Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #292
#295 Poster Session (CBM)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
South Exhibit Hall
44. ACT for Chronic Pain: Using Multiple Types of Measurement Modalities.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
STACEY FILERMAN (Illinois Institute of Technology), Kent D. Smallwood (Trinity Health Services), Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Health Services)
Abstract: As of 2005, in the U.S., approximately 25% of the population experience some form of chronic pain. Economic reports estimate that $100 billion per year in medical costs can be attributed to chronic pain as well as 515 million lost workdays and 40 million medical visits (Neurostimulator approved, 2005). In addition, chronic pain patients show strong resistance to treatment for a variety of reasons (Monsen & Monsen, 2000). Recently, ACT-based treatments have shown fairly consistent gains in functioning, despite little or no corresponding decrease in symptomology (Hayes et al., 1999; Dahl et al., 2005). These are still preliminary results which require more work concerning optimal ways to detect clinically significant change. Therefore, assuming ACT is a viable treatment for chronic pain, research is still needed on how to best detect and measure its effectiveness. This case-study concerns a client suffering from chronic pain, exhibiting pain-consistent clinically relevant behaviors consisting of fusion to the supposed veracity of disability-related thoughts, and a significant avoidance repertoire of any pain causing stimuli. ACT therapy served as the independent measure. Three categories of dependent measures were used to determine the presence of a clinically significant treatment effect along various dimensions.
45. The Permanent Solution: Parasuicidality and Experiential Avoidance.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHAEL C. HOWARD (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Mississippi), Crystal N. Armstrong (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: In a society that places great emphasis on living well, individuals will go to great lengths to avoid experiencing pain. Pain can be conceptualized in many ways: physical injury to the body, unrelenting intrusive thoughts, and fear of a real or perceived experience that could hurt physically or emotionally. Individuals experiencing periods of intense and unrelenting psychological distress sometime look to suicide and parasuicide as a permanent solution. The current study examines the relationship between experiential avoidance and parasuicidality.
46. Behavioral Congruence with Personal Values as a Predictor of Undergraduates Adjustment, Success and Retention.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLES GILPIN (Missouri State University), Ann Branstetter-Rost (Missouri State University), Cara Britton (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Based upon the theory of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, behavioral congruence with one's states values is likely related to psychological adjustment. The current study examines this relationship, as well as the relationship between congruence and academic success among first-semester freshmen. Two hundred students completed questionnaires within the first month of the Fall semester. Questionnaires included measures of valued living, distress, and psychological adjustment. At the end of the semester, these data were collected again, along with grade averages. Results indicate that behavioral congruence is predictive of adjustment and academic success.
47. Contextual Variations of Mindfulness: A Behavioral Model and Preliminary Results.
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
JEREMY WING-HEI LUK (University of Washington), Gareth I. Holman (University of Washington), Robert J. Kohlenberg (University of Washington)
Abstract: Just as mindfulness can be practiced anywhere, questionnaires such as the KIMS (Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004) tend to evaluate mindfulness across a variety of contexts. Such questionnaires thus produce a "global index" of mindfulness, rather than an assessment based on contextual variations in behavior. A behavioral perspective suggests that different learning histories in, for instance, interpersonal and work contexts may produce corresponding variations in context-specific mindfulness. We present a behavioral model of mindfulness which focuses on distinguishing mindfulness in intimate-interpersonal and work-related contexts. We then present preliminary results of a study in which we evaluated contextual variations in mindfulness by administering alternate versions of the KIMS, which specified either no-context, interpersonal context, or work context, to a sample of undergraduate research participants. Observed contextual variations in mindfulness related to gender and race/ethnicity are discussed. Findings about the potential relationships between mindfulness, social support, attachment style, self-construal, and mood are also explored. Despite the limitation of the self-report method, this study is one of the first systematic empirical evaluations of contextual variations in mindfulness. Finally, we evaluate clinical implications of contextual variations of mindfulness from a behavioral analytic perspective.
48. Contingencies in a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol for Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CRISTINA BELOTTO DA SILVA (University of São Paulo), Juliana Diniz (University of São Paulo), Roseli Shavitt (University of São Paulo), Marcia Motta (University of São Paulo), Euripedes Miguel (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: A group cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for obsessive-compulsive behavior has been applied with inclusion criteria wider than in literature of this area, including treatment of patients with psychiatric comorbidities usually excluded in first evaluations. Instead of the literature, which has acquired reduction of 60% of the symptoms in 70% of the population, the response rate to treatment has been 30% in this study. So, it should be interesting to evaluate if the contingencies have been successful in identifying which contingencies in this protocol may promote changes in behavior. Data about the improvement with this treatment and the contingencies analyses of this protocol (identifying behavioral process and concepts like extinction, discriminative train and social arbitrary reinforcement) will be presented. In the future, it may be possible to include other contingencies that better guarantee improvement in the treatment for the OCD population who looks for treatment.
49. Effects of the Family History of Alcohol Problems on the Efficacy of a Stepped-Care Cognitive-Behavioral Motivational Model for College Students with Alcohol Problems.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
HORACIO QUIROGA ANAYA (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Juan Jose Sanchez Sosa (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Maria Elena Teresa Medina-Mora Icaza (Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría)
Abstract: This poster describes the results obtained in the investigation of the effects of a family history of alcohol problems on the treatment outcomes of a stepped-care cognitive-behavioral motivational model for college students with alcohol problems. The results indicated that a family history of alcohol problems had significant statistical effects on the general and specific results obtained at the one year follow-up, but only in two of the three alcohol consumption measures investigated, that is frequency of alcohol week consumption ( = 2.62; DE = 0.51) > ( = 2.42; DE = 0.52), t(484) = - 4.10, p = .00 and quantity of alcohol week consumption ( = 9.07; DE = 2.65) > ( = 8.44; DE = 2.57), t(484) = - 2.67, p = .00, but not in the measure of quantity of alcohol consumption per occasion ( = 3.45; DE = 0.61) < ( = 3.48; DE = 0.55), t(1209) = .86, p = .38, that jointly with the first two measures conform the consumption pattern, neither in the problems related with the consumption (3.4 vs. 4.0) and (3.0 vs. 3.2), being concluded this way that this variable affected only partially the general results of the model.
50. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Action in ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHERINE A. PETERSON (Utah State University), Mike P. Twohig (Utah State University), Jesse M. Crosby (Utah State University)
Abstract: Substance abuse and dependence has continually been reported as a national problem. As reported by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 2005, nearly 2 million individuals received treatment for substance abuse. This results in enormous costs in terms of treatment, prevention, and management procedures (NIDA, 2006). Many psychological treatments have been employed for substance abuse and dependency including cognitive behavioral therapy, 12-step processes and other behavioral approaches, but none are a panacea. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy has recently demonstrated effectiveness in treating substance abuse as well. The unique processes involved in ACT therapy appear to not only be effective in facilitating effective change in substance abuse clients while in treatment, but also appear to have lasting effects at follow up as well. This poster will review the current effectiveness of this treatment for substance abuse and dependence, analyze the mechanisms of action, and offer a discussion on the strengths and limitations of these data.
51. The Mothering of Child Abuse and Behavior Disorders: Authoritarian and Permissive Asynchrony.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ARIEL VITE SIERRA (Universidad Nacional de México), Florente López (Universidad Nacional de México)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two forms of mother-child asynchrony: Authoritarian and permissive in abusive families in relation to families of children with behavior disorders. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother’s indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. The study was conducted with a group of seven mother-child dyads that presented episodes of physical abuse and a group of seven clinic-referred dyads considered troubled because of behavior disorders. The ages of the children oscillated between four and nine years, with an average age of 6.8. The dyads were observed at the clinic in three sessions of 20 minutes in an academic activity for a total of 14 hours, by a group of trained observers using System of Capture of Observational Data SOI-I (Vite, Garcia & Rosas, 2006). Results showed the clinic-referred dyads were inclined authoritarian and permissive asynchrony that the physical child abuse dyads. Discussion is centered on salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and differences between characteristics of both groups that might have accounted for the unlike parenting.
52. ACHIEVE — A Full Inclusion Behavioral Analytic Day Treatment Model.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ADAM GOLONKA (University of Southern Maine), Bryan Adams (University of Southern Maine), Alexis Berry (University of Southern Maine), Elaine Carolan (University of Southern Maine), Nicole DeRosa (University of Southern Maine), Jamie Malley (University of Southern Maine), Iride Piechocki (University of Southern Maine), Caroline Wallace (University of Southern Maine)
Abstract: ACHIEVE is a comprehensive day treatment program for students needing behavioral and academic supports to succeed in regular education. Students range in from 13 to 18. All have special education needs and various DSM-IV-TR diagnoses requiring behavior management, academic intervention, individual psychotherapy, and in-home family support. ACHIEVE is jointly operated by Providence of Maine, Bath Public Schools, and the University of Southern Maine. The program is specifically designed to reward students’ efforts to improve their social skills, academic performance, and self-regulation of their emotions to enable them to participate fully and successfully in regular education classes. ACHIEVE employs an Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment program to aid children in their efforts to improve social skills and academic performance. The core structure of the program is a token economy and a level system that is supplemented by individual behavioral interventions based on a behavior analysis and child-centered counseling. Many children will have comorbid academic difficulties that require curriculum-based assessment, alteration of the curriculum, and academic interventions to allow them to succeed in the regular education curriculum. ACHIEVE staff implement the behavior management program and academic interventions while collecting data on each student’s social and academic behavior on a period-by-period basis throughout each school day. These data are graphed and used to make treatment decisions by the team of professionals working at ACHIEVE. As a university-affiliated program, most ACHIEVE staff are USM graduate students or faculty. A primary mission of the program is to conduct field-based research aimed at developing and evaluating new behavior management and academic instructional methods that are effective with children at risk for failure in regular education. This poster will present data on the first year of operation of the program.
53. Treatment of Choking Phobia.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW R. TYSON (Penn State, Harrisburg), Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center)
Abstract: Repeated taste exposure with escape prevention was used to successfully treat a child with choking phobia. This poster describes how this treatment was able to reduce child-reported anxiety, increased acceptance of both volume and variety of foods, and decrease the time required for food consumption.
54. The Effects of Contingent Reinforcement on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in a Changing Criterion Design.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER KLAPATCH (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Diana J. Walker (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Within a changing criterion design, the effects of contingent monetary reinforcement during peak smoking times were assessed to determine its effectiveness in promoting reduction and/or cessation of smoking. Four participants delivered three samples of expired breath carbon monoxide (CO) per day for five weekdays during the morning, afternoon, and evening to determine their “peak” time period of smoking. For the following 2 weeks, participants delivered CO samples during their peak time and received $0-$10 depending on how much they reduced their CO, with the criterion for reinforcement being based on the CO level in the previous week. The four final weekdays of testing required each participant to deliver three samples during the above-mentioned time periods for which each participant could receive a total of $25. A 1-day follow-up occurred 3 weeks following the final treatment phase. All four participants decreased their peak time CO readings from baseline to follow-up, with three of four participants having follow-up CO readings of 10ppm or lower, suggestive of smoking abstinence. These data show that utilization of a changing criterion design with monetary contingencies effectively promotes reduction and/or cessation of smoking.
55. The Use of a Multiple Baseline Design and Nicotine Gum in Achieving Smoking Cessation.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHEN RAY FLORA (Youngstown State University), Lindsey Hardie (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: A multiple baseline across situations design was used to eliminate cigarette smoking in a moderate smoker. Smoking was terminated sequentially in specific locations, and replaced with nicotine gum as needed. The frequency of cigarettes smoked per day was gradually reduced by ceasing to smoke across successive environments. Nicotine Polarcrilex gum served as an effective treatment in the cessation of cigarette smoking by providing an alternative nicotine source. Once smoking had been eliminated, chewing nicotine gum was gradually reduced until it too was no longer needed. These interventions helped to control and eliminate cravings of nicotine withdrawal. Use of a multiple baseline across situations design may serve as a useful alternative to the usually suggested “cold-turkey” quitting approach.
56. Predictors of Compliance to Health Habits Vary Across Cultures.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ELAINE M. HEIBY (University of Hawaii), Maxwell R. Frank (Boston Medical Center), Carrie L. Lukens (University of Hawaii at Manoa), Harald Barkhoff (University of Hawaii at Hilo), Sungkun Cho (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
Abstract: Forty-five situational and behavioral competency factors that have been shown to be predictive of compliance to health habits were evaluated in three culturally and geographically different samples of college students. Health habits assessed were as follows: (1) performing breast self-exams; (2) obtaining pap smear screens; (3) taking medication as prescribed; (4) not smoking cigarettes; (5) wearing a bike safety helmet (if applicable); (6) protecting skin from sun; (7) flossing teeth daily; (8) wearing a seat-belt; (9) limiting alcohol consumption; (10) practicing safe sex; (11) exercising regularly; and (12) eating a healthy diet. Predictors and compliance were measured by the Health Behavior Schedule-II, which is a 209-item questionnaire. Two samples were mono- ethnic (Stuttgart, Germany and Seoul, Korea), and one sample was multi-ethnic (Honolulu, U.S.A.) that included those who self-identify as Asian-, Pacific Islander-, Hawaiian-, and Caucasian-American. Variance accounted for compliance to the 12 health habits across samples ranged from zero to 100%. No predictor generalized across all 12 health behaviors for all three cultural groups. Each predictor is modifiable by cognitive- behavioral interventions. Health promotion and disease prevention implications are discussed in terms of how the targeted health behavior and the cultural context may influence reinforcement contingencies.



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