and depression, and parent-child satisfaction. Prevention and early intervention strategies of young children with challenging behaviors include proactive and positive strategies. Unlike traditional behavioral interventions, proactive strategies focus on (a) preventing behavioral problems through arranging environmental stimuli, antecedent strategies, and consequent strategies, and (b) teaching replacement behaviors. In addition to teaching new behaviors, many studies focus on including parents' priorities and concerns as the service delivery is being carried out.

12. Mastery Versus Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
POOJA PANESAR (Kaizora Consultants), Emily Alexandra Winebrenner (Global Autism Project)
Abstract: Most ABA methodology requires accuracy as the requirement for mastery. However, if a skill has been mastered at 100% accuracy, it may still not be fluent. The requirement for fluency is based upon accuracy as well as speed. If a skill can be mastered and fluent, it will also be generalized more efficiently as the responses can be recalled more efficiently. Data at Kaizora (ABA centre in Nairobi, Kenya) has been collected for various programs across various children in mastery as well as fluency. After a skill has been shown as mastered at a requirement of at least 90% for 3 days in a row, it was moved to Fluency Based Precision Teaching. The results showed that what was shown as mastered was not yet fluent. The child still made errors and only showed a limited number of correct responses. Over a period of time of fluency training, the correct responses per minute increased, and errors decreased to zero. Data attached shows how much more room for improvement there was after reaching mastery criteria in three programs across two students.

Evaluation of Performance-Based Versus Pre-Set Conventional Criterion for Reinforcement in Check In-Check Out

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN HARPOLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joe Olmi (University of Southern Mississippi), Julie Sherman (University of Southern Mississippi), Chandler McLemore (University of Southern Mississippi)

With educational resources limited, refinement of procedures for standard protocol interventions must occur. The purpose of the present study was to compare which method of criterion-setting, performance-based or pre-set conventional, within Check In-Check Out produced greater improvements in childrens behavior. Eight general education elementary students in three Southeastern schools served as participants in addition to their teachers. Standard Check In-Check Out procedures were implemented. Appropriate and problem behavior was assessed for participants and control peers across various dependent measures. Treatment integrity and acceptability were also evaluated. The current study serves as one of the few studies in the Check In-Check Out literature with (a) a comparison of criterion setting methods, (b) inclusion of Daily Behavior Report Card data, (c) direct observations of target students and control peers behavior, and (d) evaluation of treatment integrity for all days of CICO implementation. Results suggest that gains were made for all participants across both groups with larger gains evidenced by participants of the Pre-Set Conventional group. However, the study produced implications for expected gains, which may aid practitioners in selecting those students who may benefit most from Check In-Check Out as compared to those who may require more intensive interventions.


Using Stimulus Equivalence Technology to Teach Research Design Conditional Relations for Undergraduate Students

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANA CAROLINA SELLA (University of Kansas), Glen W. White (University of Kansas), Daniela M. Ribeiro (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)

There is much criticism to higher education; one concerns the ineffectiveness of instructions used in this setting. Behavior analysis has been involved in the development and evaluation of several educational methods, including the use of stimulus equivalence technology to teach concepts. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a stimulus equivalence instructional package on four undergraduates performance in conditional discrimination tasks that involved research design names, definitions, notations, and examples. Participants remained in the study only if their percentage of correct responses in Probes 1, 2, and 3 was lower than 50%. Thirty-six experimental stimuli, comprised of nine research design names, nine research design definitions, nine research design notations, and nine examples were presented in a matching to sample format during teaching and emergent relation testing sessions. Probes consisted of nine open-ended questions on the taught conditional relations and new examples. All participants learned all conditional relations, showed emergence of symmetric and transitive relations, and generalized from the selection-based tasks (teaching and emergent testing tasks) to the topography-based tasks (open-ended probes). Lessons learned from this study can help in programming effective instruction for higher education settings.

15. Decreasing Latency on Hard Math Tasks: Interspersal Using a Laptop Computer
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. CALDERHEAD (Murray State University)
Abstract: This study replicated and extended research on interspersing of academic tasks, in particular the work of Belfiore, Lee, Vargas, and Skinner (1997) showing that sequences of single-step, single-digit (easy) math problems preceding multiple-step, multiple-digit (hard) problems decreased latency to initiate hard problems for students in an alternative education school. This author investigated whether three middle school students’ latency to initiate math problems was functionally related to changes in the interspersal of easy and hard math items during computer practice sessions. In the first phase, students exhibited shorter mean latencies on easy than on hard problems. In the second phase, participants demonstrated shorter mean latencies during sessions with interspersed easy and hard problems than during sessions consisting only of hard problems. The third phase compared students’ performance on all-hard problem sessions versus interspersed sessions during which 10-second interprompt times (IPTs), or delays, were inserted between the last of a series of easy problems and the presentation of a hard problem. The effect of the 10-second IPTs was to disrupt the temporal contiguity of the interspersed easy and hard problems, thus reversing the beneficial effect of interspersal evident in the preceding phase.

Evaluating and Comparing Two Iterations of the Taped-Problem Procedure on Class-wide Math Fact Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Brian C. Poncy (Oklahoma State University), PAUL HANSMANN (Oklahoma State University), Levita Bui (Oklahoma State University)

Time delay procedures also known as Taped Problems interventions (TP) are intervention procedures that can be used in schools and across settings to assist students in building fluency as well as accuracy. A multiple probes across tasks (i.e., problem sets) alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. This design includes a baseline phase, which involves the administration of three assessments for a period of 5-7 days. During the baseline sessions all three sets of problems (A, B, and C) will be assessed in random order. Baseline sessions lasted approximately 4-5 minutes. Once the intervention phase began, each set of problems was sequentially targeted through the TP intervention for 20 schools days. The purpose of our presentation is to show that TP procedures are effective, but the ideal amount of time for delay has yet to be investigated. Specific question to be addressed include: 1) Which administration time (0 or 2 seconds) provides the most effective intervention. 2) Finding the best learning rates among these two math interventions.

17. The Properties of Loss and Recovery for Mathematics Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GARY J. DUHON (Oklahoma State University), Mary Giblet (Oklahoma State University), Brian C. Poncy (Oklahoma State University), Bethany Jordahl (Oklahoma State University), Cathy Laterza (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate the properties of forgetting, established for accuracy by Ebbinghaus, when applied to response fluency. More specifically this research examined the impact of varied durations of the termination of repeated practice on fluent responding. In addition the time required to produce recovery of fluent responding once practice was reestablished was also examined. Third grade students in a Midwestern school district were provided a daily explicit timing math fluency intervention. Students daily math fluency was measured prior to and immediately after 6, 10, 22, and 121 day breaks. The fluency intervention continued after the completion of the break and student performance was monitored until performance recovered. Preliminary analysis indicated that loss and/or forgetting effects, high performing students and has no significant effect for low or average students. In addition, the properties of fluency loss are similar to accuracy forgetting. Significance of the study is relevant to evaluation of assessment data and establishing performance benchmarks. Because fluency evaluations are often used to determine academic risk status and goal attainment, understanding the impact of instructional breaks on fluency may improve decision making with regard to currently used assessment methods.

Relationships Among Accuracy and Fluency of Computation Skills, and Mathematics Achievement in Japanese School Children

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WATARU NODA (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)

Behavior analysts have provided educationally useful measures of fluency for specific academic skills (Lindsley, 1992). We applied this ABA-derived measure to examine if accuracy and fluency of computation skills differentially predict overall mathematics achievement scores for Japanese children. A total of 345 Japanese public school children (first throughsixth grade) participated in 1-minute assessments for single-digit, and multi-digit computation problems including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. We calculated a percent correct score (accuracy measure) and the number of correct problems per minute (fluency measure). In addition, we conducted a Japanese standardized achievement test for mathematics (Kyouken-shiki Standardized Achievement Test). Results indicated that fluency of single-digit and multi-digit computation skills correlated strongly in each type of computation problems (r = .59 - .68). On the other hand, single-digit accuracy had low or no correlation with accuracy and fluency of multi-digit computation skills. In addition, hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that accuracy of computation skills did not predict mathematics achievement significantly, but fluency of computation skills did after controlling for grade. ABA-derived measures of fluency proved to exert differential effects on general mathematics achievement scores. Adding fluency component to academic instruction may contribute to the enhancement of overall academic achievement.


Increasing Reading Fluency Using Repeated Readings With Phrase Correction and a Mystery Motivader

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LEE (The Ohio State University)

Reading fluency is a critical skill that all students must master in order to be successful in any subject in school. However, for many students with special needs who struggle to read fluently, an academic intervention focusing on reading fluency alone oftentimes is not enough to make significant progress. Many students with special needs also require the addition of a behavioral intervention in order to be successful. In this case study, a Repeated Readings with Phrase Correction intervention procedure was implemented with the addition of a Mystery Motivader, a type of positive reinforcement schedule, to improve reading fluency in an elementary student with a cognitive disability. Results indicate a significant increase in the number of correct words read per minute. Students with both reading fluency and behavior difficulties can benefit from the techniques presented. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research will be included.


Group Contingencies to Increase Compliment Statements and Decrease Verbal Aggression Toward Classroom Peers

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M. KING (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft), Susan K. Malmquist (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Laura J. Henderson (blueballoon Health Services)

Although previous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of group contingencies on behaviors targeted for reduction (e.g., Greenwood, Hops, Delquadri, & Guild, 1974; Harris & Sherman, 1973). Fewer studies have targeted increases in positive peer interactions, such as appropriate verbal responding or social behavior. The current study evaluated a group contingency with a variation of a response cost procedure (i.e., the teacher earning points) on the appropriate and inappropriate social behavior of students in a special education classroom. Conditioned reinforcers (i.e., points) were provided to students for displaying compliment statements and points were awarded to the teacher contingent on student verbal aggressive statements. Reinforcement was provided for meeting specific behavioral criteria in a changing criterion design. The results of the study demonstrated that the group contingencies implemented in the form of the You and Me Game successfully decreased verbal aggressive statements and increased compliment statements for the randomly selected 5 target students during the school lunch period.


The Effects of Curriculum Modification on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER HADDOCK (Center for Behavior Analysis and Language Development), Robert-Ryan S. Pabico (Center for Behavior Analysis and Language Development), Daniel B. Shabani (California State University, Los Angeles)

Curriculum modifications are a commonly used antecedent behavior management strategy utilized during academic instruction. In the current study, the effects of repeated and novel stimuli presentation on the on-task behavior and academic performance of a young child diagnosed with autism were evaluated using an Alternating Treatments Design. Conditions compared included, 1) repeated stimuli, 2) randomly arranged repeated stimuli, and 3) novel stimuli. Results of the analysis indicated that presentation of novel stimuli produced higher levels of independent on-task behavior, relative to repeated and randomly arranged repeated stimuli. The utility of this sort of curriculum modification will be discussed.


The Effects of Teacher Implementation of Evidence-based Practice on Student Outcomes

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University)

The environment that teachers provide has an impact on student learning and behavior. In this study, 16 elementary school teachers at a school in a high-poverty neighborhood were provided training and feedback on the delivery of 3 evidence-based practices. Contingent praise, clear expectations, and frequent opportunities for student responses were taught within an in-service format. Teachers were observed by trained observers and data were organized within a multiple baseline across skills design. Approximately half of the teachers implement these practices to satisfactory levels. The relationships between teacher implementation and student behavioral and academic outcomes were tested. It was determined that there was a significant relationship between the level of implementation of evidence-based practices and student discipline and academic outcomes. Students in classrooms where teachers implemented the 3 evidence-based practices to high levels were less likely to be referred to the office for disciplinary reasons and had higher reading scores. These results are presented and discussed.




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