Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #206
#208 Poster Session (CBM)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
58. Interdependent Group Contingency Management Using a Percentile Schedule to Enhance Attendance Behaviors and Drug Abstinence.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BETH J. ROSENWASSER (Temple University/Treatment Research Institute), Saul Axelrod (Temple University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University/Treatment Research Institute), Carolyn M. Carpenedo (Treatment Research Institute), Brian E. Versek (Treatment Research Institute ), Kimberly C. Kirby (Treatment Research Institute)
Abstract: Since their initial application to substance-abusing populations in 1979, Contingency Management (CM) interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have amassed a convincing body of evidence demonstrating improved treatment outcomes. Nonetheless CM has not been widely disseminated in community drug abuse treatment, reportedly due to a mismatch between treatment modality (most CM is applied individually whereas most treatment takes place in group), cost, and a tendency to target only one behavior at a time. Moreover, a clean urine at intake is a good predictor of CM treatment success, but many do not present any abstinence behavior and therefore never contact the treatment contingency. This study was designed to address these barriers to dissemination by implementing CM among adults in a group setting, using a lower cost prize bowl drawing, targeting appointment attendance as well as drug-abstinence, and using a shaping (percentile) schedule applied to the whole group’s performance of the target behaviors. A modified multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate the effects of this schedule applied sequentially to appointment attendance and opiate and cocaine abstinence. We also report its effects on self-reported and videotaped evidence of conflict and support.
59. The Effect of Group Social Skills Training on Peer Social Behavior.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
AMY L. PALMER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Adrienne DeSantis (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lori Klinger (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Susan K. Perkins-Parks (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Erin Seimers (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer L. Crockett (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Deficits in social skills and lack of social competence play are prevalent among children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and are an important focus of treatment. Generalization is one of the most difficult goals to achieve in peer socialization training primarily due to skills being taught in artificial or contrived situations. Behaviorally based social skills groups that follow a specific curriculum, include a structured behavior management program, and train parents to actively support social skill development can be helpful in establishing and maintaining these critical skills. Participants in this six-week social skills group included six 6- and 7-year-old children with various child behavior disorders (e.g., ADHD, ODD, etc.). A structured curriculum was provided and social skills were introduced via a behavioral skills training approach. Behavior management consisted of points awarded for desirable and prosocial behaviors as well as rewards were delivered using a level system. A parent training group was conducted in tandem with child group sessions. Data suggest an increase in positive engagement and participation across sessions.
60. Caregiver Treatment Integrity: Effects of Conversational versus Technical Language on the Implementation of Behavioral Feeding Protocols.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
DIANA A. SHIF (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Peter Girolami (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for treating food refusal for children who have a variety of feeding problems. To be effective, behavioral protocols need to be followed consistently and accurately; however, caregivers often have difficulty implementing them with high levels of treatment integrity. One possibility of non-adherence may be a result of the language used by behaviorists in the protocols provided to parents before implementation of the intervention. Previous research found that behavioral interventions written in conversational rather than technical language are more accepted and better understood. Studies have also demonstrated that the accuracy of implementing treatments was higher when a conversational style was used. This study will expand on the current literature by comparing the impact of conversational and technical language of behavioral protocols on treatment integrity within a feeding context.
61. Impact of Intensive Interdisciplinary Feeding Program on Caregiver Stress and Child Outcomes.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH A. MASLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rinita B. Laud (Louisiana State University/Kennedy Krieger Institute), Charles S. Gulotta (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ashley J. Greer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of an intensive interdisciplinary feeding program on caregiver stress and child outcomes of children with feeding disorders across three categories. Children were categorized into either tube dependent; liquid dependent; or food selective groups. Outcomes for caregiver stress levels, child mealtime behaviors, weight and calories were examined at admission and discharge for 121 children. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine differences pre- and post-treatment and across feeding categories. Caregiver stress, child mealtime behaviors, weight, and caloric intake improved significantly following treatment in the intensive feeding program, regardless of category placement. Few studies have examined the impact of an intensive interdisciplinary approach on caregiver stress as well as on child outcome variables with such a diverse population. This study provides support that regardless of a child’s medical and feeding history, an intensive interdisciplinary approach significantly improves caregiver stress and child outcomes.
62. Describing Main Stress Sources in Teaching University.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALFONSO VALADEZ RAMÍREZ (National University of Mexico), Cristina Bravo González (National University of Mexico), José Esteban Vaquero Cazares (National University of Mexico), Patricia Ortega Silva (National University of Mexico), Angeles Escamilla Salomé (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: A wide range of factors in physical and social environments influence people’s behavior in working scenarios, because the most frequently found negative side effects in workers’ implementation and performance are due to stressful situations and factors that they present in the workplace. The objective of the study was to identify the main sources of stress in the teaching profession at university. 200 professors at university were surveyed, elected through a non- probability sampling. The evaluation scale contains 68 items, grouped into three subscales (organizational, social and individual factors), Cronbach’s alpha is .96. The results showed that 70% of teachers felt that the teaching profession is little or nothing stressful, however, 33% perceived organizational factors as quite stressful, while in sources of stress related to social and individual factors, only 6% and 8% respectively considered them a major source of stress. In conclusion, organizational characteristics it can constitute significant sources of stress which could point to direct actions to prevent and control stress at institutional level.
63. An Initial Study of Professor's Burnout at University Level.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALFONSO VALADEZ RAMÍREZ (National University of Mexico), Cristina Bravo González (National University of Mexico), José Esteban Vaquero Cazares (National University of Mexico), Patricia Ortega Silva (National University of Mexico), Angeles Escamilla Salomé (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: Burnout syndrome is present when a person does not meet the demands of work and usually he or she is in a state of anger and depression. This term is used to describe a type of job and institutional stress occurring in professionals that maintain constant contact with people who are beneficiaries of their own work (e.g. health personnel, teachers, social services). The purpose of study was to identify the main manifestations of burnout in areas of university education. It surveyed 200 university professors, 56% female and 44% male. It implemented ainstrument of 43 items which evaluated depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal fulfillment factors. The results show that in th depersonalization factor, 21% of teachers reported that they occasionally show negative behaviors (e.g. irritability and loss of motivation); in the category of emotional exhaustion, related to their teaching activity, 73% referred to not feeling tired; finally, on the scale of personal fulfillment, 95% of respondents commented that they often feel fulfilled with their job. In conclusion, in both situations of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion there is a low incidence of syndrome, meanwhile, personal fulfillment is high.
64. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense on Behavior.
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
ALISHA M. WRAY (University of New Mexico), Michael J. Dougher (University of New Mexico), Laura A. Bullard (University of New Mexico)
Abstract: Researchers have devoted attention to the apparent human tendency to make sense of events in the environment (e.g., Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). Previous conceptualizations have viewed making sense as an adaptive cognitive process (Pennebaker & Seagal, 1999). However a growing body of literature finds that sense- making may not always be adaptive (e.g., Addis & Jacobson, 1996; Addis & Carpenter, 1999), and that it may continue despite accompanying aversive consequences (Martin & Tesser, 1996). Making sense may be negatively reinforcing, as it functions to reduce ambiguous and aversive emotional states (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001; Sosnowski, 1983; 1988), positively reinforcing based upon (1) social reinforcement (Gergen & Gergen, 1988), and (2) its participation an overarching, generalized operant class. However, making sense has not been shown empirically to function as a reinforcing event. This study examined whether making sense functions as a reinforcer in a laboratory setting by comparing participants’ preference for a solvable laboratory task with response-contingent reinforcement to a formally similar but unsolvable task, on which equal or greater amounts of reinforcement are presented independent of participant’s performance.
65. Does Our Practice Reflect Our Training?
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
M. KELLY HAACK (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Stacy Bliss (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Tawnya J. Meadows (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Evidence-based practices have been adopted by APA as “best practices” when working with children and adolescents with behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Numerous therapies have been shown to be evidence-based, particularly behavioral techniques. Despite this support, barriers to the use of evidence-based practices are prevalent (Pagoto, Spring, Coups, Mulvaney, Coutu, & Ozakinei, 2007). Recent researchers have investigated the estimated use of evidence-based practices by clinicians, finding that a clinician’s training and attitude toward treatment research were predictors of perceived use of evidence-based practices (Nelson & Steele, 2007). However, the use of specific behavioral techniques was not examined. This study extends previous research by examining clinician’s perceived and actual use of specific behavioral techniques with children and adolescents who have behavioral, emotional, and social problems. We surveyed clinicians who work with children and adolescents who experience behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Clinicians were asked to estimate the percentage of sessions they used specific behavioral techniques (e.g., punishment, reinforcement, antecedent control). Next, clinicians completed a questionnaire each day they saw clients, recording the actual use of techniques. The discrepancy of clinicians' perceived use versus their actual use of behavioral techniques will be discussed, as well as the implications for behavioral training programs.
66. Improving Consulting Behavior Using a Newly Developed Checklist.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SILJE HAUGLAND (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Hege Tryggestad (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Tone Kristenen (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Hege Aarlie (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Sigmund Eldevik (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Jon A. Lokke (University College of Ostfold, Norway)
Abstract: The principles of behavior analysis are widely applied on the behavior of clients; less focus has been put on the behavior of professionals. We had two goals with the present study: (1) to develop a quantitative checklist of the most widely used consulting techniques, and (2) based on scoring profiles from this checklist, improve the professionals consulting behavior. A multiple baseline design across groups was used. The independent variable was role-playing consultations with particular focus on the areas that needed improvement. The dependent variable was improvement in consulting behavior as measured with the checklist. Our findings indicated that it is indeed possible to measure and change consulting behavior, but the complexity of the skills and the setting, calls for a further refinement of the instrument and the training. Quality of consultant behavior increased in all 5 (fairly experienced) professionals after training, with a slight decline at follow-up after ca 6 weeks.
67. Long-Term Treatment Integrity: An Analysis.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MAIRE K. ARKOOSH (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The validity of selecting treatment contingencies based upon the results obtained via functional analysis is well documented. However, a number of second generation questions have emerged. One of which is what are the parameters required to achieve desired treatment outcomes. More specifically, the degree of treatment integrity needed for the successful reduction of problem behavior. The current study had two purposes; first to describe the relationship between treatment integrity levels and treatment effectiveness and second to highlight the importance of reporting the treatment integrity in outcome-based research. Our results indicate that a high level of treatment integrity is required for treatment success. We also found that very low levels of integrity may be required for behavioral reduction procedures (i.e., extinction) if high levels of reinforcement are provided.
68. Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement and Adjusting Demand Requirements: Year Two Summary Results.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA E. FRIEDER (Idaho State University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University), Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Idaho State University), Shawn Patrick Quigley (Idaho State University), Shilo L. Smith Ruiz (Idaho State University)
Abstract: A summary of results from the first and second year of a 3-year Federal grant project funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, Serious Behavior Disorders-Special Education Research Grants Program will be presented. Project participants included students with variety of disabilities, all presenting severe escape-motivated problem behavior, ages 5 to 12 years, and grades K-6 in three school districts across the state of Idaho. Summary results of functional analyses and choice-making interventions that pitted break requests, compliance, and problem behavior against each other will be presented. Data will be presented on the participants’ problem behavior, number of break requests, and task completion. Data summarizing how these responses varied as a function of increasing task demands over time will be shown. Also, follow-up data from first year participants will be presented. Implications for treatment of problem behavior will be discussed.
69. Use of Nuk Brush and 3 Step Prompting Procedures to Resolve Packing and Expulsion Problems.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YIL YONG KIM (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: Although evidence-based treatment for childhood feeding disorder was identified by researchers (Kerwin, 1999; Linscheid, 2006; Chung, & Kahng, 2006), clinicians still faces with other feeding issues such as packing and expulsion, which could not be efficiently resolved by above treatment methods. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral intervention for a child with diverse feeding problems, especially packing and expulsion. Participant of this study was a 24-month-old girl, SY, with FTT (failure to thrive) and feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood. At the time of referral, SY only consumed liquid type foods (e.g., milk, soy milk, juice, water) and was fed forcefully by her caretakers while exhibiting severe temper tantrums throughout the meal. During Treatment 1, positive reinforcement, token economy, texture-fading, and extinction were conducted. Although her independent food intake increased significantly, packing and expulsion emerged. During Treatment 2, a Nuk brush was used instead of a spoon along with 3-step prompting procedures. The dependent measures were amount of food intake, acceptance, expel and problem behaviors. SY’s food intake and acceptance increased and her expulsion was dramatically reduced. The results suggested that use of a Nuk brush and 3-step prompting procedures could increase food consumption by successfully reducing packing and expulsion.



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