Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


38th Annual Convention; Seattle, WA; 2012

Event Details

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Poster Session #349
CSE Monday Afternoon Session
Monday, May 28, 2012
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall 4AB (Convention Center)
1. Pouched Rats Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA M. MAHONEY (Western Michigan University), Bart Weetjens (APOPO), Christophe Cox (APOPO), Negussie Beyene (APOPO), Amy Durgin (Western Michigan University), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Setting: Tanzania. Objective: To compare microscopy as conducted in Direct Observation of Treatment Short Course to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design: Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. In Experiment 1, the polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed manually and in Experiment 2 it was performed on selected samples through use of a Cepheid GeneXpert. Results: Overall, the patient-wise sensitivity of microscopy was 48.0% and the patient-wise specificity was 98.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cut-off (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 64.6% relative to microscopy alone. The average patient-wise sensitivity of the individual rats was 67.0% (range 62.2-72.5%) and the mean specificity was 93.5% (range 91.1-95.3%). Conclusion: These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource poor countries.
2. Moving to the Beat of Djembe Drums: African Dance and Reported Feelings of Depression
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUILYN ANDERSON (Claremont McKenna College), Denise Grosberg (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Depression is a disabling mental disorder that has a huge impact on one’s life and is considered a global health concern (World Health Organization, 2011). Although depression is typically treated with antidepressants and cognitive therapy (Mayo Clinic, 2011), exercise is growing in popularity as a more behavior change option. It is believed that exercise may be effective because exercise stimulates the release of feel-good neurotransmitters and endorphins in the brain, reduces immune system chemicals, and increases body temperature, which is thought to have a calming effect (Mayo Clinic, 2011). One type of exercise that has been used to treat a number of disorders, including depression, is Dance Movement Therapy. This therapy is a promising intervention for depression because it incorporates easy behaviors to perform and has a subsequent effect on the behaviors of depression. From this premise, West African dance was used in the present study to evaluate its effects on depression behaviors for 13 college-aged students. It was hypothesized that with depression behaviors would reduce such behaviors as a function of participating in a dance class. Results indicated that West African dance had a significant impact in lowering overall depression behavior scores (M for pre-test= 6.71, M for post-test=3.85, t= 4.9) and psychological scores (M for pre-test psych variable =2.08, M for post-test psych variable= .31, t= 4.68) of participants. Potential implications are discussed in terms of possible long-term effects in decreasing depression behaviors in patients through West African dance.
3. Acceptability of an Internet-Based Contingency Management Intervention for Smoking Cessation
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
BRANTLEY JARVIS (University of Florida), Bethany R. Raiff (National Development and Research Institutes), Marissa Turturici (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette smoking was evaluated in two experiments. Experiment 1 consisted of questionnaire data collected from end-users after they participated in an Internet-based CM intervention that involved delivering incentives either contingent on abstinence, as verified by breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels of < 4 parts per million, or independent of abstinence (yoked control). Experiment 2 garnered similar questionnaire data, except that participants were potential treatment users (smokers), non-smokers, and healthcare providers, who had never used the intervention. Acceptability was measured using various formats (e.g., visual analog scales, open-ended questions). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability ratings across all groups dimensions of the intervention (e.g. 79.9 and 77.9 overall ratings for experiments 1 and 2, respectively (1=low satisfaction, 100=high satisfaction). Although smokers in Experiment 1 stated that they were willing to pay $91.65 for the treatment on average, 20.4% of participants in Experiment 2 indicated that a $50 hypothetical deposit was a weakness of the intervention. Healthcare providers were overall very likely to recommend the intervention to patients (81 percent), but mostly to smokers aged 18 45.
4. Investigating Social Skill Acquisition of African-American Students With Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA BROPHY (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Limited opportunities to engage in social interactions may exacerbate poor post-school outcomes for African American students with mild intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. A promising intervention that can increase prosocial behavior and decrease the poor social skills of students with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors is social skill instruction. This study examined the effects of a small group, culturally responsive social skill instruction program, incorporating parental involvement, on increasing the prosocial behaviors of three African American high school students with mild intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. In addition, the function of participants social behavior was examined and incorporated into instruction. Using a multiple probe across skill sets design, it was demonstrated that participants were able to increase appropriate usage of targeted social skills during role-play situations with their peers and family members. Results are discussed relative to the importance of culturally responsive social skill instruction for African American high school students with mild intellectual disabilities incorporating parental involvement and a functional perspective.
5. Cultivating Distance Training to Overcome Runner's Plateau in Training Using Publicly Posted Goals
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
DAYNA BEDDICK (University of West Florida), Jessica Truett (University of West Florida), Barbara Endlich (Behavior and Education Inc)
Abstract: A runner's plateau in performance can be catastrophic for a runner's career. Many times intrinsic motivation is not enough to push a runner through this difficult training period; therefore, extrinsic motivation is needed. This experiment implements a publicly posted training goals intervention to break through a runner's plateau in performance of a sixteen year old male competitive cross country runner. Five kilometer practice race times serve as the dependent variable for this experiment and the publicly posted goals serve as the independent variable. A single case combined changing criterion design and ABA design is used to execute this experiment.
6. Assessing High-Risk Drinking Behaviors On Alcoholidays: A Field Investigation of St. Patrick's Day, Cinco de Mayo, and Halloween
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ZACH MANNES (Virginia Tech), Ryan C. Smith (Virginia Tech), Molly Bowdring (Virginia Tech), Bo Whitelaw (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Rates of high risk drinking have been influenced by both celebratory motives and celebratory occasions (Glindemann, Wiegand, & Geller, 2007). This study tried to determine whether these celebrated festivities, or alcoholidays increase the average BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) per person on celebratory occasions as compared to a normal drinking night. To examine this effect, research assistants collected data at three locations, two in front of local bars in downtown Blacksburg, and a third on campus on the Thursdays, Fridays, and the nights on and surrounding the Alcoholidays of Halloween, St. Patricks Day, and Cinco de Mayo. After providing informed consent, participants were asked several questions about their celebratory motives, and given the opportunity to have their BAC measured. Several independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed to investigate if students drank significantly more on the three holidays compared to the weekends and corresponding weekdays leading up to the alcoholidays. From these results it was determined that instead of a problematic Alcoholiday drinking culture, the problem was specific to individuals who reported celebratory motives. Thus, while alcoholidays were not significantly different than non-alcoholidays on average, students who reported celebratory motives were significantly more intoxicated on these nights.



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