Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details


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Poster Session #181
AUT Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 27, 2012
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)
1. Using a Nuk Brush to Increase the Acceptance of Drinks in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANET DIAZ (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University), Heather Kadey (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University)
Abstract:

Escape extinction (e.g., nonremoval of the spoon) is well-documented as an effective treatment for increasing the acceptance of nonpreferred food/drinks in children with feeding disorders. These procedures typically involve holding a spoon at the child's lips until he/she accepts a bite/drink or until a predetermined meal duration is met. As a result, some children may learn to "wait out" the time cap and avoid bites/drinks altogether. Such circumstances may call for the utilization of additional procedures to increase acceptance. A Nuk brush massager is a feeding utensil that has been shown to be effective for decreasing expulsions and packing. The current study evaluated the effects of using a Nuk in combination with escape extinction to increase the acceptance of drinks in a 3-year-old male diagnosed with autism. Across all phases of the analysis, interobserver agreement data were collected on at least 20% of all sessions and averaged over 80% for all dependent measures. Results show that when the Nuk was used in combination with nonremoval of the spoon, acceptance was significantly higher that with escape extinction alone.

 
2. Assessing and Treating Idiosyncratic Meal Preferences in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTIE MCCARTHY (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University), Heather Kadey (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University)
Abstract:

Ahearn, Castine, Nault, and Green (2001) discussed the reported prevalence of unusual eating patterns in children with autism. For example, children with autism have been reported to have preferences for specific utensils, food colors, or textures. Such idiosyncratic variables may contribute to the development and maintenance of ritualistic mealtime behaviors (e.g., tantrums, food/drink refusal). The purpose of the current study was twofold. First, we sought to develop methods for assessing idiosyncratic feeding behavior often reported in children with autism. Second, we demonstrated that, despite clear preferences that children with autism may have for specific mealtime rituals (i.e., using specific utensils), behavioral treatments can be used to effectively alter mealtime behavior. Specifically, the current study assessed 1 child's reported preferences for certain colored (i.e., white, beige) foods as well as a preference for a clear glass cup versus an opaque plastic cup. Despite a clear preference for the glass cup, demonstrated using a concurrent operants arrangement, no differential responding in consumption was observed when a treatment was implemented. Throughout the analysis, interobserver agreement was collected on over 20% of sessions and averaged over 80% for all dependent measures.

 
3. A Comparison of Three Brief Models of Functional Analysis of Severe Challenging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLIN S. MUETHING (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (University of Texas at Austin), Natalie Gripp (University of Texas at Austin), Jennifer Wilder (Round Rock Independant School District)
Abstract:

As a result of time constraints associated with various applied settings, behavior analysts have developed brief models of functional analysis. Thus, evaluations of various models of brief functional analyses for consistency and treatment utility are vital. A comparative study of 3 models of brief functional analyses was conducted with 2 participants with histories of challenging behavior. During the brief A-B analysis, the antecedents were manipulated across conditions and no programmed consequences were provided. During the brief A-B-C analysis, both antecedents and consequences were systematically manipulated across conditions. During the brief, latency-based analysis, sessions were terminated following the first instance of challenging behavior. Additionally, brief treatment evaluations were conducted based on results of each of the3 models. Results showed correspondence between the 3 variations with each of 2 participants. In addition, greater function differentiation was observed with the A-B model when compared to the A-B-C, and latency-based models. Interobserver agreement was collected for at least 30% of sessions across participants and agreement was 90% or above. Although preliminary in nature, these results suggest that the brief A-B functional analysis model may be most effective at identifying functions in environments in which abbreviated methods are necessary.

 
4. Decreasing Anxiety and Increasing Cognitive Flexibility in a Girl With Asperger Syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IAN GILMOUR (Moss, Rowden, Freigang & Associates), Ariana Detrinidad (McMaster Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Two behavioural interventions were done with an eight-year-old girl with Asperger syndrome. The first targeted food refusal and the second, a year later, increased her cognitive flexibility within family interactions. Intervention 1: The girl complained of an upset stomach before her school lunch (no medical reason) resulting in refusal to eat (she eventually lost 15% of body weight). The intervention restructured her reaction to an upset stomach just prior to lunch. She was taught to use symptoms as a cue to initiate pre-taught self-management strategies. When she felt symptoms, she recorded how her stomach felt before eating and then, her food consumption. These strategies were successful and she regained lost weight. Intervention 2: Lack of flexibility in family interactions resulted in "rules" dictating which (a) family member could sit with her on the couch; and (b) she always needed to win at a game. The intervention consisted of her identifying "rules" that she would not discard and four "rules" that she could possibly change. By the end of the intervention, she had discarded the first 4 "rules" plus another 7. Her mother reported that "rule" changes had produced more cognitive flexibility, which positively impacted family functioning.

 
5. Staff Training for Community Swimming Instructors: Supporting Children With Autism in Local Recreation Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE GRACE JULL (University of British Columbia), Pat Mirenda (University of British Columbia)
Abstract:

Scant research information is available regarding how to facilitate the participation of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in community recreation activities such as swimming, which is age appropriate throughout the lifespan and an essential safety skill. This study examined the impact of a behaviour analytic training workshop and in-pool coaching aimed at empowering staff in community-based recreation settings to support children with ASD in swim instruction. Participants included 8 children with ASD, ages 4–11, with a range of swimming and communication abilities; and 6 swimming instructors from local community pools. The study was conducted using a quasi-experimental time series design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Instructors were taught to (a) establish rapport using stimulus-stimulus pairing; (b) use activity schedules depicting the target skills in each lesson; (c) intersperse easy and difficult tasks; and (d) deliver clear instructions, effective prompts, and contingent reinforcement, as appropriate. Preliminary results indicate that, following instructor training, children with ASD were more cooperative and acquired swimming skills at a faster rate. Feedback from instructors, parents, and aquatics coordinators indicated strong social validity. Results have implications for both future research and community service providers' capacity to provide effective instruction to children with ASD.

 
6. Evaluating the Effects of Video Modeling on Frequency of Socially Embedded Consequences
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY YAUGER (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas), Donna Townley-Cochran (University of North Texas), Stephany Kristina Reetz (University of North Texas), Amber Wiles (University of North Texas), Brittany Vaughn (University of North Texas), Tiffany Sayles (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have marked social deficits that have life long implications for development and quality of life. Research suggests that individuals working with children with autism can positively affect social behavior through the use of socially embedded consequences. More specifically the use of socially embedded consequences can effect joint attention, social engagement, and affect in children diagnosed with autism. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of video modeling on the frequency of staffs use of socially embedded consequences and to examine the effects of staffs increased use of socially embedded consequence on child and staff social behavior specifically in the areas of joint attention, social engagement, and affect. Efficiently training staff to embed social interactions within reinforcer delivery can be an effective way to improve social skills in children diagnosed with autism.

 
7. Differential Effects of Preferred Versus Non-preferred Concurrent Activities in Self-control Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER PAMULA (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Seth W. Whiting (Southern Illinois University), Jeffrey R. Miller (Southern Illinois University), Rebecca Batterman (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Susan Szekely (Illinois Center for Autism)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that concurrent activities can help “bridge the gap” during the delay to reinforcement, though the quality of these activities has not been examined. The present study examined engagement in a low-preferred and high-preferred concurrent activity during self-control training to determine their differential effects on training time to the desired delay criterion. Participants in this study were students with autism attending a day school. They demonstrated low tolerance to delay in natural baseline, during which they were told to wait as long as possible for reinforcement. They were then provided with a choice between a small immediate reinforcer and a large delayed reinforcer. Those who consistently chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline were selected for self-control training. The two training conditions included a progressive delay to reinforcement with either a preferred concurrent activity or non-preferred concurrent activity. These conditions were randomly alternated. Training was continued in order to promote engagement duration in the non-preferred and preferred activities to approach ten times the natural baseline duration. Fading in of the progressive delay to reinforcement had the duel effects of increasing engagement in non-preferred activities as well as increasing tolerance to a delay to reinforcement.
 
8. Peer-Mediated Social Skills Training in A City-Wide, Inclusive Summer Camp
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CARMEN L. HALL (Fanshawe College), Laurie Quinlan (City of London), Jaqueline Lauzon (City of London), Amanda McIntyre (City of London), Kimberly Maich (Fanshawe College), Fatima Machado (Thames Valley Children's Centre)
Abstract:

During the summer of 2011, a peer-mediated social skills program was implemented across an inclusive, city-wide summer camp. Behavior observation occurred for 2-3 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) each week, depending on enrollment. Camp counselors were trained in the strategies and 2 behavioral therapists coached the counselors in applying the techniques and collected data. Typically-developing peers were taught disability awareness activities and behavioral strategies at the beginning of their week at camp. Camp counselors then prompted peers to use these strategies in naturally occurring interactions with the children with disabilities. Children with ASD were then included in all activities occurring at the specific camp with their peers. Camp counselors also completed a pre- and post-social skills questionnaire on their observations of the child's social skills. Results indicated that reinforcing activities were necessary to maintain the increase in social skills, adult proximity, and involvement directly influenced the rate of social interactions, and the level of previous social exposure to the camp setting influenced the rate of social interactions.

 
9. Establishing and Abolishing Operations in Real Life: A Day at the Beach Is a Cool Behavior Analytic Tool
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA ZAWACKI (Preparing Adolecents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Gloria M. Satriale (Preparing Adolecents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Avi Glickman (Preparing Adolecents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies), Peter F. Gerhardt (The McCarton School)
Abstract:

One of the most essential and most widely applied principles in behavior analysis is the use of positive reinforcement. A key component in identifying potential reinforcers is to consider the momentary effectiveness of any stimulus change as reinforcement indicated by the existing level of motivation. In examining motivating operations (MO) we are able to identify potential establishing operations (EO) an MO that increases the current effectiveness of a reinforcer, as well as abolishing operations (AO) an MO that decreases the current effectiveness of a reinforcer. The purpose of this study was to determine if targeted maladaptive behaviors would decrease by eliminating perceived establishing operations and introducing instead possible abolishing operations. The study was a reversal design across 8 adolescents diagnosed with moderate to severe autism. These participants were enrolled in the PAAL Program; a life skills community-based private program in Downingtown, PA that adhered to the principles of applied behavior analysis. The motivating operation studied was the environment of Ocean City, NJ where the participants spent a week of their summer in a community immersion peer mentoring program. Maladaptive behaviors and their functions were identified for each individual and programmed for in the school environment prior to the trip. Behavior data were collected a week prior to the trip, during the trip, and the week following. Both participant 1 and 2 had behaviors that were consistent with the tangible function, and participants 3 and 4 with the escape function. A preference assessment identified various preferred activities and environments within the trip for participants 1-3, while participant 4 ranked those same activities as least. Data indicated that participants 1 and 2 engaged in low levels of behavior while on the trip when access to preferred tangibles was not limited as in the typical environment. Participant 3 engaged in no behavior while on the trip while demands were at a low level unlike the typical environment. Participant 4 engaged in high levels of behavior while on the trip indicating that engaging in the non-preferred activities as a high demand situation, and was sent home early from the trip.

 
10. The Effects of a Summer Therapeutic Treatment Program on Skill Acquisition in Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT GULICK (Achievement Center), Christina Colon (Achievement Center), Carly Sturgess (Achievement Center), Amanda Will (Achievement Center), Jane Buyer (Achievement Center), Sabrina Mong (Achievement Center), Sara Kitchen (Achievement Center), Linda Hartken (Achievement Center)
Abstract:

Thirty six children, ages 6-15, participated in an 8-week Summer Therapeutic Activity Program (STAP) designed for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The STAP provided a treatment package consisting of social skill and language acquisition programming (via discrete trial instruction and traditional classroom teaching), visual supports (picture activity schedules), and a token economy system with response cost. Direct training of skills occurred during the morning/classroom sessions, while the afternoon portion of the program included generalization opportunities via recreational activities. The participants were divided into two groups according to language ability - (1) Emerging Language and (2) Conversational Language. Participant data were tracked in both groups for compliance to adult direction. Additional measures were taken in the Emerging Language Group for spontaneous mands and play skills. Data indicated that all participants experienced improvement from baseline in the area of compliance to adult direction with a mean improvement of 21.6% for the Emerging Language Group and 18.1% for the Conversational Language Group. Accuracy probes for spontaneous mands and play skills indicated that two-thirds of the participants in the Early Language Group improved by an average of 64.1% from baseline with manding and 18.1% from baseline with play skills.

 
11. Social Skills Training in the Context of a Hockey Practice
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KEVIN BEIERS (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: Teaching social and communicative skills to persons with Autism is an essential component to most educational programs. To date, a number of interventions have proven to be effective including functional communication training, pivotal response training, and video modeling. A key treatment variable found in most social skills interventions for persons with autism is the identification of a instructional context that provides reinforcement and allows for effortless interaction between the peer and the student with autism. One common context that has been found to result in increased social interaction is on the field of athletic competition. In the current investigation, we successfully increased the social behaviors of two teenage students within a very unique context. Specifically, the student’s social behaviors were increased while they were enrolled in a disabilities ice hockey program. The participants in the study were two children previously diagnosed in Autism. We completed an ABAB reversal design. In baseline, the students were simply placed on the ice without prompts. In treatment, the participants were prompted to skate near the other skaters and provided with an edible reward. The results indicated that the intervention resulted in increased social skills for both participants.
 
12. An Assessment of Individualized Instructional Presentation for Learners With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN ALISON PEPA (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Anton Shcherbakov (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Michelle Fucci (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Chiarina Guzik (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Catriona Beauchamp Francis (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
Abstract:

Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in communication, social functioning, as well as the presence of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Several empirically supported instructional methods have been found to promote skill acquisition in individuals with autism. Many of these methods, such as Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI), typically utilize desktop instruction and massed trials to provide learning opportunities. Additionally, other research indicates that more naturalistic styles of instruction, such as Natural Environment Training (NET), provide more functional learning opportunities for learners. This style of teaching may also provide greater opportunity for generalization of skills outside of the classroom setting. While research exists supporting different treatment contexts, relatively little research has investigated how to match instructional style to student preferences and performance. The current investigation involved teaching parallel skills in 3 different teaching modalities (discrete trial, naturalistic/contextual and computer-based instruction) to determine which resulted in the fastest acquisition. Results to this point indicate that both naturalistic/contextual, and computer-based instruction resulted in more rapid acquisition of skills relative to traditional discrete trial methods of instruction. Results are discussed in the context of the development of assessment procedures to determine the instructional best-fit for students.

 
13. A Behavioral Analysis of Swimming: Teaching Children With Special Needs to Swim
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY EDEN GREENWALD (University of Nevada, Reno), Holly Seniuk (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada,Reno)
Abstract:

Drowning is a leading cause of death for children with special needs. This unfortunate incident may be prevented if children with special needs are taught to swim, however, it is often difficult to find resources in the community to teach specialized skills such as swimming to different learners. This study examined the most efficient way to teach swimming and water safety skills to children with special needs. Two children on the autism spectrum were included in this study. Several behavioral principles were used in this package intervention including a task analysis, reinforcement, escape extinction, imitation, and peer modeling. Procedures and materials are described in detail with respect to the 2 different learners, 1 with a high verbal skill repertoire and 1 with a limited verbal skill repertoire.

 
14. Toilet Training and Food Selection: The Ins and Outs of Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOMARA SANTOS (Florida Institute of Technology), Mark Malady (Florida Institute of Technology), Mark Fulmer (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: This case study exemplifies the power of applied behavior analysis in two important areas of the life of a child diagnosed with autism (Lizzie): toilet training and food selection. Toilet training is a major milestone in achieving independence in early childhood that is often delayed (or missed entirely) in children with autism (Kroeger & Sorensen-Burnworth, 2009). The use of systematic toilet training, including shaping and reinforcement led to successful toilet training. Food selectivity is another common problem in children with Autism; in fact, their choices often include items with very little or no nutritional value (Ahearn, 2001; Riordan, Iwata & Finney, 1980). The present study was designed to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables in a preschooler diagnosed with autism to find more healthy alternative edible reinforcers. The use of the Premack principle, modeling, reinforcement and shaping led to a decrease in problem behaviors and increase in novel food consumption.
 
15. Increasing Direction Following During Tantrums in a Young Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICIA K. SOLANO-FAH (Organization for Research & Learning), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research & Learning)
Abstract:

This poster highlights the improvement in direction following of a twelve-year-old boy with a diagnosis of autism. The client received 27 hours per week of state-funded behavior management services in his home. The treatment team sought to employ the least intrusive behavior management strategies while still achieving greater control and improved safety around unpredictable tantrum behavior. Given the lack of self-regulation and self-management during tantrums, following even simple directions critical for the students safety or the safety of others was often compromised. The team thus designed a program to establish a history with a novel cue that would signal an increased probability of reinforcement contingent upon compliance, first during non-agitated times and then during periods of accelerated problem behavior. The critical features of instruction included ease of directions given, schedules of reinforcement, and presence/absence of agitation. Due to the students personal interest in Spanish, the cue Mrame, (look at me), was selected. Student performance data, measured in correct and incorrect responses to directions, will be charted and shown on a Standard Celeration Chart. Critical and variable features of instruction as well as criterion for data-based decisions will be discussed.

 
16. Combining Applied Behavior Analysis and Oral Placement Therapy to Achieve Functional Speech in Nonvocal Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RISCA L. SOLOMON (Skybound Autism Therapies), Renee Roy Hill (Talk Tools)
Abstract:

Developing functional speech with non-vocal individuals with autism can be one of the biggest challenges for speech and language pathologists as well as behavior analysts. Several studies have found that many children with autism have oral motor difficulties (c.f. Adams, 1998; Page & Boucher, 1998; Slavin & Amato, 1998). Typical approaches for developing speech have involved presenting auditory-visual cues for the indidivual to imitate (echoics), however children with autism have been shown to have difficulties with imitation skills (c.f. Rogers et al., 2003; Giacomo et al., 2009). Oral Placement Therapy focuses on using proprioceptive-tactile input along with auditory-visual presentation to teach the correct placement for speech sounds and then transition these placements into speech (Bahr & Rosenfield-Johnson, 2010). A program which combines Applied Behavior Analysis, including techniques for increasing vocalizations and developing echoic behavior, along with Oral Placement Therapy may be advantageous in teaching speech to non-vocal individuals with autism. Findings from case studies using this systematic approach, applied to children ranging from 3 years of age to 12, will be presented.

 
17. Teaching Oral Speech to Young Adults With Autism and Apraxia Utilizing a Multisensory Approach
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LYN DEE OSBURN (Parent/Advocate), Kristin Ragnarsson (.), Eric Puhala (.)
Abstract:

This is an ongoing data-case study of a 19 year old with autism and apraxia. As of September 2009 the subject, aside from process receptively, still had relatively no functional oral speech after fifteen years of echoic training in various applied and verbal behavior programs. Our intensive, incremental, multi-sensory approach to teaching oral speech is by establishing mastery to automaticity of precise articulation at the phoneme, noun and sentence levels across the RD, tact, oral/written recall and dictation. The treatment plan builds a framework for organizing the production, perception and memory of spoken language. As seen in our graph, the subject's phonemic lexicon has increased from a baseline of 25 sounds to the full 44 phonemes, has acquired 88 nouns from his initial lexicon of 13 nouns and has been able to use all nouns in three carrier phrases - I see, I want and I have. In addition, the subject is generalizing oral speech skills across various settings. The goal of this poster is to share our experience and success, while offering guidelines for language intervention and remediation.

 
18. Toward a Comprehensive and Objective Measurement System of Common Sleep Problems of Young Children in Homes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHUNYING S. JIN (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Donna Haskell (Westfield State University)
Abstract:

We evaluated the accuracy and reliability of various momentary time sampling (MTS) procedures for collecting data on sleep problems in two children diagnosed with autism. We also compared these direct measures of sleep problems obtained via nighttime video recording to parental diaries. Dependent measures were sleep onset delay, number of night awakenings, minutes of night awakenings, and total hours of sleep. We obtained these measures using 5 minute, 10 minute, 30 minute, 60 minute, and 120 minute MTS intervals, and compared the results against the continuous (second-by-second) data to determine the largest interval capable of collecting accurate and reliable data. Results showed that the differences between the MTS data and continuous data increased with increasing interval size. The largest interval lengths capable of measuring the sleep problems with an acceptable degree of error and showing sensitivity to the independent variable were MTS 10 min for sleep onset delay, and MTS 30 min for night awakenings, and total hours of sleep. Parental diary data also showed sensitivity to the independent variable and were consistent with our direct measures.

 
19. Reducing Physical Stereotypy Using Exercise as an Antecedent Modification
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAILIN MCCOLLOUGH (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract:

Physical stereotypy often interferes with learning and performing daily tasks for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined the reductive effects of two conditions on the rate of physical stereotypy for three children with ASD. The target behaviors included hand flapping, head tapping, tapping on objects, body tensing, toe walking, and inappropriate running or skipping. The exercise condition consisted of 5 minutes of constant physical activity such as running or jumping. The control condition consisted of 5 minutes of appropriate activities without any physical stimulation such as reading or toy play. The target physical behavior was recorded for 10 minutes immediately following each of the conditions, while the experimenter presented previously mastered and acquisition tasks specific to the child. The results showed that the exercise condition reduced two of the three participants physical stereotypy when used as an antecedent modification to academic tasks. However, one participant showed a slight reduction in physical stereotypy after the control condition when rates were compared to baseline levels. The use of antecedent exercise for the treatment of stereotypic behaviors is supported by this research.

 
20. Using A Systematic Desensitization Procedure to Decrease Phobic Responses to Dryers in a Young Male With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANA GILLIE (Little Star Center), William Tim Courtney (Little Star Center), Lisa Steward (Little Star Center), Mary Rosswurm (Little Star Center)
Abstract:

Recent research indicates high prevalence of anxiety in individuals with autism (de Bruin, Ferdinand, Meester, de Nijs, & Verheij, 2007; Gillott & Standen, 2007; Mayes, Calhoun, Murray, Ahuja, & Smith, 2011; White, Oswald, Ollendick, & Scahill, 2009). Behavior analysts are likely to encounter individuals with autism exhibiting responding to escape feared conditions. Often, it is necessary to overcome these fears to accomplish essential activities. In this research we evaluated a stimulus fading procedure to reduce phobic avoidance of hair and hand dryers exhibited by a child with autism. The participant was gradually exposed to contrived conditions with the presence of a hair dryer and conditions in the natural environment with a hand dryer. Preliminary results indicate the procedure was effective at reducing phobic avoidance of hair dryers, but not effective at generalizing to other stimuli. Sequential modifications with different hair dryers were necessary.

 
21. Effects of Direct Instruction on Telling Time by Students with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE THOMPSON (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: Recently, the National Autism Center published their National Standards Report (National Autism Center, 2009) based on an extensive review of evidence-based interventions for individuals with autism; however, there were no evidence-based academic interventions for students with autism. One important academic skill with a limited research base for individuals with autism is mathematics. Therefore, this study used a single subject, multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of Direct Instruction to teach students with autism to tell time to the five minute increment on analog clocks. Exercises from Connecting Math Concepts were used as the Direct Instruction component during intervention. Target students were four elementary students with autism (ages 6 to 8). Visual analysis of graphed data showed a functional relation between Direct Instruction and increased telling time performance. Results indicated increased telling time skills to the five-minute increment for all students and their scores fell within the range of their same age typically developing peers. Social validity, implications for practice, and implications for future research will be discussed.
 
22. Identifying Effective Components of ABA Programmes Used in Education of Children With Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHELLEY ALISON BRADY (University of Ulster), Claire E. McDowell (University of Ulster-Coleraine), Julian C. Leslie (University of Ulster)
Abstract:

Many studies have been carried out on the use of reinforcement within the ABA framework i.e. schedules of reinforcement, DRO. There is an extensive amount of research which supports the use of reinforcement as an effective teaching technique. (Francisco, Borrero & Jolene, 2008. Roll, Higgins & Badger, 1996). However, there has been little or no research into the effects of different error-correction and prompt fading techniques. They are important procedures, as the aim of these procedures is to reduce the number of errors a student makes. However, there is a notable lack of research into the error correction procedures and prompt fading used in these schools and in turn their effectiveness upon skill acquisition. Many schools employ one error correction procedure across all programs (for example, pointing to the correct picture when a child makes a mistake and allowing them to correct their response) but with no real rationale behind this. It is also often the case that schools employ one prompt procedure,(for example, least to most where the tutor begins with the least obvious prompt, such as gesturing towards the correct picture and moves successively through a hierarchy of more obvious prompts if less obvious ones fail to be effective in eliciting the correct response). Research in the past has shown a number of prompting procedures to be effective, but very little research has systematically compared the different approaches (MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001) Similarly, the research that has investigated error correction procedures (Rodgers & Iwata, 1991) has suggested that future research should be carried out in order to specify the component behavioural mechanisms within the error correction procedure and to determine which are most effective to maximise learning. The purpose of the present study is to address the area of error correction and the use of prompts in ABA classrooms for children and adolescents with autism. The aims of the project are: To gather information on the types of correction procedures used in ABA schools in Ireland. To evaluate the information gathered by the information screening tool. To design a second study based on the information gathered which will investigate the efficiency of different error-correction techniques. This study could form a basis upon which an effective error correction procedures could be employed in schools

 
23. Effect of Applied Behavior Program on Aggressive Behavior of Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (University of Veracruz), Karla Joanna Corro Patraca (University of Veracruz), Esperanza Ferrant-Jimenez (University of Veracruz), Sebastian Figueroa Rodriguez (University of Veracruz), MARTIN LUIS ORTIZ BUENO (University of Veracruz)
Abstract:

The aggressive behavior of autistic children represent problems for their parents and teachers, who do not know the behavioral principles to modify aggressive behavior. The overall objective of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a program of behavior modification on the aggressive behaviors of2 children with autism, based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. The study was conducted in the classroom of Autism Group Children of Special Education Center at Xalapa, Veracruz. The students selected were those with more frecuency of aggressive behaviors. The materials used were: questionnaire to experts, manual with techniques and behavior modification, registration form of aggressive behaviors. An experimental within subject design AB (baseline and intervention phase) (Grass Arnau, 1987) was implemented. During the baseline were recorded frequencies of occurrence of aggressive behavior and in the intervention phase was implemented the applied behavior analysis principles to decrease it. The results show that the behavioral program was effective to decrease the frequency of aggressive behaviors of the2 autistic chilren and their behavior patterns were stabilized.

 
24. Effects of Peer-Mediated Instruction to Increase Communicative Attempts in Elementary-Aged Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIE SARICH (Anchorage School District), Lindsey Harpole (Anchorage School District), Janet A. Butz (Collaborative Autism Resources and Education)
Abstract:

Social impairments are one of the most defining characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Peer-mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII) involves teaching peers to interact with and facilitate social communication in children with ASD; PMII is considered an evidence-based practice as defined by the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2008) and the National Autism Centers National Standards Report (2009). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a peer-mediated training package designed to teach two students with ASD, enrolled in two public elementary schools, to engage in interactions with peers in a social context. Four to five confederates for each student with ASD were taught to use a peer-mediated training package when playing. A multiple baseline design across social behaviors identified by norm-referenced social rating scales was used to show effects of the intervention. Increases in the rate per minute of target behaviors suggest that the confederates successfully modeled the social skills with the students with ASD. This project extends the research of PMII as an evidence-based practice for teaching social skills to elementary-aged children with ASD within a public school setting.

 
25. Teaching Independent Living Skills to Individuals With Autism: Effects of an Activity Schedule Fading Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA SEEMAN (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Nicole Pearson (Westchester Institute for Human Development), Julie Fisher (New York Center for Autism Charter School)
Abstract:

Children with autism often have difficulty completing long independent response chains. As a result, caregivers complete many daily living skills for these individuals. The purpose of the current study will be to teach a daily living skill to three boys diagnosed with autism. Photographic activity schedules and manual prompts will be used to teach meal preparation skills and a back-to-front fading procedure will be used to systematically fade the activity schedules. The results are expected to show an increase in independent responding when the activity schedules are introduced and that responding will remain independent as the schedules are systematically removed.

 
26. CANCELED: Treating Self-Touching Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement by an Elementary Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADOKA ITOI (Spectrum Behavioral Solutions), Rebecca Eslinger (Spectrum Behavioral Solutions)
Abstract:

While maladaptive behaviors that are maintained by automatic reinforcement are common among individuals with autism, it is often considered difficult to directly manipulate the stimulus thought to be responsible for maintenance of behaviors (Iwata, et al., 1994). The current study extends the implications from an existing study (Piazza et al., 1996) by using a procedure based on stimulus control to achieve generalized effects of an intervention for self-touching maintained by automatic reinforcement exhibited by a 7 year-old girl with autism. Previous analysis revealed that her self-touching occurred across settings, activities, and therapists, and reinforcement-based interventions using DRI or DRO paired with a token economy or a response-cost intervention had not produced desirable effects. An intervention that involved a mild punishment procedure of holding arms up for 1 minute showed immediate decrease of the target behavior; however, the effects was temporal and did not generalize across therapists and across settings such as at daycare, home, and during school bus rides. The current study used a multiple-baseline across settings design with built-in probes by novel therapists to examine the effects of color cards used in conjunction with the cost response procedure. Implications for practice and areas for further research will be discussed.

 
27. The Livingston Center Preschool: Good Outcomes and Friends, Too!
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JANE I. CARLSON (The Groden Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The Livingston Center Preschool is an integrated program serving children with autism and their typical peers. The program provides early intensive behavioral intervention in the context of a typical preschool with a ration of 1 child with autism to 2 typically developing children. Assessment, program development and progress monitoring are integrated into both the intensive one-to-one and the integrated group settings to produce maximum skill acquisition and reduction of problem behaviors. 40 percent of children with autism served by the program are able to attend typical kindergarden programs upon discharge, 40 percent return to public school programs with partial integration, and 20 percent require ongoing intensive treatment in segregated programs. Environmental set-up, curriculum development, staff training, and progress monitoring are key components to the program's success. Outcome data for the initial cohort of students indicate a significant increase in average IQ score for all but one student. Individual characteristics associated with outcomes are examined.
 
28. The Use of Self-management to Increase Peer Social Interaction in Preschoolers With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Rachel McIntosh (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Daniel Adam Openden (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), ERIN KATZ (University of Washington)
Abstract:

Self-management is a data driven, behaviorally-based intervention implemented to either increase a target behavior or to decrease maladaptive behavior while improving independent responding. This intervention can be successfully used across a wide variety of natural environments and with individuals demonstrating a wide range of skill deficiencies. Self-management has shown particular success when used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Young children with ASDs often exhibit difficulties with initiating, responding to, and maintaining peer social interaction. In this study, self-management was used to increase the frequency of social interactions with peers. Self-management procedures were implemented within an inclusive preschool classroom and taught to parents so that intervention could also be implemented at home. Prompting and eventually the self-management system were systematically faded as social interactions with peers increased. Data showed that self-management procedures can successfully be used to increase peer social interaction within an inclusive, early childhood classroom setting, that self-management can be easily implemented by both professionals and caregivers, and that self-management interventions can result in collateral gains across multiple child environments.

 
29. A Comparison of Teaching Strategies on Skill Acquisition: Joint Action Routines vs. Graduated Guidance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE LONG (Firefly Autism House), Shawnie N. Girtler (Firefly Autism House), Carrie A. Scott (Firefly Autism House)
Abstract:

This poster compares the effects of using joint action routines or using graduated guidance teaching techniques on skill acquisition rates of a 13-year old male with autism. Tasks were categorized as (household chores, science, and outdoor chores). Each category contains two comparable chains that are similar in the amount of steps, function, and length of time to completion. One task from each category was then randomly assigned to be taught using either graduated guidance or as a joint action routine. A joint action routine is a play activity in which both partners have key roles and build on each others contributions through modeling and observation (Bruner, 1977). Joint action routines are the frames for teaching in the Early Start Denver Model and involve taking turns and the ability to carry out various roles within the routine. Rate of skill acquisition was determined by the number of newly mastered targets per week within each task and specific teaching strategy. Initial results suggest that the skill acquisition rate for the task taught using a joint action routine increased at a higher rate than the task taught using graduated guidance.

 
30. Building Social Skills: Outcomes of an Inclusionary Summer Camp for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALICIA J. KOGER (Wesley Spectrum Services), Amy Destefano (Wesley Spectrum Services)
Abstract:

Building social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is critical for their success in becoming independent members of the community. In this study, staff trained in Autism and Applied Behavior Analysis used naturalistic teaching methods to facilitate social skills in 4 children with ASD within a 5-week summer camp with neurotypical peers. Social skills such as participation in group activities, taking turns, and initiating and maintaining interactions were taught by using modeling, prompting, and positive reinforcement. Overall changes in social skills were measured by comparing pre- and post-scores on The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). All 4 children showed improved scores as compared to baseline. A social validity measure, in the form of a parent satisfaction survey, suggested that social skills generalized to other settings and were maintained after camp ended. These findings suggest that inclusionary summer camps may be an effective way to build social skills in learners with ASD.

 
31. Biobehavioural Analysis of Stress in Caregivers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CIARA FOODY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Geraldine Leader (National University of Ireland, Galway), Jack E. James (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract:

Parenting a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with extremely high levels of stress. High levels of caregiver stress can, for example, decrease the success of early intervention and result in poorer health outcomes for caregivers. The present study examines stress and health in caregivers of children with ASDs in Ireland. The study includes caregivers of children with ASDs aged 2-18 years and a matched control group of caregivers of typically developing children. Participants completed questionnaires and wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 hours. A structured daily diary was completed throughout the day to determine the impact of naturalistic stressors and supports on cardiovascular measures. The use of saliva sampling also enables objective measurement of physiological processes, so a number of saliva samples were collected across the day and cortisol, alpha-amylase, and C-reactive protein assays were conducted. A cardiovascular reactivity test was conducted to determine the impact of a mental arithmetic stressor on blood pressure and heart rate. Within- and between-subjects analyses will be conducted and results will be presented. The implications for supporting caregivers of children with ASD will be discussed.

 
32. First Learn to Sit, Then Sit to Learn: Teaching Independent Transitions to Toddlers With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Erin M. Cote (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), Nancy G. Schussler (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), JOHN D. HOCH (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.)
Abstract:

In order to begin instruction in Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI) therapists must first transition children to the work area. Although this is an essential first step to beginning IBI instruction, there is little published research examining methods to program for transitions without problem behavior. The intervention package implemented within the current study, like most IBI programming, includes high rates of reinforcement and errorless teaching procedures. The intervention uses slow increases in the response requirements (the distance to the chair) to reduce the likelihood of problem behavior during transitions. This study uses a distributed criterion design (McDougall, 2006) across therapists. Initial data show zero rates of independent transitions during baseline probes of the final transition step. Probes were delivered in sets of 4 and video recorded to allow for coding of treatment integrity and inter-observer agreement on dependent variables. Initial data from 1 participant shows rapid acquisition as criterion increases. Increases of criterion for behavior generalized across therapists, but generalization of the terminal criterion shown in probes has not occurred. Potential necessary and sufficient conditions for instruction are examined within the experimental design. Data collection is ongoing and replication has begun with a second participant.

 
33. The Effectiveness of DTT Parent Training for Parents of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MINJOO LEE (Yonsei University), Ji Myoung Shin (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Seung Hee Hong (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Bon Kyung Koo (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Yeon Jin Cho (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract:

Discrete Trial Training (DTT) is an effective teaching procedure (Green, 1996) to teach various basic learning skills for children with autism. Yet, studies examining the effectiveness of training for parents are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of individual parent training focusing on the Discrete Trial methodology for parents of children with autism. The participants were 15 mothers of children with autism aged from 1 to 6 (5G: 14B, Mean age=3y 9m). 3 behavioral categories were selected for the training upon childs learning functioning and multiple baseline design was used to test the efficiency of the program. Mothers performance rate was evaluated by a training checklist and childs compliance to mothers instruction was also recorded. The results showed that all of the mothers performance rates improved on each behavioral category after the training. In addition, after the mothers learned instruction of first category, 10 out of 15 mothers presented improved performance before the instruction method for the category was introduced. The result implicates that DTT parent training is effective for mothers to change their behaviors and help their children to learn new behaviors more efficiently. It also suggests that mothers can generalize what they have learned to their daily lives.

 
34. CANCELED: Is Therea Correlation Between Listener Emersionand Listener Half of Naming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANANYA GOSWAMI (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple exemplar instruction has been shown to be an effective procedure to induce both listener half of Naming as well as full Naming in students missing this repertoire. It is important to therefore continue to explore areas of research that test for more procedures such as the listener emersion protocol which focuses in the development of fluent listener skills and may also be successful in inducing listener half of Naming. We conducted a study to test if the effects of teaching the listener emersion procedure would lead to the emergence of listener half of naming for pre-school students with severe language delays.

 
35. CANCELED: Baby Naming: The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction with 3-Dimensional Stimuli on the Emergence of Naming With 3 and 2-Dimensional Stimuli in 2- and3-year-olds
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANANYA GOSWAMI (Teachers College, Columbia University), Nirvana Pistoljevic (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) with common 3-D objects from environment on the acquisition of Naming with 2 and 3-year olds. Also, we wanted to test whether acquisition of Naming with 3-D stimuli would automatically mean generalization of Naming from 3-D to 2-D stimuli, that were never directly taught.

 
36. Reliability and Validity of the Korean version of the Autism Spectrum-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
SUNA PARK (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC) was developed for the needs of simple and practical diagnostic scale of autism spectrum disorders by Matson and Gonzalez (2008). The purpose of this study was to show reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Diagnostic for Children (K-ASD-DC). Participants were 270 mothers of children with Autism aged from 1 to 18 years. 95 mothers who have typically developing children aged from 1 to 18 years participated as control group. Participants completed ASD-DC and DSM-IV checklist. Reliability was calculated in terms of internal consistency (a = .927) and test-retest reliability (r = .655) in ASD group. The discriminant validity was assessed by the mean differences on the items between ASD and control group, and it was significantly higher on ASD group. Subscales of ASD-DC and Social Communication Questionnaire (CSQ) were calculated to test the convergent validity. High correlations between several subscales were found. Reliability and validity were established of the Korean Autism Spectrum-Diagnostic for Children (K-ASD-DC). Implications and limitation for future research are discussed.
 
37. Using Interactive Robots to Scaffold Social Skills for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER ZONA (Barber National Institute), Dan Portenier (Barber National Institute)
Abstract:

The current study proposes the use of an interactive robot to provide social feedback during discrete trial instruction. Research has shown that children with autism: (1) typically excel in treatment programs that rely on visual stimuli, and (2) are more intrinsically interested when the treatment involves technical, electronic, or robotic components. Participants will be divided into 2 groups. The first group will receive intervention on a target social skill by the therapist, without the use of a robot. The second group will receive interventions on a target social skill with the use of an interactive robot as well as the therapist. After 4 weeks of treatment, the participants will change groups. The rate of acquisition will be assessed on the target skill with and without the use of the robot during intervention sessions. The purpose of the study is to examine whether the inclusion of an interactive robot in a social skills intervention program will improve responses by a child with autism during treatment, motivation for treatment, and social behavior outside of treatment.

 
38. Accuracy and Social Validity of Urine Alarms in Behavioral Toilet Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAEVE G. DONNELLY (New England Center for Children), Amanda Karsten (Western New England University)
Abstract:

Urine alarms have been used in effective toilet training packages and as the sole intervention for decreasing toileting accidents (e.g., Friman & Vollmer, 1995; LeBlanc, Carr, Crossett, Bennett, & Detweiler, 2005). The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and social validity ratings of3 different urine alarms. Participants were two children diagnosed with autism who had a history of failed toilet training. Participants wore 1 of 3 urine alarms on a rotating basis for a series of 1-hour sessions at school. Participants were allowed to access the bathroom upon request, and teacher-prompted visits were scheduled upon arrival to school and prior to departure. Data are summarized as percentage true positive accidents, percentage false negative accidents, and frequency of false positive accidents for each urine alarm. Following the brief alarm comparison, staff completed a social validity survey for each alarm model on ease of application, level of interference, and perceived efficacy. A direct assessment of social validity was conducted by tracking staff selections of each alarm during comprehensive behavioral toilet training. Results to date suggest that jaw-clip urine alarms were more accurate and more preferred by staff than the sensor-insert alarm based on direct and indirect assessment data.

 
39. Adaptation of Multifamily Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP) for Children With High-Functioning Autism: Preliminary Findings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY D. GUIOU (Nationwide Children's Hospital), Mary Fristad (The Ohio State University), Anya Froelich (Nationwide Children's Hospital), Elizabeth A. Henry (Nationwide Children's Hospital), Winnie Chung (The Ohio State University), Catie Shaffer (Nationwide Childrens Hospital), Gina Maurizi (Nationwide Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA)/Aspergers Syndrome (AS) experience a diverse range of social and emotional deficits. While interventions have been designed to address such problematic functioning, evidence-based psychosocial treatments are in short supply. The present study examines the efficacy of a multi-family group treatment program for children with HFA/AS. Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP), originally developed as an adjunctive treatment for children with mood disorders (Fristad et al., 2002, 2003, 2009), has been adapted to children with HFA/AS given the similar domains of behavioral and affective dysregulation in these two populations. Consisting of 9 weekly sessions of 1.5 hours each, parents and children receive psychoeducation, social support, and cognitive behavioral therapy targeting emotion-regulation, problem-solving, communication, and symptoms-management skills in separate (child group and parent group) and joint sessions. A preliminary analysis of data from initial pilot MF-PEP groups completed with children aged 8-12 with HFA/AS suggests overall treatment satisfaction (Child group: t(5) = 10.70, p < 0.05, 95% CL [1.13, 1.85]; Parent group: t(5) = 6.22, p < 0.05, 95% CL [0.76, 1.83]). This study examining data on this novel treatment for children with HFA/AS is an important step towards establishing much needed empirically-supported treatments for children with HFA/AS.

 
40. Evaluating the Effects of Using a Chaining Procedure on Teaching an Individual Diagnosed With Autism to Dance
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DANA TARESE GOSS (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of a chaining procedure including intermittent vocal prompts and social praise on accurate performance of two separate four step dance sequences demonstrated by a young male diagnosed with autism. Positive outcomes were achieved and results are discussed with respect to efficient and effective teaching practices to improve physical activity for individuals with ASD. This study builds on the contributions and limitations marked by previous investigations and suggest opportunities for future research.

 
41. Identifying Client Preference for and Other Stakeholder Acceptability of Treatments to Decrease Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUELINE N. POTTER (The New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Matotopa Augustine (New England Center for Children), Casey J. Clay (New England Center for Children), Meredith C. Phelps (ACES, Inc.)
Abstract:

The purpose of this analysis was to assess social validity with three adolescent males diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in addition to their caregivers and other relevant stakeholders. Participants engaged in high levels of automatically-reinforced motor stereotypy and previously experienced a treatment component analysis designed to identify the necessary components to decrease stereotypy and increase appropriate play behavior. The treatment consisted of enriching the environment with leisure materials, prompting appropriate play, restricting access to motor stereotypy through blocking, and providing access to the stereotypy contingent on appropriate play behavior. The present analysis objectively assessed each clients preference, using a concurrent-chains arrangement, for this treatment package versus other relevant treatments commonly used to treat stereotypy (e.g., blocking only, activities only). An indirect assessment was then conducted with caretakers and other relevant stakeholders of each participant via viewing video clips and filling out a questionnaire, to assess the social acceptability of the purpose, goals, and effects of treatment (i.e., behavior changes observed after experiencing treatment) and the procedures that were implemented. Results of the treatment preference assessment indicated that all participants preferred conditions where activities were present as well as the treatment package. Social validity assessed by caregivers and relevant stakeholders indicated overall that the treatment package purpose, goals, treatment procedures, and amount of behavior change were appropriate and acceptable.

 
42. Using Fluency Based Instruction to Increase the Level of Detail Provided in Conversation With a 7-Year-Old Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACKIE SPRING (Organization for Research and Learning), Elizabeth Grace Lefebre (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract:

Children with Autism often do not provide enough detail and information when engaged in conversation. Narrating private events, or describing situations and topics in detail so that others understand them is often challenging. Teaching a child to provide more information to his listener improves conversation skills and decreases the strain on the conversation partner. We used Fluency Based Instruction to increase the level of detail the learner provided to his teacher when describing a picture for his teacher to draw, while systematically increasing the level of detail he needed to provide to his teacher. This poster illustrates both the process and the outcomes.

 
43. Evaluation of a Novel Procedure to Increase Compliance in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN BORGEN (Nova Southeastern University), Tara M. Sheehan (Mailman Segal Institute), Heather O'Brien (Mailman Segal Institute), Yulema Cruz (Nova Southeastern University), F. Charles Mace (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract:

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have difficulty complying with simple instructions. Compliance with instructions is fundamental for maintaining children's safety as well as success in school environments. The present study taught three children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ages 18 months through 36 months how to comply with key instructions using a compliance training method developed by the principal investigator. The procedure proposed to develop compliance in young children with ASD is designed specifically to establish stimulus control and is based on basic behavioral research demonstrating how stimulus control is established. The procedure is novel in the sense that uncontrolled pilot applications of the procedure have shown that it can establish compliance in individuals with very low levels of compliance. After compliance is established with the experimenters, parents were taught to use similar procedures to establish the generality of compliance. The effectiveness of the procedure is evaluated using single subject research methodology.

 
44. Comparing Social Validity and Procedural Integrity of Trial-based and Experimental Functional Analyses When Administered by Direct Care Therapists
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR P. BARKER (Little Star Center), William Tim Courtney (Little Star Center), Lisa Steward (Little Star Center), Mary Rosswurm (Little Star Center)
Abstract:

The use of experimental functional assessments are a critical component of efficient service delivery. However, the feasibility of direct care therapists conducting functional analyses has been limited. Direct care therapists working at a center based program serving learners diagnosed with autism were exposed to both the Iwata et al., 1982/1994 functional analysis article, and the Bloom et at., 2011 trial-based functional analysis article. Comprehension and understanding of the material was assessed via a 10 question examination administered by a BCBA. Once therapists demonstrated competency on the examination they were directed to perform both a mock session-based functional analysis and a mock trial-based functional analysis using adult actors as clients. Further training was later conducted on both methodologies to address procedural integrity issues. A comparison was then performed by assessing procedural integrity and social validity measures across the different functional analysis methodologies. Results of the study hope to indicate the feasibility of direct care therapists using either session-based or trial-based functional analyses with strong procedural integrity.

 
45. Generality of EIBI Research to Real World Application: Outcomes of a Public Applied Behavior Analysis Program for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DANIELA FAZZIO (St.Amant & University of Manitoba, Canada), Dickie C. T. Yu (U. of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Centre), Toby L. Martin (St. Amant Research Centre), Angela Cornick (St. Amant), Carly E. Thiessen (University of Manitoba/St. Amant Research Centre)
Abstract: Considerable evidence from university-based, controlled studies is available to support the efficacy of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. Outcome studies of real world applications are needed to extend the generality of previous research. We examined the outcomes of children with autism who have received 12 months of EIBI from the St.Amant Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) Program. Method: Sample included 85 children who had both intake and year 1 results on at least one of the following dependent measures: (1) Total Language scores on the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4), a standardized language assessment; (2) Broad Independence and Support scores on the Scales of Independent Behaviors-Revised (SIB-R), a standardized adaptive behaviour assessment; and (3) skills acquired in communication, social, and adaptive domains on the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS), a criterion-referenced curriculum. Results: Compared to intake, children: (1) gained an average of 7.67 points in PLS-4 Total Language standard scores; (2) increased their mastery of ABLLS communication skills by an average of 166%; (3) increased their mastery of ABLLS social skills by an average of 130%; (4) gained an average of 11.64 points in SIB-R Broad Independence standard scores; (5) gained an average of 11.62 in SIB-R Support scores; and (6) increased their mastery of ABLLS adaptive skills by an average of 67%. All findings were statistically significant (p<.001). Conclusion: The findings are generally consistent with those reported in previous research.
 
46. The Discrimination of Reinforced From Nonreinforced Responses: Facilitating Observational Learning in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), JAIME A. DEQUINZIO (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime Stine (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Observational learning has been defined as learning that results from observing the responding of others and/or the consequences of such responding (Catania, 1998). To date, limited research has explored procedures for teaching children with autism to discriminate the consequences of others' responses as a means of facilitating observational learning. In the present study, we are assessing the extent to which children with autism can learn to match the responses modeled by others that were followed by reinforcing consequences and to refrain from engaging in responses modeled by others that were followed by extinction. During baseline, participants are exposed to another person receiving reinforcement for correct word labels and the withholding of reinforcement for incorrect responses. Acquisition of the correct word labels is measured following these exposure sessions and summarized as the percentage of responses that matched the model. If, during baseline, the participants simply match the responses of the model regardless of consequences, discrimination training will be conducted across participants to teach engagement in the responses of the model that were followed by reinforcement. However, if the participants match only the word labels modeled that were followed by reinforcement and not the labels that were followed by extinction, it may be argued that exposure alone is enough to increase observational learning repertoires and discrimination training might not be required.

 
 

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