Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

Previous Page


Poster Session #93
#93 Poster Session (BPH)
Saturday, May 24, 2008
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
42. Effects of Acute Pramipexole on Preference for Gambling-Like Schedules.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
PATRICK S. JOHNSON (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Jonathan W. Pinkston (University of Kansas), James H. Woods (University of Michigan), Gregory J. Madden (University of Kansas)
Abstract: In recent years, a number of clinical reports have implicated pramipexole, a common component of Parkinson’s disease (PD) dopamine replacement therapy, in the development of pathological gambling in patients with PD (Dodd, Klos, Bower, Geda, Josephs, & Ahlskog, 2005; Driver-Dunckley, Samanta, Stacy, 2003; Molina, Sainz- Artiga, Fraile, 2000). More specifically, pramipexole is a dopamine agonist with preferential affinity for D3 receptors, which are predominantly localized in and around the limbic system (Sokoloff, Giros, Martres, Bouthenet, & Schwartz, 1990), an area thought to be linked to “reward pathways” (Esch & Stefano, 2004). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of an acute pramipexole dosing regimen on preference for either fixed-ratio (FR) or gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in Wistar rats. Percent choice for the gambling-like schedule (a four-component, mixed-ratio schedule) was used as a measure of preference and was determined by the subject’s responding in a series of free-choice trials, which were preceded by forced-choice trials. Subjects also had a limited response budget to spend during each session and this was derived indirectly from the FR schedule value. Preliminary results are suggestive of slight to moderate pharmacological effects on preference for the gambling-like schedule of reinforcement.
43. Chronic Quinpirole Produces Perseverative Responding During Extinction in Rats Previously Reinforced with Food.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
ADAM KYNASTON (Utah State University), James H. Woods (University of Michigan)
Abstract: The behavioral effects of quinpirole (a dopamine receptor agonist) in rats may capture an interesting parallel to obsessive compulsive disorder; it has been shown to prolong responding in during extinction when administered acutely or chronically to water-restricted rats following conditioning under small fixed-ratio schedules Kurylo, 2004), Amato et al., 2006). We studied quinpirole effects on responding in extinction (and during reinforced performances) following exposure to a variable-ratio 10 schedule of liquid food (Ensure) delivery. Following 7 days of VR10 exposure, a single injection of quinpirole (0.3-0.5 mg/kg) failed to increase responding during extinction. We reinstituted the reinforcement conditions, and administered quinpirole to some of the rats for 7 more sessions; another set of rats received quinpirole after the session at the same dose. All were extinguished for a session, half with saline and half with quinpirole. When administered before conditioning and extinction sessions, quinpirole increased responding. Both chronic presession administration and administration during extinction are important for the facilitation of perseverative responding. Thus, quinpirole can produce perseverative responding in extinction following food or water reinforced responding. Research supported by USPHS Grant DA 020669 and an ASPET Summer Fellowship.
44. Caffeine History Affects Subsequent Response Rates and Polydipsic Water Consumption.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: Rats were initially autoshaped to press a lever following 40 mg/kg caffeine, 20 mg/kg caffeine, 10 mg/kg caffeine, water, or no administration. All daily administrations were via oral gavage 15 min prior to the session. Response requirement was increased to an FR 50 and maintained at that value until responding was stable for 5 days. No drug administrations nor daily sessions were presented for 3 months, after which rats were presented with an FI 30 sec schedule. The effects of caffeine history were evaluated with respect to response rates and schedule-induced polydipsia. Lever pressing rates were dose-dependently decreased with respect to caffeine history. Polydipsia levels were lowest for those rats with a 10 mg/kg caffeine history, rats with no caffeine or 20 mg/kg caffeine history consumed moderate levels of water, and the greatest amount of polydipsic-water consumption was obtained for rats with the history of higher caffeine doses.
45. Effects of Ascending and Descending Delay Sequences, Signaled and Unsignaled Delays and d-Amphetamine on Delay-Discounting Functions.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN M. SLEZAK (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University)
Abstract: It has been established that drugs of abuse affect delay-discounting rates, but discrepant findings have been observed between different methods used to assess delay-discounting functions. One common procedure consists of a choice between a larger reinforcer that is presented after an increasing delay and a smaller reinforcer that is always presented immediately within session. However, the context of the delay presentation (i.e., ascending delay order) may affect the shape or area under the delay-discounting function. The present study utilized a discrete-trials choice procedure and compared functions obtained with ascending and descending delay presentations in Sprague Dawley rats (n = 16). Additional manipulations consisted of a signal present during the delay for half of the subjects and the administration of d-amphetamine (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 1.7 mg/kg, i.p.), both of which have been shown to alter ascending delay-discounting functions. Baseline results suggest no significant differences between ascending and descending functions and signaled and unsignaled functions in terms of area under the curve. However, the descending function was less hyperbolic in shape than the ascending function. Additional data are reported in terms of effects of d-amphetamine on delay-discounting functions within the two delay contexts and the presence/absence of signals.
46. Amphetamine Attenuation of Reward Sensitivity: Differences Between Foraging Rats and Hamsters.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
LESLIE M. WISE (Illinois State University), Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University), Anthony Calderala (Illinois State University), Matthew Richardson (Illinois State University), Shaun Craven (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Changes in reward sensitivity were examined when Sprague Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters foraged in an open field during baseline and amphetamine conditions. Following baseline, rats or hamsters received NaCl and low, moderate and high amphetamine does at each schedule ratio. The log time ratio spent in F1 or F2 during baseline and drug exposure for each conc VT VT ratio was plotted as a log ratio of scheduled reinforcer rate (R1/R1) (Baum, 1974), and fits to the matching equation were obtained. Hamsters showed lower reward sensitivity than rats during baseline. However, hamsters showed reduced attenuation in reward sensitivity during amphetamine exposure. Further, changes in time spent at the feeder differed between the two species: Rats showed no change in mean number of visits across baseline and drug conditions, but increased time spent in Feeder 1 during amphetamine. Hamsters increased time spent in Feeder 2 and had significantly fewer visits to Feeder 1 during amphetamine exposure. These results show behavioral differences across species during both baseline and amphetamine exposure. The data support literature suggesting that amphetamine differentially affects DA receptor activity in hamsters vs. rats, and suggests this may be related to baseline behavior differences.
47. Changes in Magnitude of Behavioral Contrast Elicited by DA D1, D2, D3 and General Agonist Exposure.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
VALERI FARMER-DOUGAN (Illinois State University), Leslie M. Wise (Illinois State University), Jonathan Davis (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Changes in the magnitude of behavioral contrast were examined during DA agonist exposure. Rats responded on mult VI 15 VI 15 schedules during baseline, then the schedule was changed to mult 15 EXT. During this contrast condition rats were exposed to a NaCl injection and four DA agonists. We hypothesized that the magnitude of behavioral contrast would increase for SKF38393, a D1-like agonist, and apomorphine, a nonselective agonist. These drugs should magnify the differences between the reinforced and extinguished components. Contrast was predicted to be attenuated during exposure to quinpirole (a D2-like agonist) and PD128907 (a D3 agonist), as these drugs typically elicit slowed response perseveration. Contrast was found for all 4 drug groups during the no-drug contrast condition. Contrast diminished during exposure to PD128907 and quinipirole, but magnified during both SKF38393 and apomorphine exposure. These data support the hypotheses that behavioral contrast may be due to habituation, and changes in synaptic tonic and phasic DA via selective DA agonist exposure may attenuate or accentuate this habituation
48. Effects of Serotonin Depletion on Delay-Discounting Performance in Rats.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
PAUL L. SOTO (National Institute on Drug Abuse), George A. Ricaurte (Johns Hopkins University), Jonathan L. Katz (National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program)
Abstract: Serotonin is thought to be involved in a variety of behaviors, some of which are referred to as “impulsive”. One behavioral procedure commonly used in the laboratory to study impulsive behavior involves choice between small, immediate reinforcers and large, delayed reinforcers (delay discounting). Previous research demonstrated that the serotonin synthesis inhibitor, 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA), increases the percentage of choices of a small, immediate reinforcer over a large, delayed reinforcer in a T-maze procedure (Bizot et al., 1999). The present experiment investigated the effects of serotonin depletion on delay-discounting behavior in rats. Rats were exposed to a delay-discounting procedure in which responses were reinforced on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR 5) schedule on each of two levers: FR 5 completion on one lever immediately produced a single pellet whereas FR 5 completion on another lever produced four pellets either immediately or after a delay which varied over blocks of trials. PCPA (150 mg/kg x 2 daily injections) produced a delay-dependent reduction in the percentage of choices of the large-delayed reinforcer. Implications for the role of serotonin and delay-discounting behavior will be discussed.
49. Context Valuation: The Effects of d-Amphetamine on the Persistence and Reinstatement of Responding Previously Maintained by Food.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
STACEY QUICK (Utah State University), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Dopaminergic neural systems mediate various aspects of behavior, including learning, motivation, and locomotor activation. The present experiment assessed the effects of a dopaminergic agonist in the persistence and reinstatement of behavi previously maintained by food reward. Rats were exposed to baseline, treatment, extinction, and reinstatement conditions. The baseline condition established responding in a two-component multiple schedule with equal rates of food reward. These components were presented once per day in alternating order. During the treatment condition, rats were given d-amphetamine prior to one component and saline prior to the second component. Extinction was then imposed by removing the food reward and replacing drug injections with saline. Following extinction, responding was reinstated with response-independent food. Treatment with d-amphetamine decreased response rates in the component it previously preceded. Despite these decreases, amphetamine increased relative resistance to extinction. Additionally, d-amphetamine increased relative reinstatement of responding. These results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the valuation of context which affects the persistence and reinstatement of behavior. To further assess this possibility, the authors will also test the effects of SCH23390, a D1 dopamine antagonist, on the persistence and reinstatement of behavior.
50. Behavioral Variability: Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement and Amphetamine.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
JORDAN M. BAILEY (Auburn University), Erin Fae Pesek (Auburn University), M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
Abstract: Response variability can be measured and reinforced. In a previous experiment, Long Evans rats were trained under a multiple VARY 8:4 FR 4 schedule. In the VARY 8:4 component, all four-response sequences that differed from the previous 8 were reinforced. In the FR 4 component, all four-response sequences were reinforced. Discrimination between the two components was evidenced by high entropy (variability) in the VARY 8:4 component and low entropy in the FR 4 component. We then reinforced four-response sequences intermittently under a VI 60" schedule. Specifically, behavior was maintained under second order schedules: MULT VI 60" (VAR 8:4) VI 60" (FR4). Here, entropy in the FR 4 component increased from 0.2 to about 0.6, close to the value of 0.8-0.85 for the VAR 8:4 component. In other words, the animals behaved more variably when reinforcement was intermittent. Intermediate doses of amphetamine produce a small increase in entropy in the FR 4 component but only decreased entropy in the VAR 8:4 component.
51. Nicotine Effects on Amount Sensitivity in Adjusting Delay, Concurrent Chains and Concurrent Progressive Ratios.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
MATT LOCEY (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Nicotine has been found to produce dose-dependent increases in impulsive choice in rats. The underlying behavioral mechanisms responsible for that change were explored in a series of studies. Two experiments used adjusting delay tasks: the first with equal reinforcer amounts, the second with different amounts. Nicotine produced dose-dependent increases in preference for the variable delay only in the context of different reinforcer amounts. A third experiment used a concurrent chains procedure with different reinforcer amounts for one group and different reinforcer delays for the other. Nicotine produced dose-dependent increases in relative preference for the smaller reinforcer but had no effect on preference for the smaller delay. A fourth experiment used concurrent progressive ratios producing either 1 pellet or 3 pellets. Nicotine produced dose-dependent increases in responding for the smaller reinforcer and dose-dependent decreases in responding for the larger reinforcer. All experiments indicate that nicotine-induced increases in impulsive choice are due to a decrease in amount sensitivity rather than an increase in delay discounting.
53. Effects of Cannabinoids on the Reinforcing Efficacy of Sucrose Pellets in Obese and Lean Zucker Rats.
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
SALLY L. HUSKINSON (Idaho State University), Erin B. Rasmussen (Idaho State University)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats have significantly higher weights and food intake than lean Zuckers. Under progressive ratio (PR) schedules of food reinforcement, obese Zucker rats have higher breakpoints than leans when working for grain pellets, but not for sucrose pellets. Accordingly, obese Zuckers exhibit faulty leptin signaling associated with elevated levels of endocannabinoids, a neurotransmitter system involved in food reward. These findings suggest that alterations in the endocannabinoid system of obese Zuckers may contribute to the differences in obese and lean food intake and motivation for food. The present study was conducted to investigate the function of the cannabinoid system in food reinforcement efficacy in obese and lean Zucker rats. Subjects were placed under a PR schedule of sucrose food reinforcement and breakpoints were compared. Intraperitoneal injections of the endogenous cannabinoid agonist 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased breakpoints for both groups, though, obese Zuckers demonstrated a heightened sensitivity at the 1 mg/kg dose. Additionally, the cannabinoid antagonist SR141716 (1-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased breakpoints. These data demonstrate differential sensitivities to cannabinoids in the obese Zucker which extends previous research.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh