Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #424
CBM Monday evening session
Monday, May 28, 2012
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)
1. Increasing Acceptance of Food Pieces: An Examination of a Continuum of Treatment Strategies
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
MAFALDA PORPORINO (Montreal Children's Hospital), Michelle Lyon (Montreal Children's Hospital), Chantal Martel (Montreal Children's Hospital), Maria Ramsay (Montreal Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Severe feeding problems occur in 3-10 % of typically developing children (Corbett & Drewett, 2004) and 23-43% of children with developmental disabilities (Crist, et al., 1994). Treatment options for these children include the Sequential Oral Sensory approach (Toomey, 2002) and behavioural therapy (Reed et al., 2004). The treatment of a 3 year old boy with refusal of ingesting food pieces is presented. Intervention commenced with group treatment in which escape demand was permitted and involved exposure, reinforcement, peer modeling and sensory oral-motor exercises. In the second phase, escape extinction with time-out procedures and contingent reinforcement were utilized. From a list of 50 common food pieces, maternal report of pieces visually tolerated and pieces ingested were obtained prior to treatment (Time 1), post group treatment (Time 2) and post behavioural treatment (Time 3). By Time 2, visual tolerance of foods presented increased considerably and the number of food pieces ingested increased marginally. The greater increase in ingestion occurred by Time 3, confirming the usefulness of escape extinction to increase acceptance of food pieces (Reed, 2004). Future research will examine the influence of group treatment on the length and intensity of behavioral intervention required to increase ingestion of food pieces.
2. Increases in Food Consumption and Variety of a Child With Food Selectivity Using Plate A-Plate B With an Added Modeling Component
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN RIGEL (The Pennsylvania State University), Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center)
Abstract: The effect of modeling in the treatment of food selectivity was assessed using an alternating treatment design comparing a sequential presentation intervention, Plate A-Plate B with and without modeling. The participant was a typically developing seven year-old with a history of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). In the Plate A-Plate B intervention, participants are rewarded with a larger bite of a preferred food for consuming a smaller bite of a target food. During the modeling condition, a therapist modeled consumption of both the target food and the preferred food while enthusiastically describing the taste. The results showed both an increase in number of bites and increased variety in the modeling condition. Modeling is a treatment component that is low in response effort for the parent and high in social acceptability and may prove to be a useful adjunct to a range of feeding interventions
3. Behavioral Intervention to Increase Compliance With EEG Procedures With a Child With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIDGET G. GIBBONS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Leanna J. Herman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Keith J. Slifer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: This study used a behavioral treatment package including systematic desensitization, differential reinforcement, escape extinction, counter-conditioning, and shaping to teach a 5 year old boy with autism and a seizure disorder to tolerate an overnight electroencephalogram or EEG. Participant had a history of aversive conditioning with medical procedures, including an EEG which was discontinued due to his significant distress and escape behaviors. This negatively impacted his physicians ability to assess the severity of his seizure disorder and to properly manage his seizures. At baseline, the participant demonstrated verbal agitation and tearfulness when shown medical equipment including an EEG lead and a hospital glove, and escape behavior when clinician attempted to touch his head. Following 13 treatment sessions, participant tolerated all of the steps required for an overnight EEG, including 15 EEG leads attached to his scalp and forehead, EKG leads attached to his chest, and gauze wrapped around his head and chin (see Table 1 and Figure 1). Following treatment, he successfully completed an overnight EEG. These results highlight the utility of behavioral approaches in teaching children with autism to tolerate complex medical procedures.
4. Imagine That: Using Graduated Exposure to Overcome Fear of MRI Scanning Situations in Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
DEBORAH LOUISE HATTON (University of Manitoba), Toby L. Martin (St. Amant Research Centre), Deborah Shiloff (National Research Council Institute of Biodiagnostics), Krisztina Malisza (National Research Council Institute of Biodiagnostics), C. T. Yu (University of Mantiba)
Abstract: Children younger than 5 years-old are frequently prepared for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with sedation. Scanning children without sedation would maximize patient safety, utilize fewer hospital resources and may potentially increase participation in MRI research studies where sedation is inappropriate. Unfortunately, many young children indicate fear and unwillingness to proceed in MRI scanning situations. Graduated exposure (GE) is a behavioural procedure that breaks down fear-eliciting situations into a hierarchy of specific stimuli in ascending order of subjective fear elicitation. Intermediate steps are created when a subject is unwilling to proceed to the next step in the procedure. Twenty-eight children who previously demonstrated fear of, or unwillingness to enter, an MRI environment were introduced to a mock scanner using either graduated exposure (GE; individual adaptation entailing the addition of smaller steps) or standard familiarization (SF; no intermediate steps) in a matched-pairs design. All children who received GE completed the simulated MRI procedure, while some who received SF made little or no progress.
5. Using a Behavioral Treatment Package for Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL M. KNIGHT (Central Michigan University), Carl Merle Johnson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of using a behavioral treatment package for sleep problems in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The treatment package consisted of four behaviorally-based treatment components: circadian rhythm management (CRM), positive bedtime routines, white noise, and graduated extinction . A multiple baseline design across participants was used for three participants. These families completed a baseline phase of various lengths followed by one month of intervention which included all four treatment components. Data were collected using daily sleep diaries completed by parents. One month after formal treatment ended, follow-up data were collected for a period of one week. Additionally, families completed a social validity scale at the conclusion of the study. Results indicated that the treatment package was effective in decreasing the frequency of night awakenings along with sleep onset latency. Parents reported satisfaction with the four intervention components and that their children slept better as a result of this treatment package.

CANCELED: A Training Program to Facilitate Caregiver Involvement in School Meetings

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER L. BARAHONA (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas), Sarah E. Pinkelman (University of Oregon), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Simon Driver (Oregon State University)

Caregivers of children with autism will likely meet with many school professionals once their children become school-aged. These meetings can be intimidating for caregivers who are unfamiliar with special education terminology and protocol, and caregivers may feel ineffective when communicating with school personnel. The purpose of this poster is to describe a training curriculum to teach caregivers ways in which to communicate during meetings with school professionals, including the kinds of questions to ask/statements to make and when to ask or make them. An overview of the training procedures, the participants, and the outcomes are described here. Preliminary data suggest the training produced increases in communication skills and that caregivers found the training effective and useful.

7. A Functional Analysis of Sensory Over Sensitivity via Physiological Measures
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University), SARAH WEDDLE (Northen Arizona University), Mandana Kajian (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: Sensory over sensitivities are commonly reported with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), significantly impacting their functioning in social settings. Clinicians have typically relied solely on direct observations to identify the function of overt problem behavior via functional analysis methodology (Iwata et al., 1982/1994). However, it is often difficult to objectively measure internal or covert variables (Skinner, 1966). The current study examined the auditory over sensitivity of a 13 year-old male diagnosed with ASD to the sound of individuals engaging in food consumption (eating). The participant displayed problem behavior in the form of humming, teeth chattering, covering of ears, and a refusal to eat in the presence of others eating. Clinicians conducted a functional analysis using Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to identify the physiological responses during assessment and treatment of his over sensitivity within a multiple treatment reversal design. Results indicated significant decreases in both problem behavior and corresponding GSR with treatment implementation. It was concluded that it was possible to conduct a functional analysis of sensory over sensitivity behaviors via physiological measures.
8. Application of Repeated Stimulus Preference Assessment Across Stages of Brain Injury Recovery During Pediatric Inpatient Rehabilitation
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
HELEN A. EHLERS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Adrianna M. Amari (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Keith J. Slifer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The following case study presents an application of stimulus preference assessment with a six year old male diagnosed with brain injury and severe visual deficit following meningoencephalitis. Assessment of salient stimuli was conducted throughout the patients rehabilitation admission in order to adapt behavioral recommendations according to his recovery and changes in verbal and physical agitation levels. Operational definitions of positive responding varied at the time of each assessment, initially targeting decreased agitation and later focusing on increasing alertness, engagement, positive affect, and purposeful responding. Stimuli were chosen based on information from caregiver and staff interviews (pre-morbid and post brain injury data), a behavioral interview questionnaire (RAISD; Fisher et al, 1996), behavioral observation, and consideration of patients current level of functioning. Response data were collected by two individuals and coded for positive, negative, or neutral responding. Differences in responses across stimuli were detected by repeated assessments. Incorporation of identified stimuli included non-contingent presentation and contingent use by multidisciplinary therapists during sessions. Results suggest repeated stimulus preference assessment s may be useful for individuals who have experienced brain injury throughout various stages of recovery and behavioral presentation to identify stimuli that decrease agitation and increase arousal, engagement, and positive affect during rehabilitation.
9. A Clinical Trial of Behavioral Family Therapy in China
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JUN YU (Idaho State University), Mark W. Roberts (Idaho State University)
Abstract: This study implemented Behavioral Family Therapy (BFT) to treat disruptive behavior among 2- to 7-year-olds in Shanghai, China. BFT was based on the empirically supported program Helping the Noncompliant Child (McMahon & Forehand, 2003), condensed into 5 sessions and reframed as an individual parenting class to engage Chinese families. Nineteen families participated and all completed the program, 9 families included grandparents, and 18 of the children were the only child. Mean child age was 4.3 years (SD = 0.9; range: 2–6), and 79% of the children were male. Pre- and post-treatment comparison showed that perceived child misbehavior on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist was significantly lowered, t(21) = 9.39, p < .001. Primary caregivers increased positive behaviors, t(17) = -6.65, p < .001, and decreased intrusive behaviors, t(17) = 8.95, p < .001, during play with their child. Children increased compliance, t(16) = -4.73, p < .001, and caregivers increased contingent attention to child compliance, t(16) = -3.04, p = .008, during simulated clean-up tasks. Caregivers were satisfied with the program. The results suggest a condensed and reframed BFT is feasible in China and beneficial for Chinese families.
10. Birth Order, Maternal Authoritarian, and Permissive Asynchrony of Young Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ARIEL VITE SIERRA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Ana Beatriz Ortiz (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate two forms of maternal asynchrony, authoritarian and permissive, in relation to birth order and gender of children. Participated six mother-child triads, the mothers had a mean age of 27.6 years and 4.2 years for children, three were men, who occupied the position of eldest son and 3 girls who were older daughters with a space average of 2.1 years between siblings. Authoritarian asynchrony is defined as the sum of episodes of mothers aversive behaviors contingent to childs prosocial behavior and permissive asynchrony defined as the sum of episodes of maternal prosocial behavior contingent aversive child behavior. The triads were observed in three sessions of 30 minutes in the supervision of educational activities (e.g. coloring pictures draw) by a group of trained observers using System of Capture of Observational Data SOI-I (Vite, Garcia & Rosas, 2006). The results obtained indicate that the mothers displayed more prosocial behavior toward their younger children but also more aversive with respect to older siblings, on the other hand, show more authoritarian asynchrony to their minor children, yet are also more permissive with them. No differences were found in relation to sex of the children in total dyads.



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