Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #209
#211 Poster Session (EDC)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
117. Using Direct Instruction Curricula in the Home to Teach Reading Comprehension to a 12-Year-Old Student with Cerebral Palsy.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS FORD MCLAUGHLIN (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University), Anna Owens (Gonzaga University), Amy Violette (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Direct Instruction curricula for teaching reading comprehension skills. The participant was a 12-year-old girl who was enrolled in the seventh grade at a public middle school in the Pacific Northwest. She had been unable to pass her high stakes testing (WASL) in the sixth grade. Each session began by asking 12 systematically random comprehension questions from the lessons of Corrective Reading Comprehension Skills Book B1 and these served as the major dependent variable. The results indicated an increase number of correct reading comprehensions when Direct Instruction materials and procedures were employed. The use of Direct Instruction was cost effective, required little training to correctly implement, and was time efficient. The participant enjoyed the procedures and felt very proud of her improvements in reading.
118. An Investigation of Aloud Reading Comprehension Rate.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA D. HALE (Eastern Kentucky University), Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati), Larissa Shoemaker (Eastern Kentucky University), Morgan Taylor (Eastern Kentucky University), LaRoy Moore (Eastern Kentucky University), Michelle Shouse (Eastern Kentucky University)
Abstract: The current study is designed to investigate reading assessment methods. Reading assessment has become an area of great research interest because many students in the public school system are not reading at an appropriate grade level. Progress monitoring of student reading skills has also become an area of interest because research indicates that frequent progress monitoring of students’ academic skills leads to greater improvement in those skills than the absence of progress monitoring. In order to progress monitor students effectively educators must have valid and reliable assessment tools that are time efficient to administer. Aloud reading comprehension is assessed under two conditions (Maze and comprehension questions). MAZE passages assess comprehension while the student reads by including three options for certain words. The student is directed to circle the option that makes the most sense in the paragraph. The comprehension question passages assess comprehension after the student finishes reading the passage. The students are given ten multiple-choice questions and asked to select the correct answer. This study is designed to compare comprehension and comprehension rate under each condition with two criterion measures (WCPM and the BRC Score from the WJ-III ACH). Significant differences and correlations will be reported.
119. Evaluating Direct Instruction on Beginning Reading Skills of Two Preschool Children.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RANDY LEE WILLIAMS (Gonzaga University), Greg McGrath (Gonzaga University), Karlene Nechanicky (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Direct Instruction's Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons on the beginning reading skills of two preschool children. The change agent was the father of the two children and the study was completed in the home. The 100 Easy Lessons is a phonetic approach to teaching reading which is phonetically-based, highly sequenced, structured, and scripted. A multiple baseline design across three sets of words was implemented. A clear functional relationship was shown between the use of Direct Instruction and mastery of words. The 100 Easy Lessons was practical in terms of time, money, and effort. Clearly, parents can effectively teach their own children to read using 100 Easy Lessons.
120. The Effects of a Self-Questioning Intervention on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TIMOTHY CRABTREE (The Ohio State University), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: A multiple baseline across students design was used to examine the effects of a self-questioning intervention on the reading comprehension of three high school students with learning disabilities. Reading comprehension was measured by immediate recall accuracy of the key story elements and a 10-item reading comprehension quiz. The students were taught to use a self-recording form that prompted them to write the answers to five questions at three pre-determined stops during the story. Results demonstrated a functional relation of the self-questioning strategy on increased reading comprehension for all three students. Additionally, all three students maintained their use of the reading comprehension strategy.
121. The Effect of Hidden and Not-Hidden Flashcard Placement on the Acquisition of Sight Words.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brooke Lamp (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Valerie J. Gortmaker (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Lisa Kelly-Vance (University of Nebraska at Omaha)
Abstract: This study examines a simple procedural difference that may affect the acquisition of stimulus control of sight words. This study examined differential outcomes in the acquisition of sight words during a flashcard drill procedure when the flashcards were hidden from the student prior to and after presentation during instruction compared to when the flashcards were present face down in two piles (known and unknown) on the table prior to and after presentation during instruction. Three students, all age 7, referred for reading difficulties participated in the study. An alternating treatments design was used in which hidden and not-hidden trials of a folding-in flashcard intervention were presented. A multiple baseline design across sight word lists was also applied. Outcome measures included percent of sight words learned, correct words read per minute in passage containing sight words, sight word list, and accurate identification of sight words in a passage. Results suggest better acquisition of sight words during not-hidden trials of intervention, and mixed results for maintenance over time of sight words subsequent to hidden trials of intervention. Inter-rater agreement and treatment integrity data were collected and computed at 100% for each. Implications for practice and future research are provided.
122. Combining Direct Instruction and the Georgia State University Reading Program in Kindergarten Through Second Grade.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA D. FREDRICK (Georgia State University), Amy C. Scarborough (Georgia State University), Alice Nanda (Georgia State University), Daphne Greenberg (Georgia State University)
Abstract: Early reading instruction is essential for becoming a competent reader and succeeding in school. We implemented Direct Instruction reading and language programs along with reading strategies from the Georgia State University (GSU) Reading Program. Our participants included students in kindergarten through second grade who were at risk for school failure and who were attending an urban elementary school. Kindergarten children initially received instruction in Language for Learning before receiving instruction in Reading Mastery. Students in Grades One and Two received instruction in Reading Mastery along with the GSU Reading Program. Students were administered the Elision subtest of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, the Word Attack and the Word Identification subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and a nonstandardized orthographic awareness assessment. Across all four assessments students who had two or three years of instruction scored significantly better (p < .05) than those students who had only one year of instruction. There were no significant differences between students who received three years of instruction compared to those who received two years of instruction. Direct Instruction coupled with the GSU Reading Program provides effective reading instruction for students in kindergarten through second grade.
123. Using the REWARDS Program to Improve the Reading Skills of a 10th Grader with ADHD.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTALL J. GRAHAM (The Ohio State University), Ralph Gardner III (The Ohio State University), Yi-Wei Hsin (Yu Da College of Business)
Abstract: Secondary students whose reading skills are significantly below their grade level are at increased for school failure. One concern for these students is their inability to read multisyllabic words. The fact is multisyllabic words tend to be the most content rich words in textbooks. Without intervention these students will have difficulty comprehending much of the information in their classes therefore diminishing their ability to be successful in school. This study used the REWARDS program to increase the reading skills of a 10th grade student with low reading ability. The entire REWARDS program was administered during summer tutoring sessions, which consisted of 3 days per week, an hour per day over the course of 7 weeks. The pre and post assessments utilized the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery, the REWARDS Generalization Test, and an Oral Reading Fluency Measure. The data shows that the student made multiple years progress during the summer instruction. The assessments showed improved decoding, oral reading, and comprehension. Both the student and his parents felt that the instruction was effective in improving his reading ability.
124. The Effects of School-Wide Implementation of DI Reading Versus a Balanced Reading Approach.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL C. LAMBERT (Western Washington University), Leanne Robinson (Western Washington University)
Abstract: This study examines the effects of two group comparison studies. Reading outcomes were evaluated for two school districts. Two reading approaches were used in this study. Schools used either a DI reading program or used the districts' approved ballence reading curriculum. The results of the four year implementation outcome data will be presented.
126. The Effects of Modeling and Fluency Contingency on Oral Reading Fluency.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
GIZEM TATARER (University of Minnesota), Ellie C. Hartman (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Factors such as lack of motivation, lack of practice, and lack of help have been demonstrated to be functionally related to poor oral reading performance in students (Daly et al., 1997). This study illustrates the effectiveness of a brief experimental analysis for testing hypotheses and identifying effective interventions for oral reading fluency. A brief experimental analysis (BEA) was conducted using a within-subject multielement design to assess variables related to two hypotheses related to a second grader’s poor oral reading fluency. A promising individualized intervention package was identified and implemented for 30 minutes each day, 3 days a week for 10 weeks. IOA was assessed during 47% of sessions. Mean agreement scores were 99%. Results demonstrated that oral reading fluency improved by over 35 words per minute, representing nearly a year’s growth in reading in just 10 weeks. Findings are discussed in terms of response-to-intervention and prescriptive assessment of academic performance.
127. Effect of Fluency Training for Elementary Students on Retention, Endurance, and Application of Kanji Reading.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WATARU NODA (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Abstract: The present study examined the effect of fluency training for two elementary school students on fluent performance of Japanese Kanji reading. In Experiment 1, we compared the effect of fluency training with that of accuracy-only training on retention, endurance, and application of Kanji reading. We taught a fifth grade student in a special education class individually to read aloud Kanji words which were third grade level. In fluency training, we used a timed practice procedure, while in accuracy-only training, we used a discrete trial procedure. We controlled the number of instructional trials for the accuracy-only training by a yoked procedure. Results showed that the student demonstrated better application of reading Kanji words embedded in a sentence after fluency training than after accuracy-only training. In Experiment 2, a fourth grade student enrolled in regular class received fluency training using timed practice until he could read aloud Kanji words with 100% accuracy and then built high frequency. He also learned other Kanji words in acquisition training until he could read them aloud with 100% accuracy. In this case, results indicated that there were no differences between the fluency training condition and the acquisition training condition in retention, endurance, and application.
128. Computerized Instruction and Curriculum Steps to Facilitate Mathematics Facts Fluency.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER L. WILSON (Central Michigan University), Sara Jean Doty (Central Michigan University), Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster presentation is to describe results from a study that examined the effects of a direct instruction computerized math facts program. It was hypothesized that the use of curriculum steps and fact fluency would lead to better acquisition, automaticity, and retention of math facts. The importance of basic math fact memorization will be described as well as what to consider when using flashcards to facilitate memorization. The poster will teach participants how to use a computer-assisted instructional flashcard program to create individualized intervention plans for students who are having difficulties acquiring and retaining basic math facts.
129. Using Repeated Practice and Error Correction Procedures Combined with Precision Teaching Measurement Approaches to Improve the math Calculation Fluency of Middle School Students with Emotional and...
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTI A. OSKAR-GROEN (The University of South Dakota), William J. Sweeney (The University of South Dakota)
Abstract: The purpose of this research demonstration project was to document the importance and effectiveness of a repeated practice procedures combined with Precision Teaching measurement approaches for assisting middle school students who were diagnosed and enrolled in special education programs for students with emotional and behavior disorders and exhibited deficits in basic math skills to improve their overall fluency in math calculations. Few research studies focus on building math fluency skills, especially of middle school students, and fewer yet combine Precision Teaching measurement approaches in the evaluation and effectiveness of math fluency approaches. Besides the combination of Precision Teaching measurement methodologies to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these intervention procedures, few studies set out with the intent to document generalization and maintenance effect of these types of repeated practice procedures with students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Students were selected from the special education program based upon identified math deficits and the need to improve their speed and accuracy of math calculations to assure that they were able to progress to more complex math related concepts. Students from these special education classes worked on a one-on-one or in small groups of 2 to 3 students with a trained and highly qualified special education teacher. This special education teacher used a combined one-minute repeated practice procedure with error correction as well as Precision Teaching evaluation approaches to document the students’ progress at building oral math calculation fluency. Maintenance and generalization procedures were also implemented to document the generalization of math fluency across multiple math probes as well as the relative ability of the participants to maintain this math fluency performance 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the completion of the repeated practice and error correction procedures. The Standard Celeration Chart and the student’s daily performance were then evaluated at the conclusion of each repeated practice and error correction session. Implications and recommendations for use of these demonstration research activities for both students in general and special education settings are also discussed.
130. The Effects of a Fluency Building Activity and Culturally Specific Material on the ORF of At-Risk African American First Graders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LENWOOD GIBSON (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University), Angella Harjani Singh (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The National Reading Panel provides data on academic achievement of U.S. students. This "National report card" consistently indicates a large discrepancy in the reading achievement scores of African American and White students. The current gap in the latest report (2007) is over 25 points and has changed very little over the past 15 years. In light of these differences, efforts can be made to improve the academic performance of African American students. The use of fluency building procedures has proven effective for increasing oral reading fluency of at-risk readers. Although there has been advocacy for the use of culturally relevant material to teach culturally and linguistically diverse populations there is not much empirical research to support it. The current investigation is being conducted to examine the effects of a fluency building activity on the oral reading fluency and comprehension of first grade, African American males that are at risk for reading failure. This activity will consist of the following components: sight word recognition, modeled reading, guided practice with corrective feedback, and one-minute timed readings. To test if culturally specific (CS) reading material has any significant effect on the reading and comprehension of the participants, the fluency activity will alternate between CS stories and stories from a standard reading curriculum.
131. Tugmate: Increasing Sight Word Fluency through a Structured Flash Card Drill.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LINDSEY GUMPH (The University of Toledo), Sarah Lynne Eickholt (The University of Toledo), Amanda Kneice (The University of Toledo)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a structured flashcard drill for sight word fluency with elementary school students. Three children with poor word recognition skills received Barbetta and Miller's (1991) Tugmate drill. This intervention involves frequent presentation and practice with unlearned words. Familiar, known words are included in order to insure frequent successes and to create momentum. Treatment integrity is measured through checklists completed by independent trained observers. It is projected that all three will increase their sight word fluency to targeted levels by the end of the intervention period.
132. A Comparison of Preferred Reading Fluency Interventions to Effective Reading Fluency Interventions as Demonstrated by Brief Experimental Analysis.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
DEBBORAH EDA SMYTH (The May Institute/The University of Southern Mississippi), D. Joe Olmi (The University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: This research compared the effects of reading interventions based on student preference to reading interventions identified by brief experimental analysis as being the most effective. Following the brief experimental analysis the most preferred intervention was compared to the most effective intervention using an alternating treatment design. The extended analysis suggested no significant differences between the preferred intervention and the intervention demonstrated to be most effective in the brief experimental analysis. Discussion, limitations, and implications for further research are included.
133. Efficacy of a Reading Intervention Package with Retained Secondary Education Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
TIFFANY DIANE CHANDLER (Mississippi State University), Jennifer S. Kazmerski (Mississippi State University), Richard Anthony Doggett (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the efficacy of Reading-to-Read, focusing on fluency and comprehension. The students were selected from a rural Southeastern school district experiencing difficulty in reading and were at least two grade levels behind. Empirical data will be presented for Reading-to-Read using a multiple baseline design. Fluency will be assessed via words correct per minute. Comprehension will be assessed via mazes and standard open-ended comprehension questions. Previous research has provided empirical support for Reading-to-Read indicating that the package is effective in increasing reading fluency and comprehension with elementary school populations. This study is extending previous research to examine whether students in secondary education will benefit from an intensive reading intervention package. Finally, the results, limitations, and implications for future research as well as practitioner use will be discussed.
134. Defining Quality Research in Education: Should ABA Weigh in on the National Dialogue?
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
BARBARA SCHIRMER (University of Detroit), Todd Schirmer (Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science), Alison Schirmer Lockman (Rowland Hall, St. Mark's School)
Abstract: Given concerns about the quality of research in education and questions about what constitutes evidence for informing instructional practice, five professional organizations have developed standards for quality research in just the past five years. The purpose of our investigation was to compare standards for educational research developed by these five organizations. Our goal was to determine the extent to which the research qualities articulated in these five sets of standards overlap and, therefore, define quality research similarly. We examined the standards developed by the American Educational Research Association, Council for Exceptional Children’s Division for Research, Division 16 of the APA/Society for the Study of School Psychology, American Association for Colleges of Teacher Education, and What Works Clearinghouse of the Institute of Education Sciences. We found that the standards varied in addressing key research elements. Most addressed methodology, analysis, and results; few addressed theoretical framework, problem formation, significance, conclusions, and implications. It may be time for ABA to weigh in on this the dialogue, which could move the field forward in developing a set of standards that are broad and deep enough to cover the critical dimensions of quality research yet provide a manageable tool for researchers and practitioners.
135. Quality Evaluation in the Special Education Services.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIA ANABEL PLANCARTE CANSINO (National University of Mexico UNAM), Patricia Ortega Silva (National University of Mexico UNAM), Hugo Romano Torres (National University of Mexico UNAM)
Abstract: The quality of health services provided to the community is considered essential in the attention offered to users. As a matter of fact, the main interest in this subject is to get health benefits and to satisfy the individual’s expectation. In a few words, the challenge is to develop mechanisms to improve quality to positively affect the society. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the services offered in a university institution and to identify the positive and negative factors to influence it’s implementation in accordance with a holistic point of view. Twenty-seven family mothers and 108 service givers (psychology students) were interviewed about different topics of the special education services awarded to the community. The data are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structure, processes, and results obtained in the implementation of special education services agreeing with the quality vision obtained by the users and the service givers.
136. Teaching Functional Writing Skills to Children with Minimal Speaker Repertoires: Differences in Academic and Social Repertoires.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA VERA MONTGOMERY (ABA Learning Solutions), Katie Baker (ABA Learning Solutions)
Abstract: This study tested the effects of teaching functional writing skills on the academic, social, conversational, and communication repertoires of three children between the ages of 6 and 8 diagnosed with autism, speech apraxia, full body dispraxia, and verbal dispraxia. A delayed multiple baseline design was used to test these effects. Prior to implementing the functional writing treatment package all students emitted low occurrences of independent speaker behavior, worked on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten level academic programs, had no conversational repertoires, and had low frequencies or zero occurrences of sequlics in their speaker repertoire. The functional writing treatment package included mastering the Sensible Pencil® writing curriculum (ATC Learning, 2005), Write from the Start ® perceptual-motor handwriting program (LDA, 2001), art skills, and an individualized functional writing program where students were required to use written mands and write directions for others to follow. The results showed that Students A and B learned grade level academic curriculum through reading and writing skills, engaged in conversational units with teachers and parents through writing skills, academic attending increased, and stereotypy decreased. Student C is not complete with the functional writing treatment package; however, current early data shows similar effects to Student A and B.
137. An Examination of the Effects of Two Formats of Review on Quiz Performance in a College Course.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EDWARD D. PARKER (The Ohio State University), Judah B. Axe (The Ohio State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Decades of research demonstrate a positive relationship between the amount of time students spend actively responding to academic tasks and their subsequent achievement. Methods for increasing active student responses (ASR) include choral responding, guided notes, response cards, and written exercises. Using these methods has had positive effects on the learning of students of varying ages. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two review formats using ASR on the quiz scores of university students taking a introduction to applied behavior analysis course. “Clickers” (an electronic response card) was the ASR system students used to respond to review questions prior to taking quizzes. In one condition, students were presented 5-7 review questions (traditional review); in the other condition, 15-21 questions were presented (repeated practice review). The ratio of questions presented between the two conditions was always 1:3. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the two conditions. Results, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.



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