Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #346
AUT Monday Afternoon Session
Monday, May 28, 2012
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)
1. Who is Key? Can Teachers be Social Skills Instructors, too?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEIGH ANN TIPTON (University of California, Riverside), Ruth Ellingson (University of California, Los Angeles), Lara Tucci (University of California, Los Angeles), Elizabeth Laugeson (University of California, Los Angeles)
Abstract: School-based, teacher-facilitated social skills interventions for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be an effective way to teach skills in a natural setting, yet the extent to which teachers buy-in to the program impacts the effectiveness of instruction is unknown. This study identifies differences in treatment response among adolescents with ASD (N=149) related to teachers level of support of a school-based social skills program. Twenty-four teachers provided daily classroom-based social skills instruction for 14-weeks using a manualized curriculum known as PEERS, while receiving weekly consultation and training. Parent and teacher reports of adolescents social skills were measured using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) at pre and post intervention. In order to understand the level of program implementation, ease of use, and general classroom climate, the Program Implementation Climate Scales (PICS) was administered to teachers. Results reveal that teachers who found the program easy to implement in their daily schedule showed a reduction in student problem behaviors over the course of the intervention (r=-.249, p<.05). These findings suggest that greater teacher buy-in relates to greater treatment response. Further analyses are pending additional teacher feedback.
2. Establishing Creativity in Play Skills Using Video-Based Activity Schedules and Matrix Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID ROBERT DILLEY (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services), Victoria Sadler (BEACON Services)
Abstract: In order to be said to demonstrate creativity in play skills, one must use existing play skills with novel materials, in novel settings and in novel combinations. For individuals with autism and deficits in play repertoires, basic play repertoires must be established before creative or generalized use of these skills can occur. Video modeling and matrix training have been shown to be effective in establishing basic play repertoires (Ross & Geren, 2001, and Smith, Ross, Dilley & Sadler, 2011). One method for supporting generalization of skills is train to generalize (Stokes & Baer, 1977). The train to generalize strategy was employed via matrix training to systematically reinforce demonstration of trained play actions with novel materials. A 6X6 instructional matrix identified thirty six activities to be performed including combinations of six objects and six actions. In Phase 1 the child is shown a video model and learned to imitate videos of six socio-dramatic play vignettes. In Phase 2 the child learned to combine the characteristics of the six trained socio-dramatic play vignettes across the other thirty new action-object combinations. The results suggest that the treatment package (video modeling and matrix training) achieve generality across untrained settings and materials.
3. A Novel Approach to Parent Training: Establishing Critical Discrimination and Responding Repertoires
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILAH HABER (BEACON Services), Steven Rivers (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Training and support procedures for parents of children with ASD who engage in problem behavior at home and in the community often takes the form of developing behavioral intervention plans and then training the parents to implement these procedures. This is often a time consuming activity that produces limited outcomes. While a number of researchers have shown that parents can acquire the target skills, little evidence exists to suggest that acquisition of the specific responses in the behavior plan lead to generalized parent ability to correctly respond to other behavior problems of similar function in a broad range of settings. The purpose of this study was to build a repertoire of discrimination and responding across a range of response topographies (correct and in correct responses & appropriate and inappropriate behavior) in the context of discrete trial teaching (DTT). This was done in an effort to support parent ability to respond correctly to a broad range of topographies of behavior outside of DTT. Data from pre and post training video observations indicate that after acquiring the targeted performances in the context of DTT, parent correct responding to targeted adaptive behavior increased and incorrect responding to targeted maladaptive behavior decreased.
4. A Comparison of Parent Selected Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment Intensity and Parent Reported Expectations of Outcome
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
AMY MUEHLBERGER (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Parents who seek out home-based ABA services in the Massachusetts Early Intervention system do not always elect to have those services delivered at the levels of intensity suggested by the best practice literature. The rationale for selecting an evidence-based treatment model and then implementing it at less than the recommended intensity level is unclear. We surveyed the parents of @ 30 children who had received home-based ABA services to determine both what their expectations of outcomes of the services were prior to the onset of services and how their child did relative to those expectations. Specifically, they were asked to evaluate expectations of child outcomes in core deficits for children with autism (e.g. communication, social skill and play skills). These expectations were compared across levels of ABA treatment intensity. Overall and area specific satisfaction data were also collected. The data indicate that parents who selected lower levels of treatment intensity more often reported that their child made better than expected progress in the areas of communication and play skills, this was not true for social skills. Levels of reported satisfaction did not always correlate with expectations. Potential explanations and implications of these findings will be discussed.
5. Teaching Two Children With Autism to Identify the Emotional States of Others
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID M. CORCORAN (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of a curriculum designed to teach children with autism to identify the emotional states of others. The curriculum Teaching Children with Autism to Mind Read (Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A.M.. and Firth, U. , 1985) was evaluated. This program describes the skill of correct labeling of others emotional states as a mind reading. However the performances established and measured were the subjects labeling of one of 4 emotional states (happy, sad, afraid, & angry). Individuals with PDD/Autism often demonstrate deficits in understanding and responding appropriately to social bids as well as correctly identifying the thoughts and feelings of others. This is often referred to as theory of mind and is defined as the ability to infer individuals mental states, wants and needs and to integrate this understanding into their interactions with others (Baron-Cohen, et al). Two students, a 7-year-old girl with autism and a 6-year-old boy with Aspergers Syndrome, improved their performances in terms of correctly identifying the emotional states of individuals in vignettes (faceless line drawings and spoken scenarios) from baseline assessment. Both also demonstrated some generalization of taught responses. Data on overall curriculum performance, trials-to-criterion in skill area and errors will be presented.
6. Improving Conversational Skills by Increasing On-topic Conversational Exchanges and Processing Time with a Learner with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASEY ESCOLA (Organization for Research and Learning), Elizabeth Lefebre (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)

Children with Autism often do not provide enough detail and information when engaged in conversation. Narrating private events, or describing situations and topics in detail so that others understand them is often challenging. Teaching a child to provide more information to his listener improves conversation skills and decreases the strain on the conversation partner. We used Fluency Based Instruction to increase the level of detail the learner provided to his teacher when describing a picture for his teacher to draw, while systematically increasing the level of detail he needed to provide to his teacher. This poster illustrates both the process and the outcomes.

7. Video Modeling Imitation Training to Support Gestural Imitation Acquisition in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TERESA CARDON (Washington State University)
Abstract: Children with autism struggle to imitate and this lack of imitative ability is related to the severity of autism symptoms (e.g., Lord et al., 2000; Rogers et al., 2003). Teaching children with autism to imitate is a necessary component of intervention as poor imitation ability affects development in a variety of areas including play skills, social skills and language skills. The purpose of this research was to determine if there is a functional relation between Video Modeling Imitation Training (VMIT) and increased gestural imitation in young children with autism. In addition, secondary analyses of collateral gains, specifically language development, gesture, and play skill acquisition, after exposure to VMIT was also conducted. A multiple baseline design across three participants was conducted and results indicated that two out of three participants demonstrated an immediate, increased frequency in their ability to imitate gestures viewed on an iPad. In addition, all three participants showed gains in receptive language and gestures post treatment. Expressive language and play skills increased for two out of three participants.
8. A Treatment Package to Decrease Vocal Stereotypy in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACKIE THAXTON (Florida State University), Tania Gonzalez (Florida State University), Laura Reisdorf (Florida State University), Rachel Wagner (Florida State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package to decrease vocal stereotypy in a child diagnosed with ASD. The participant was a five year old boy receiving eight hours weekly of in-home ABA therapy. Vocal stereotypy was defined as any instance of Nick making an ahhhh sound for at least 3 seconds. Before implementation of the treatment package, stereotypies occurred at a high rate throughout the day in a variety of settings. The treatment involved an index card reading Quiet Mouth being placed on the table, reinforcing the absence of stereotypy on a DRO schedule, and implementing demand flooding contingent upon any instance of vocal stereotypy. Results suggest that the treatment package was successful in decreasing vocal stereotypy; he can now successfully reach 30 minute intervals with zero rates of the behavior.
9. Multifunction Communication Analysis With a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEAH BRUSHWEIN (Gonzaga University), Brittany Poff (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: In this study we examined the effects of functional communication on aberrant behavior across multiple contexts. The participant was 6 years old and diagnosed with autism and a speech delay. He engaged in severe aberrant behavior which included self-injury, aggression, and destruction. Baseline, Functional Communication Training, and transfer of intervention to parent were conducted in a clinical setting. Generalization to the home was conducted via skype consultation since the family lived 100 miles away. All assessment and treatment sessions including skype sessions, were videotaped and coded using a 6-second partial interval recording system. Two independent observers achieved 90% agreement on over 33% of the sessions. Results showed an in increase in manding and a decrease in aberrant behavior.
10. Increasing Compliance to Medical Procedures Using Stimulus Fading and Differential Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CATHERINE K. MARTINEZ (Florida Institute of Technology), Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease disruptive behavior and increase compliance to medical procedures for a 4-year-old boy with autism. During routine checkups or when ill, disruptive behavior (i.e., negative vocalizations, aggression, pushing away, and physically withdrawing) had prevented medical personnel from employing any standard procedures. We implemented a treatment package that included differential reinforcement of compliance and stimulus fading, which consisted of fading in medical instruments, in terms of duration and intensity. Experimental control was demonstrated in a multiple-probe design across medical procedures. Results showed that the treatment package was effective in decreasing disruptive behavior and increasing compliance to all targeted medical procedures. Trials to mastery decreased over the course of treatment, and generalization was demonstrated across staff members, a family member, and to untaught procedures. Additionally, generalization was also demonstrated across procedures which utilized the same medical instruments and procedures which involved the same body parts.
11. A Prospective Case Series of Infants at Risk for Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA BESNER (University of Minnesota), Amy Esler (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that social, communication, and behavior atypicalities present in infancy may predict diagnosis of autism. Much of the evidence on the early signs of ASD comes from parent reports and early home videotapes, however, these methodologies have a number of limitations. Prospective studies are necessary to better identify the early signs of autism. The Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is a portable device worn by a child that continuously records the childs language environment for 16 hours and offers the opportunity to describe the early development of very young children at risk for autism. The purpose of this study is to examine the child vocalizations and adult-child interactions, as reported by the LENA for baby siblings of children with ASD. Data is examined to determine if patterns differ from children with no concerns. Information from this examination will provide useful information on the timing and progression of ASD.
12. The Effects of Functional Assessment-Based Intervention on Problem Behaviors of One Student with Autism and Visual Impairments in South Korea
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUNG YEON CHO (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the functional assessment-based intervention on the problem behaviors such as self-injury, screaming, seizing of children with autism and visual impairments. In terms of the assessment of problem behaviors, the data was collected through indirect assessment and direct observation on children, and the analysis showed that the attraction of interest caused the problem behaviors. The intervention based on functional assessment as hypothetically verified interest criteria was performed as ABA research design. As a result of the research was effective in the reduction of problem behaviors of children with multiple disabilities. In addition, the generalization and maintenance of intervention effects appeared also in the interventional scene of children and change of moderators.
13. Stimulus Control in Facial Expressions Discrimination in Children With Autism: Assessment and Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
STEPHANIE COUSIN (Universite Lille III), Vinca Riviere (Universite Lille III), Jean-Claude Darcheville (Universite Lille III)
Abstract: Children who receive a diagnosis of autism show, as early as one year old, atypical responses to social stimuli. They look less often to faces of others than typically developing children. Furthermore, recent eye-tracking studies have revealed atypical gazing patterns to faces in 2 years-old children with autism, compared to non-autistic children. Those discrepancies seem to be linked to atypical stimulus control. The goal of our study was to assess further this phenomenon and to develop strategies for broadening stimulus control for facial expression discrimination. Three 3 years old subjects participated in the study. The first part consisted in testing children with autism on a computerized simple discrimination with pictures of faces displaying different expressions as stimuli. In a subsequent task, we used an eye-tracking device to see if subjects looked at the discriminative parts of the face, such as the eyes and the mouth. In the second part of the study, subjects who did not reach the learning criterion on the simple discrimination underwent a phase where looking at the relevant parts of the face was synchronously reinforced by music samples, in order to see if it would enhance the performance on simple discrimination trials. Results and implications for treatment and diagnosis are discussed.
14. Using Video Modeling to Teach Gross Motor Imitation to a2-Year-Old Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FEI (KATE) ZHAO (Monarch House Autism Centre), Erin Marks (Monarch House Autism Centre), Tialha Nover (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Imitation is an essential pre-requisite skill for learning and many children with autism have deficits with this skill. This case study looks at Ellen, a two year old girl with autism who displays deficits in imitation. Ellen has previously learned imitation skills using a traditional teaching procedure. After two months Ellen no longer imitated and attempts to teach her new imitative actions and re-teach mastered actions were unsuccessful. In research video modeling has been used to teach imitation skills. In this case study we will attempt to teach Ellen imitation using video modeling. Each video will involve a song presenting a single gross motor action to copy. Research suggests that viewing the television provides restricted vision and thus allows the child to more readily focus their attention to the imitative behaviour (Cardon & Wilcox, 2011). Studies show that teaching imitation skills using video modeling promotes more generalization of the skill than teaching the skill in more traditional ways (Kleeberger & Mirenda, 2008). Also, children are more motivated to imitate something on television. (Cardon & Wilcox, 2011).Given the above, we have chosen to use video modeling as a teaching procedure to develop Ellens imitation skills.
15. An Environmental Analysis of Setting Events for Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUNHWA JUNG (Otterbein University), Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University), Judah B. Axe (Simmons College)
Abstract: Project TASK, a federally funded model program was developed to implement and evaluate a full day inclusive program for kindergarten children with autism. We conducted direct observations for 41 children with autism in a full day model inclusion program and 21 control children with autism in inclusive classrooms in the community across the four years of the project. Each child was observed across the year for a total of 670 minutes by trained observers. Interobserver agreement was above 90% for the study. Between-group (model v. control) comparisons of changes from pre- to post-intervention were made using analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline differences at pre-intervention. Significant differences were found between the groups for time spend in proximity to peers and the percent of time spent in prompted engagement between the model and control children. There was also a trend for change in the percent of time spent independently engaged for the children in the model classroom with the children in the model program showing an increase at the end of the year for independent engagement. Results will be presented in graphs and tables. Implications for practice and future directions for research will be presented.
16. Evaluating Activity Schedules as Evidence-Based Practice for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA KNIGHT (University of Kentucky)

Since the passage of NCLB mandating the use of evidence-based practices for individuals with disabilities, teachers are in need of effective interventions to teach students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The purpose of this presentation will be to discuss whether or not activity schedules can be considered an evidence-based practice for teaching on-task and transition behaviors to students with ASD. For the purposes of this review, the authors considered activity schedules to be any sequence of visual cues used with a student. Overall, 27 articles retained for analysis that met the inclusion criteria (e.g., used a single subject design; published in a peer reviewed journal between the years of 1975 and 2011). Individual articles were coded according to (a) quality indicators according to Horner et al. (2005); (b) descriptive characteristics of the study (e.g., independent variable); and (c) evaluation of the composition of studies as providing an EBP according to Horner et al. Twelve of the original 27 studies met criteria for quality (Horner et al., 2005; NSTTAC, 2010). Presenters will discuss how these studies provide a moderate level of evidence. The impact of this presentation will be to provide recommendations for using activity schedules to teach students with ASD.

17. The Evaluation of Preference Assessment on Eating Problems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHU-FEN KUO (SEEK Education, Inc. Taichung, Taiwan), Michele D. Wallace (SEEK Education, Inc.)
Abstract: Previous researches had indicated that the effect of concurrent reinforcement schedules on changing behaviors, such as academic behaviors and social skills. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the influence of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on increasing consumption of non-preferred food. One preschool child with autism participated in this study. A A-B experimental design was implemented. Following the baseline, the multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment for identifying preferred edible as reinforcers. According to the result from preference assessment, noodles is the high-preferred edible and candy is the low-preferred edible. During baseline the percentage of consumption of non-preference food are all 0%, and during intervention condition, concurrent schedules of reinforcement were added. The results show an increase for the percentage of non-preferred food with high-preferred edible.
18. Using an Individual Student's Performance Data to Design an Effective Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MOLLY ARMSTRONG (FEAT of Washington), Lauren S. Morrell (FEAT of Washington), Ann M. Sturtz (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Responding to student performance data in timely and effective ways is a key element to any effective intervention program. At least sometimes, the pre-arranged parameters of the independent variable intended to help develop an important skill may need to be changed. We began to teach identical picture matching to a nonvocal 4-year-old boy with an autism spectrum disorder. This behavior was targeted as a prerequisite skill for using a picture communication system, as well as for general language development. Through a series of interventions, including changes to response cues (matching objects vs. matching pictures), response requirements (adding pictures to a pile vs dropping pictures or objects in a bin) and response reinforcement (verbal praise for correct response only vs praise for a good attempt), he was able to progress to outcomes checks within 13 weeks. This poster demonstrates the effectiveness of intervening quickly, and as indicated by the student's behavior.
19. Using Fine Motor Agility to Support Writing Fluency
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MEGHAN GRADY (FEAT of Washington), Kimberly Crawford (FEAT of Washington), Ann M. Sturtz (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Writing letters clearly and fluently is a skill that students need to be successful in their academic careers. This studnet was a 6-year 8-month old male, diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome who participated in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) program. As part of their intervention, the student practiced writing specific sets of letters both from a written model (copying text) and as they were read alout to him (taking dictation). The student was able to correctly form the letter sets given, but had difficulty writing quickly enough to meet the identified mastery criteria. Intervention to increase the student's speed began with a fine motor agility program. During thie program the student practiced tracing figures with increasing number of loops on paper to increase the speed his pencil. After three weeks of fine motor agility practice, the student's letter writing reached fluency aim. For this student, improving his fine motor imitation proved an effective tool to increase his writing fluency. This poster focuses on the process and results of that intervention.
20. Teaching Appropriate Helping Behavior to Children with Autism Using Video Modeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAVANNAH DONAHUE (Columbus State University), Elissa McCall (Columbus State University), Stephanie P. Da Silva (Columbus State University)
Abstract: A multiple-baseline design was used to assess whether video modeling was an effective intervention strategy in teaching children with autism appropriate helping behavior. Two preschool-aged children were chosen to participate in the study based on their ability to perform the tasks and their diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder by an independent clinician. Video modeling along with reinforcement and prompting were used to teach the participants to discriminate between situations when it would be appropriate for them to offer help to an adult and situations that do not require them to offer help. The video modeling strategy proved a useful tool in teaching the nonverbal components of the target behavior; however, prompting and fading techniques were required and employed to achieve the verbal component of asking to help.
21. Expanding the Model: A Literature Bases forVideo Self-Modelingin Postsecondary Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NIGEL PIERCE (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (University of Texas at Austin), Christina Fragale (University of Texas at Austin)

Symptoms of social impairment typically persist into adulthood for individuals with ASD (Wilkins & Matson, 2009). For two decades, video self-modeling (VSM) has been used to address a number of social skill deficits for individuals with ASD. However, research on social skills training using VSM for older individuals is limited. The demonstrated success of VSM in social skills training suggests that the model may hold promise for adolescents and adults diagnosed with ASD. This review provides a literature base for utilizing a VSM intervention in postsecondary educational setting for higher functioning individuals with ASD and explores the efficacy of such practice.

22. Teaching a 9-Year-Old Boy With Autism to Write his Name
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGGIE MILLIGAN (Organization for Research and Learning), Andrea Newcomer (Organization for Research and Learning), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: Given that many children with autism have fine motor deficits, writing can often be very challenging. This poster will show charted data on teaching a 9-year-old boy to write his name. The task of writing was broken down into smaller steps, and instruction began with teaching him how to pick up a pencil using a pincher grip. He then learned to trace lines and letters. A stimulus fading procedure was used to move from tracing lines and letters, to writing without visual prompts. Fluency Based Instruction was used in the writing portions of instruction, and all student performance data were charted on the Standard Celeration Chart. Parents, teachers, and clinicians observed tracing, writing, and fine motor imitation generalize across writing and drawing-related activities, including typing, and solving mazes.
23. Reducing Problem Behavior Evoked by Noise in a Teenager With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Melissa Connor (Alpine Learning Group), KATHLEEN COOPER (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: A 15-year-old girl displayed high rates of problem behavior evoked by others coughing. Antecedent assessments determined that problem behavior occurred at high rates when exposed to in-vivo coughing and did not occur at all when exposed to coughing presented on video or audiotape. A reversal design was used to assess the effects of video modeling and reinforcement to reduce problem behavior in the presence of coughing. During 15-minute baseline sessions, the participant was exposed to in-vivo coughing every minute and frequency of problem behavior was scored. During intervention, the participant viewed a video segment of a model encountering another person coughing and receiving reinforcement for working quietly in the presence of the cough. Following the video model, the participant was exposed to one in-vivo cough during the first three intervention sessions. The number of coughs presented will be systematically increased throughout the phases of intervention. We anticipate that video modeling and reinforcement will be effective at decreasing problem behavior as the number of exposures to coughing increases. Probes will be conducted throughout baseline and intervention phases to determine the extent to which the effects of the intervention generalize across different locations in the school.
24. Early Preparation of Individuals with Autism for Independent Adult Functioning
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIANNE BENOIT (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Daryn Kalmus (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Robert Haupt (Autism Spectrum Therapies), William D. Frea (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea L. Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: For many children with autism, true adult independence will require focused instruction well before their teen years. The concept of independence can be a challenge to define. The struggles for children with autism to prepare for adulthood are often difficult for families to embrace, and difficult for schools to address. This presentation describes a new ABA program that systematically teaches the foundation for building independent social, home, and community functioning. Learning to function independently is a goal of most ABA programs that address developmental disorders. This program specifically addresses building independence for individuals on the autism spectrum. The program begins with targeting critical adaptive functioning goals. Self-management as a skill is taught. Self management skills are used as the foundational behaviors to develop fluent adaptive living skills. After an individual is effective at using self-management the program evolves to targeted home, social, and community goals. The individual’s unique interests are embedded into the program to increase motivation. This presentation describes the process of developing individualized programs for children and adolescents with autism, focused on building independence. Individual examples of independence are defined, as well as the procedures for evaluating specific needs. Program examples are presented as well as data collection and evaluation methods.
25. Further Analysis of Response-Effort-Assessment Manipulations for the Assessment and Treatment of Pica
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECKA KRAMER (Florida Institute of Technology), Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology), Meagan Gregory (Florida Institute of Technology), Alexandrea Hope Wiegand (Scott Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract: Pica, the consumption of inedible items, is a behavior that can result in dangerous and potentially fatal outcomes. Given the severity of the behavior, identifying efficacious assessment and treatment procedures is critical. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a response effort analysis as an assessment procedure for the treatment of pica. Following a functional analysis and stimulus preference assessment, response-effort manipulations were conducted during which the effort to obtain pica and alternative items was varied systematically. A treatment procedure was then implemented to determine whether the response effort analysis identified items that effectively competed with pica. Results showed that items ranked higher during the preference assessment competed more effectively with pica. Further, when response effort to obtain the alternative item was lower than the effort to obtain the pica item, all three participants allocated their responding towards the alternative item. However, when response effort was higher for the alternative item participants allocated their responding toward the pica item. Further, the intrusiveness of the intervention required to decrease rates of pica may depend on the results of the response-effort analysis. Findings are discussed in terms of efficacy of treatment and response allocation.
26. Replication Study: Using Environmental Sounds to Initiate Receptive Language Training for a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANYL M.H. EPPERHEIMER (Verbal Behavior Center for Autism), Breanne K. Hartley (Verbal Behavior Center for Autism)
Abstract: A study, which demonstrated the acquisition of a receptive language repertoire for three children with autism, was replicated to facilitate the receptive language acquisition of a nine-year-old boy with autism. The original study’s methodology was implemented, which consisted of first mastering the matching of environmental sounds to objects and then mastering spoken words to other objects. Additional components were added for the child in this replication due to a longer rate of acquisition in comparison to the three original participants. These additional components consisted of practice trials (to facilitate actively scanning the field to make a correct response) and a specifically outlined differential reinforcement procedure (to facilitate the discrimination between an independent response and a prompted response). The child in this replication study has acquired the receptive skill of matching four environmental sounds to their corresponding objects. This child has not yet acquired the receptive skill of matching spoken words to their corresponding objects. The rate of acquisition for the child is this replication study was significantly longer than the three original participants. Ninety-eight sessions were required in order to meet acquisition criteria, in comparison to 9 sessions for two of the three original participants and 24 sessions for the third participant.
27. Implementation of "Time-Out" Ribbon to Decrease Demand Refusal and Inappropriate Imitation of Other's Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KEATHER LYNN KENT (ABA Programming Inc.), Laura Grant (Applied Behavior Center for Autism)
Abstract: A time-out ribbon procedure was implemented to decrease the demand refusal and inappropriate imitation of other's behavior of a 4 year old boy diagnosed with Autism. Reinforcement, including access to preferred activities, tangibles, edibles and social attention, were delivered contingent on the client wearing his "ribbon" and engaging in appropriate behavior. The "ribbon" was removed following any occurrence of a target behavior, signaling the absence of availability of reinforcement. Client was required to engage in task demands at a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement of 11 before "ribbon" was placed back on him. Data was charted and analyzed using the Standard Celeration Chart. Deceleration of target behaviors on the chart indicates a socially significant decrease in the behaviors targeted for reduction. A fade out procedure to eliminate the "ribbon" will be implemented. A watch will be conditioned as a replacement "ribbon", and over time will be systematically removed from the client within appropriate situations (i.e. swimming, hand washing, etc.) and reinforcement without the watch will continue.
28. Verbal Script Fading Procedures With Time Delay to Promote Spontaneous Vocal Play Utterances in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA J. MANN (Escambia County School District), Josephine Licudine-Fuller (Escambia County School District)
Abstract: A script fading and time delay procedure were used to systematically teach spontaneous vocal play utterances with a 4-year-old child with autism. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed via a multiple baseline design across 3 play sets. During baseline, the child made almost no utterances, even though the child had previously acquired some functional expressive language. When the scripts were introduced, the student learned the scripts through a constant time-delay procedure that involved the use of visual cue cards and verbal prompts from the teacher. As the scripts were systematically faded from end to beginning, the childs scripted utterances increased. In the final fading step, the child used the script independently without additional prompting during natural play sessions with the teacher. During generalization sessions, the scripted utterances decreased while spontaneous, unscripted utterances related to the play sets increased. In summary, the child was able to learn the targeted scripts with the teacher, generalize those scripts to 2 peers, and then begin to initiate spontaneous play utterances to his peers without adult prompts. These results support the wide body of research that script fading and time delay procedures can successfully increase spontaneous vocal play utterances in children with autism.
29. Abbreviated Performance Feedback: Effects of Training on Discrete-Trial Teaching Skills and Child Responding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REGINA GOLDMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Diana J. Walker (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) is an effective technology for teaching children with autism. Children respond more accurately when teachers implement DTT correctly. Abbreviated performance feedback, an abbreviated form of behavioral skills training, was used to teach four novice adult participants to carry out DTT with two children with autism. Researchers assessed adult participants’ performance based on 10 DTT skills. Following teaching sessions, adult participants received verbal praise for all DTT components correctly implemented, and corrective feedback for components that were implemented incorrectly. Researchers assessed the accuracy of participants' implementation of DTT as well as the accuracy of the children's responses. Maintenance of training effects and generalization of teaching novel skills were also assessed. The results showed that accuracy of DTT implementation increased significantly over baseline levels following the implementation of abbreviated performance feedback. Participants reached mastery criterion within 2-5 training sessions. These data suggest that abbreviated performance feedback can rapidly increase correctly implemented DTT skills, and that training can be completed within a relatively limited number of sessions.
30. Effects of Script Placement on Fading Auditory Scripts For Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY GALLANT (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Abstract: An alternating-treatments design with initial baseline was used to compare the effect of two locations of auditory scripts relative to target discriminative stimuli on acquisition and maintenance of verbal initiations of interactions as scripts were faded. Four boys with autism or PDD-NOS were taught to initiate interactions about a thirty-six different toys. Button-activated recording devices used to play scripts were placed either on target stimuli or held behind participants' heads. Generalization of initiations was programmed and assessed across toys throughout all phases of the study. After devices were faded, performance was more robust for two participants in the device-visible condition, for another participant more robust in the device-not-visible condition, and no difference was observed for the remaining participant. The results indicate that fading an auditory script played behind a child's head may be equally as effective for establishing stimulus control by target items as fading an auditory script initially attached to items. In most cases, performance maintained at or near criterion levels over a 12-week period following the conclusion of script fading procedures with only a conversational response and access to toys as consequences. Results extend the evidence basis and utility of auditory script and script fading technology.
31. A Comparison of Contingent and Noncontingent Reinforcement for Increasing Passive Compliance During Hygiene-Related Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RASHA BARUNI (St. Cloud State University), Corrie Neil (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Noncompliance and escape-maintained problem behavior are very common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This can be a pervasive problem because there are many activities that individuals are required to tolerate, ranging from hygiene-related tasks such as haircuts, teeth brushing and bathing to activities that are required for their health and well-being such as eating and medical procedures. Many of these tasks require passive compliance (i.e., sitting still without being engaged in another specific response) instead of active compliance, which would involve the requirement to engage in a specific response. Two common interventions used to increase compliance include contingent reinforcement (CR) and non-contingent reinforcement (NCR). Contingent reinforcement consists of the delivery of a reinforcer following a correct compliant response. By contrast, NCR involves time-based delivery of an event with known reinforcing properties, regardless of an individuals engagement in a specific behavior. The present study compared the use of CR and NCR to increase passive compliance and decrease problem behavior in 3 children who are noncompliant during hygiene-related tasks.
32. Use of Demand Fading, Escape Extinction and Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERICA KONRAD (ErinoakKids), Lisa Morrison (ErinoakKids)
Abstract: Reduction of inappropriate behaviour is of critical importance to allow a child to access the least restrictive environment. The need is even greater with self-injurious behaviour, in which the risk of physical harm to the child is also a concern. The current study presents the data for a 4 year-old boy with autism with a 2 year history of self-injurious behaviour, specifically face hitting. A functional analysis (Iwata et al, 1994) was conducted to identify the function of the behaviour. The behaviour occurred most frequently in the demand (instructional tasks) and tangible conditions. A treatment package including demand fading (Iwata, 2011), escape extinction (Iwata, 2011) and functional communication (Carr and Durand, 1985) was implemented. Results show that the treatment package produced an immediate reduction in the intensity of the face hitting. An immediate increase was also observed in the number of independent requests as well as the number of demands completed in the session. A reduction in the frequency of the face hitting occurred after several sessions, this delay, was in part due several illnesses the child experienced.
33. CANCELED: Evaluating Outcomes for Group Social Skills Instruction for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CAROLINE THOMPSON (Autism Spectrum Therapies), William D. Frea (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Robert Haupt (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea L. Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies)

Social skills instruction is inherently difficult for children with autism, given the nature of the disorder. The ability to make significant gains with social skills in a group format adds additional challenge. Social skills groups must have clearly identified goals and well established methods to ensure successful skill acquisition for all of the group members (Stichter, et al., 2010). Effective social skills group instruction relies on the consistent delivery of planned instruction within a predictable group structure. This presentation describes several key components of a new social skills program. These components were developed on findings from the behavioral literature. Specifically there were four key assumptions. The first is the importance of establishing the purpose of the group. A clearly defined curriculum ensures that the group is adequately focused with measurable goals. Secondly, group formation is critical. Members of the group should have similar needs and abilities. A third factor is the group having well established methodologies. This ensures that those serving as instructors have a clear understanding of what instructional methods will be used during each session. Fourth, there should be a predictable structure to the group. Specifically, the group should have established themes and predictable sequence. These discriminative stimuli help to ensure that there is an expectation for learning. This promotes social skills learning versus unfocused social interactions such as those seen in simple experiential groups. This presentation describes each of the above components in detail. The ABA methods used in this new program are outlined, including clinical examples of programs. Outcomes are addressed, with detail on how data were collected and evaluated for each participant.

34. Considering Mastery Criteria: A Survey of Existing Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: In recent years, the question of evaluating skill acquisition by children with autism has been considered by applied researchers (Cummings & Carr, 2009; Nadjowski et al. 2009; Lerman et al. 2010). In an effort to streamline data collection, while promoting skill acquisition, some practitioners have adopted discontinuous measurement systems to measure progress on discrete-trial teaching programs. A commonly cited discontinuous recording method is to take data only on the first trial of a given session. Using this method, a skill has been considered mastered when the individual achieves either 2 or 3 consecutive days of successfully completing the first response opportunity in a session (Lerman et al. 2010). Previous analyses on this topic have touched upon several skill domains (Cummings & Carr, 2009) and have yielded mixed results. One finding is that first-trial recording can lead to premature determinations of skill acquisition (Lerman et al. 2010), but that this result can be negated by increasing the criteria for mastery from 2 to 3 consecutive days of first-trial correct responding. The current study examines the questions raised by the researchers cited from a different approach. Taking a survey of a large amount of pre-existing data, we will examine whether the commonly used first-trial mastery criteria yield the same results as the continuous percent-based mastery criteria used by the practitioners collecting the data (80% correct responding across three consecutive days). Preliminary results indicate that firsttrial mastery criteria disagree at a high rate with the multi-trial system that was actually in use.
35. Family-Centered Positive Behavior Supports for Families who have Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Peggy Whitby (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), JESSICA LOVE (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Abstract: Positive Behavior Support is recognized as an evidence-based practice for children with ASD by the National Autism Center as an antecedent package (2009). Family Centered Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) merges family-centered practices and positive behavior supports. This study reviewed literature on the efficacy of Family-Centered PBIS for families who have children with ASD. Its purpose was to: examine the prevalence of literature on Family-Centered PBS; examine methods and characteristics of studies evaluating Family-Centered PBS; and determine whether the intervention could be classified as evidence based. Articles were selected according to the following criteria: a) methodology contained experimental, quasiexperimental, qualitative or descriptive case methods; b) participant(s) had a diagnosis of ASD; c) interventions were identified as positive behavior support; d) family was equal partner in planning process, and e) publication date between 1990 and 2011. Twelve articles met criteria. Article information was organized according to participant characteristics, study methodology, and study results. All studies reported an increase in the replacement behavior and decrease in the target behavior. Only three studies met criteria for a credible single-subject design (Horner et al., 2005). Additional studies with more rigorous methodology are needed.
36. Implementation of a Professional Development Series in Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Across Several Programs in a Large Human Services Organization: Professional Education in Autism Clinical Services
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Todd Harris (Devereux Foundation), CATHLEEN M. ALBERTSON (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: The current study examined the results of a professional development series specific to providers of individuals with autism. The series focused on topics in applied behavior analysis and included presentations by experts in the field, book chapter readings, research article readings and relevant assignments. Seven professionals across five programs within Devereux Pennsylvania were the participants. They met for two hours twice a month to discuss readings, assignments and participate in training and presentations in an online training format using GoToTraining technology. Participants experience averaged 11 years in the field of human services and 7 years working for Devereux. Each participant was also assigned a mentor. The mentors were more experienced professionals working within one of the five programs in Devereux Pennsylvania. The mentors' experience averaged 20 years and 16.5 years working for Devereux. Results include mean scores of plans written by the participants in baseline and post-training. Plans included: communication plans, social skills plans, functional behavior assessments and positive behavior support plans. Mean scores of presentation skills are also presented. The mean scored in communication, social FBA and PBSP plans increased from baseline to post-training. Presentation skills were taught using a training-to-competency method and baseline and post-training scores were not differentiated. Satisfaction surveys were completed by all participants. Eight statements were rated on a scale of 1 to 5, 1 being disagree and 5 being agree. Example statements include: I believe that the course content was relevant to my work with individuals with autism. I would recommend participation in the curriculum to another clinician/administrator. The mean score on each of these items ranged 4.4 to 5, demonstrating favorable ratings in each component of the curriculum.
37. Evaluation of a Prompting Hierarchy Used to Establish Eye Contact in Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER LYNN AMTMANN (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services), Joseph M. Vedora (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Eye contact and response to ones name are important skills that are frequently targeted in EIBI programs. Currently there is limited research in the area of eye contact in response name and few EIBI manuals contain instructional programs targeting response to name. Therefore, in practice there are various prompting techniques being used with little to no research supporting the various methods. Current practices in EIBI programs often involves the use of manual guidance and verbal prompting. Although successful, manual guidance is intrusive and verbal prompts may be difficult to fade. In this study, a prompting hierarchy consisting of spatial fading of the reinforcer was used to establish eye contact across two participants with autism. A multiple probe design across participants was used and results indicated that both participants eye contact in response to their name improved.
38. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Graduated Guidance in Teaching Receptive Language Skills to Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ARIANA RONIS BOUTAIN HOPSTOCK (University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of a simultaneous prompting procedure to a criterion-based graduated guidance prompting procedure for 3 children with autism (ages 4-8 years old). Using a parallel treatment design, researchers taught each participant 6 pairs of receptive labels, 3 with simultaneous prompting and 3 with graduated guidance. The simultaneous prompting procedure was effective in teaching 2 pairs of skills to 1 participant and 1 pair of skills to the other 2 participants. The criterion-based graduated guidance procedure was effective in teaching 2 pairs of skills to each participant. On average, the graduated guidance procedure required slightly fewer teaching trials. We also conducted a preference assessment to determine which of the two prompting procedure each participant preferred. Overall, participants selected either the graduated guidance procedure or indicated no preference. These findings suggest that both prompting procedures are effective in teaching receptive labels and that the participants did not have a strong preference between the different prompting procedures.
39. Combining a Token Economy and Escape Extinction to Treat Food Selectivity in Students with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA RADERS (The Bay School), Josh Harrower (California State University, Monterey Bay)
Abstract: Research examining food selectivity supports the use of various reinforcement procedures combined with extinction to increase the consumption of non-preferred foods. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate an intervention consisting of a token economy and escape extinction to increase consumption of non-preferred foods for three students with autism who demonstrated food selectivity. This multi-component intervention examined the effects of back-up reinforcers as an alternative to contingent escape from meals. Specifically, the number of bites taken and the frequency of challenging behavior were measured. During the intervention phase, participants were reinforced with tokens for taking a bite of non-preferred foods and for the absence of challenging behavior. All participants increased in the number of bites taken of non-preferred foods while challenging behavior decreased during the intervention phase and following maintenance probes. The study provides evidence that a multi-component intervention consisting of a token economy and escape extinction can aid in increasing the consumption of non-preferred foods in the diets of students with food selectivity and autism.
40. Paraprofessionals Learn Foundational Skills to Work With Individuals With Autism Using Train To Code
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MICHELE LAMARCHE (Step By Step Academy), Cynthia Ring (Step By Step Academy), Megan Dodds (Step By Step Academy), Erin Lombard (Step By Step Academy), Ronald W. DeMuesy (Dublin City Schools), John Solomon (Step By Step Academy), Chris Meek (Step By Step Academy)
Abstract: Train-To-Code (TTC) is an expert coding software system that utilizes a frame-by-frame coding of behaviors shown in a video to teach a new observer to name those behaviors (Ray, Ray, Eckerman, Milkosky, & Gillins, 2011). In this application, TTC was utilized to increase paraprofessionals skilled use of a discrete trial errorless procedure (Terrace, 1963) to teach individuals with autism to identify common objects. The study measured the percentage of steps in the procedure that were successfully completed by these paraprofessionals during a pre-training baseline assessment, the number of coding entries required for each paraprofessional to acquire certification in the training protocol, and the percentage of steps in the procedure successfully completed by these paraprofessionals during a post-training assessment. As six of the seven participants are able to perform significantly better on the post-test(s), this suggests that the Train-To-Code software had a positive effect on the participants ability to perform the foundational skills needed to work with individuals with autism. An ongoing follow-up to this initial study seeks a replication of this improvement using a stronger (multiple baseline) study design.
41. Workshop as Method in Staff Training in Incidental Teaching With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Incidental teaching is procedure that is used to increase the use of spontaneous language. Incidental teaching has been showed effective in teaching and promoting generalization of language skills in a variety of persons and setting (Hart & Risley, 1982; Krantz & McClannahan, 1997). The use of incidental teaching may increase tha effectiveness and adaptability of Early Intensive Behavior Intervention (EIBI), and cost-effective interventions to enable teachers and paraprofessionals in implementing incidental teaching is needed. However, research on how to do staff training to increase use of incidental teaching is limited. Although several studies concludes that parent training is important (Charlop-Chrisy, 2008). This study is a systematic replication of MacDuff, Krantz, MacDuff and McClannahan (1998), Providing indicetal teaching for autistic children: a rapid training procedure for therapists. This replication included a workshop model for teaching implementation of incidental teaching, and the results indicates that workshops effectively increased the teacher and paraprofessionals use of incidental teaching, but that generalization to new settings were not maintained.
42. Eclectic Treatment and Behavioral Treatments: Effects on the Verbal Behavior of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE LAURE JOËLLE NUCHADEE (French ABA), Vinca Riviere (Universite Charles deGaulle), Melissa Becquet (Universite Lille-Nord de France), Bruno Facon (Universite Lille-Nord de France)
Abstract: We compared the effects of 3 treatment approaches on the outcome of children with autism to standardized tests assessing verbal behavior. The treatment approaches comprised early intensive behavioral intervention (children received treatment before the age of 4, 1:1 adult: child ratio, more than 20 hours per week), late intensive behavioral intervention (children received treatment after the age of 4, 1 :1 adult : child ratio, more than 20 hours per week) and eclectic treatment (children were enrolled in public special education daycare programs, treatment had started after the age of 4, an average of 1 :5 adult : child ratio, more than 20 hours per week ). These preliminary results add to the existing literature by demonstrating that age of onset of treatment, intensity of treatment and treatment method affected the response profiles of children with autism to 4 standardized tests assessing visuo spatial skills, grammar, vocabulary and relational concepts considered necessary for academic success in the first school years.
43. CANCELED: Implementing an Auditory Trainer With a Preschool Child Diagnosed With Autism in anApplied Behavior AnalysisClassroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER A. SYDORWICZ (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Allison Newman (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Rebecca Rothstein (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Aletta Sinoff (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism)

This poster will outline a single subject case study examining the effects of using an auditory trainer, the HearIt, on a five year old non-verbal girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, verbal apraxia, recurring otitis media, and symptoms of auditory processing disorder, which were exacerbated during a time of identified conductive hearing loss. Performance on standardized language measures and the rate of skill acquisition for receptive language targets with and without the use of the system over a four month period will be presented. At the time of the study, the subject had been receiving intensive behavioral intervention in the Early Childhood program at the Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism for two years. This poster will demonstrate the positive effects of using the HearIt in the classroom setting during times of identified conductive hearing loss and when hearing was determined to be within normal limits as identified by an audiologist. Clinical implications will be discussed.

44. A Pilot Study on Novel Intraverbal Responses as a Function of Schedule of Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHU-HWEI KE (SEEK Education, Inc.), Linda J. Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the effects of schedule of reinforcement on novel intraverbal responses. Two males with autism, age 22 and 23 participated in this study. During the baseline condition, a set of social questions was asked. Following the baseline, a pre-training phase was introduced and a stimulus transfer procedure was used to train intraverbal responses at a minimum of 3 correct responses. During the intervention condition, concurrent schedules of reinforcement were added. Reinforcement on FR3 was contingent on any appropriate intraverbal responses to the social question. A discriminative schedule with CRF was contingent only on novel intraverbal response which has never occurred in previous sessions. The results show an increase for both the percentage of varied and appropriate intraverbal responses and the cumulative number of novel intraverbal responses for both participants.
45. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Autistic Children:A Single Case Experimental Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTOR MANGABEIRA (Universidade de Sao Paulo), Marie Odile Chelini (Instituto de Psicologia Universidade de Sao Paulo), Juliana Rhein Lacerda (Instituto de Psicologia Universidade de Sao Paulo), Monica Baptista Ciari (Universidade de Sao Paulo), Carolina Faria Pires Rocha (Universidade de Sao Paulo), Renata Paula Silva Roma (Universidade de Sao Paulo), Emma Otta (Instituto de Psicologia Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis is recognized as a first choice treatment for individuals with autism. A broad range of stimuli or more specific techniques can be used in ABA based therapies. In this context, we designed an intervention model based of the insertion of a new variable supposed to act as a motivating operation able to affect the rewarding value of other activities: namely, a dog. In this project, the animal appears as a therapeutic instrument to improve the interventions of the behavior analyst. A low-functioning autistic boy received 22 individual occupational therapy sessions in alternated blocks of sessions with and without a dog. All sessions were video-recorded and analyzed. Four independent coders categorized participants behavior in five categories, grouped as improvement and problem according to the case conceptualization (Agreement=0.78). Data were expressed as percentage of total session duration and frequency per minute. Our first results suggest that the introduction of the dog led this autistic boy to express feelings and emotions, which we consider a significant improvement. Also, the scape/avoidance behavior has decreased throughout the process. These ?ndings add to the growing body of evidence that the therapeutic use of animals may enhance the effectiveness of established occupational therapy techniques. Acknowledgements: Educao Especial Paulista, Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e Tecnolgico, Bayer.
46. The Effects of Inter-Trial Intervals on Receptive Tasks for Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE ASHLEE CALL (The University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas)
Abstract: We examined the effects of inter-trial intervals on receptive labeling by 3 children (ages 4 to 7 years old) diagnosed on the autism spectrum. We used an alternating treatment design to compare the effects of short inter-trial intervals (5-10 seconds) to longer inter-trial intervals (15-20 seconds) during discrete trial teaching. Each participant was taught to point to pictures of objects, numbers, or people. For example, the teacher might put three pictures (of a bar of soap, a hammer, and a book) on the table in front of a child and ask, “What would you use to take a bath?” Each participant was taught a minimum of 6 pairs of receptive tasks, 3 with short inter-trial intervals and 3 with long inter-trial intervals. One participant learned all of the pairs in roughly the same number of trials using both lengths of inter-intervals. The other two participants sometimes learned a pair of pictures with fewer trials using the short inter-trial intervals and sometimes using the long inter-trial intervals. While participants appeared to learn the tasks in a similar number of teaching trials, all participants learned the tasks in a shorter amount of total teaching time when the short inter-trial intervals were used.
47. Assessing the Needs of Children with Autism: A Statewide Training Model to Build Capacity Among Public Special Education Teachers Throughout Georgia
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN GIANINO (Marcus Autism Center), Dana Zavatkay (Marcus Autism Center), Dana M. Bamford (Marcus Autism Center), Chiara M. Cunningham (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Assessing the Needs of Children with Autism (ANCA) was a multi-year training endeavor offered as part of a collaborative agreement between the Marcus Autism Center and the Georgia Department of Education. The goal of the ANCA project was to build proficiency among educators to better utilize empirically supported assessment and teaching methods based on applied behavior analytic practices to educate students with autism. The initial training cohort was comprised of 207 special education teachers from public school systems in eight regions of Georgia who work primarily with students with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders. Behavior Analysts provided a series of four workshops across two school years to target the following core skills: administration of skills assessments, selecting and writing measurable IEP objectives, implementing behavior analytic teaching methods within the classroom setting, and collecting and interpreting data to monitor students educational progress. Each workshop employed didactic instruction, role play, feedback, and written exercises. The model for state-wide training to build capacity in public schools will be presented. In addition, outcome data will be presented regarding participants acquisition of the material and measures of social validity.
48. CANCELED: The Effects of Goal Setting on Supervisor Completion of Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Observations in an Applied Behavior Analysis Service Agency
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHERI KINGSDORF (Pacific Child and Family Associates)

Pacific Child and Family Associates is an agency which provides Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services to clients with autism and related disorders. One part of the quality assurance procedures which are in place, are the conducting of Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy (TPRA) observations on therapists providing direct ABA services to clients. The TPRA observations are conducted by supervisors on therapists, to ensure that programing is being implemented correctly. During the TPRA observations direct feedback is provided to the observed therapist on the quality of his or her antecedents and consequences surrounding interlocking three-term contingencies between the therapist and the client. These observations are also used to collect inter-observer agreement (IOA) data and identify areas in need of change in current programing. In this study, an intervention was put in place using individual goal setting and immediate feedback to increase the number of TPRA observations conducted monthly by supervisors. The study utilized a multiple baseline design across participants, to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. The value of goal setting interventions, the creation of contingency specifying stimuli, and the general application of behavior change strategies in an agency setting are all discussed.

49. Antecedent Interventions for Treating Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
AIMEE E. MEIER (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Researchers in applied behavior analysis examine a number of interventions that can be used to treat feeding difficulties in young children. Although escape extinction (EE) has been found to be a common component of effective behavior analytic treatment packages for both food refusal and selectivity, a number of interventions have also been found to be successful in the absence of escape extinction. For example, there is an emerging body of research on antecedent strategies, such as simultaneous presentation, high-probability instructional sequencing, and stimulus fading. These studies have had mixed results. It is possible that antecedent interventions are most successful with certain populations within the general umbrella of feeding problems (e.g., refusal vs. selectivity). This review outlines some recent research on antecedent manipulations in the treatment of feeding problems, and in particular, attempts to understand possible relationships between successful applications of antecedent interventions and features of the presenting feeding problem and general context. Results indicate that there are some relationships between the factors evaluated, and recommendations for further research is suggested.
50. The Effects of Response Blocking and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior on the Reduction of Immediate Echolalia
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTA HOMLITAS CULLIVAN (Knapp Center for Childhood Development), Amy Lockney (Knapp Center for Childhood Development), Julie Knapp (Knapp Center for Childhood Development)

Approximately 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have limited to no verbal behavior. Of the 60% who do speak, they may demonstrate behavior which interferes with their ability to learn language, limiting acquisition of new skills. One example of an interfering behavior is echolalia. Echolalia is the mechanical repetition of words and/or phrases uttered by another individual and can be immediate or delayed. It is often a symptom of a neurological or developmental disorder such as Autism. In the present study the effectiveness of response blocking and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) on immediate echolalia was assessed using a multiple baseline design across subjects. Response blocking and DRA were assessed with two children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Each child was taught to make an alternative, non-echolalic verbal response (i,e., I don't know) to an echoed statement or question. Preliminary analysis of data shows an 89% decrease in frequency of immediate echolalia with Participant 1 after implementation of the intervention. This procedure is efficient in that it produced rapid results and can be easily implemented across various environments.

51. Using a Treatment Package to Extinguish a Conditioned Reflexive Motivating Operation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LYNDA ROSNER (Hudson Valley Behavioral Solutions), Lindsay Panko (Hudson Valley Behavioral Solutions)
Abstract: The purpose of the current investigation demonstrated the relationship between apparent "sensory seeking" behaviors (pushing on chin, pushing head on the therapist, and throwing materials in the air) and the role of a conditioned reflexive motivating operation (CMO-R). The participant was a five year old boy diagnosed with Autism. Results were examined across task demands, play and the removal of a tangible reinforcer. The baseline data showed 0 instances of the behavior while he had a tangible reinforcer. Behavior averaged 66% of the time during work tasks, and 33% of the time during the removal of the tangible reinforcer. Task demands were shown to be establishing operations, evoking problem behavior to access escape. The treatment package included thick schedules of reinforcement and antecedent manipulations (stimulus demand fading, errorless instruction, and interspersal instruction) which were used to abolish the effects of the CMO-R and therefore reduce problem behavior during task demands (Zarcone, Iwata, Hughes, & Vollmer, 1993). This was an effective method to reduce the evocative effects of the stimulus.
52. A Behavioral Intervention Package to Treat Severe Food Selectivity for a 4-Year Old Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FAY YEN (St. Cloud State University), Sharon E. Baxter (Private Practice)
Abstract: The current study examined the effectiveness of a treatment package on a severe food selectivity problem for a 4-year-old boy with autism. Baseline data showed that he accepted 10 exclusive food items only. His parents reported that refusal to new foods had persisted for longer than a year and he did not have difficulties in chewing or swallowing. A combination of treatment strategies was implemented including contriving establishing operation, providing positive reinforcement following food acceptance, escape extinction and gradual fading to new foods. The intervention was conducted in the therapy room of the childs home. In addition, a simplified version of intervention procedure was taught to the parents to use in the kitchen at home to prevent the child from practicing escape from the new food items presented by the parents. After intervention, the child accepted 20 food items that he used to refuse and 32 completely new food items including small pieces of fresh fruit. Furthermore, he has demonstrated generalization accepting novel foods presented either by instructors or the parents anywhere in the house. The data suggest that the treatment package has been highly effective and the generalization effects are evident. The limitation of the current study was discussed.
53. Cardiovascular Arousal in Individuals With Autism: An Idiographic Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLA MARIA AUBE (University of Rhode Island), Matthew Goodwin (The Groden Center), Wayne Velicer (University of Rhode Island)
Abstract: Stress in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is poorly understood, yet can be detrimental to the functioning of these individuals. Stress-related problems are more common in ASD than the typical population, and individuals with ASD often have poorer coping skills. It is crucial to understand stress responses in these individuals, to help them better learn, cope, and prevent problem behavior associated with stressful events and heightened arousal. However, traditional measures of stress (e.g. self-reports) are often unreliable in this population, due to communication deficits in ASD. Studying physiological responses is an alternative, potentially more accurate, way to study stress in ASD. This idiographic study systematically examines heart rate (HR) responses to six stressors in 39 individuals with ASD. Patterns of response for each individual are discussed. Examples of four hypothesized physiological subtype responders were identified. These subtypes include: hyperarousal (characterized by high baseline HRs, with low variation in response to different stressors), hyporesponsive (characterized by low/normal baseline HR, with low variation in response to different stressors), reactive responsivity (characterized by HR that increases significantly throughout the assessment and fail to return to baseline level), and normal responsivity (characterized by normal baseline HR that varies during stressor phases, but returns to baseline level during subsequent baseline phases). Clinical and general implications of these findings are discussed, as well as directions for future research.



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