Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #294
#297 Poster Session (EAB)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
South Exhibit Hall
1. Differential Reinforcement of Behavioral Variability by Frequency-Dependent Selection of Two Interresponse Times in Rats.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YOSUKE HACHIGA (Keio University), Takayuki Sakagami (Keio University)
Abstract: Research of reinforced variability is partly a matter of the control of response occurrences with reference to both equiprobability and sequential independence as indices. Previous studies have demonstrated response occurrences with equal probability among response alternatives were produced by frequent-dependent selection procedure, in which the more frequent response was, the lower probability was that it would be reinforced. Moreover, they hypothesized sequential pattern formed in the procedure depended on the ability of memory for prior responses to satisfy the contingency. We reinforced variability of concurrent discrete interresponse times (IRTs) with discriminated stimuli (say, 1.0 to 2.0 sec as short and 5.5 to 6.5 sec as long IRT), using four male Wister rats. On the prediction, if the differential reinforcement had generality, responses for both IRT would occur with equal probability. Furthermore, if the hypothesis was correct, simple response alternation between IRT intervals or otherwise sequential independent pattern would occur. We will discuss the implications for the processes of reinforced variability.
2. Correspondence between Morphological and Conventional Relations.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA ISABEL MUNOZ BLANCO (University of Nevada)
Abstract: In the study line of intelligent behavior derived from the theory of Ribes (1990), the current study is designed to evaluate the effect of four types of trained morphologic relationships (identity, similarity, difference and opposition), on the performance in a semantic extra dimensional test with synonyms and antonyms. Thirty college students were assigned to six experimental groups, differing in couples of trained relationships. Subsequently all groups passed to an extradimensional semantic test with the same trained relationships. The results showed that the subjects chose generally one option (synonym) in the first relationship and antonym in the other relationship, in every group. Logical analyses by Ribes and colleagues suggested that in this circumstance subjects’ responding would reflect the one-to-one correspondence between the morphological and conventional relations involved in the test. The results of the present study do not support this analysis. Instead, the subjects’ responses were based on the context established by the relationship between the contextual stimuli. The present study raises a question about the utility of the extra-dimensional task for the assessment of intelligent behavior.
3. Maladaptive Behaviors Following Rich-to-Lean Transitions on Multiple Schedules.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JEFF S. STEIN (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Developmentally disabled individuals responded on a touch-sensitive computer screen on a signaled two-component multiple schedule. In the rich component, a small number of responses (e.g. 10) produced a high-preferred reinforcer, and in the lean component, a relatively large number of responses (e.g., 100) produced a low-preferred reinforcer. Four types of transitions between components were arranged: lean-to-rich, lean-to-lean, rich-to-rich, and rich-to-lean. The data show the conditional probability that a transition will occasion a bout of maladaptive behavior (e.g. SIB, self-stimulation) was the highest following a rich-to-lean transition
4. Wheel Running as a Reinforcer in Obese (fa/fa) and Lean Zucker Rats.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SHILO L. SMITH RUIZ (Idaho State University), Erin B. Rasmussen (Idaho State University), Megan Roberto (Idaho State University), Becky Lynn Hansis-O'Neill (Idaho State University)
Abstract: The extant literature shows that low levels of physical activity are one of several behaviors linked to obesity. The Zucker rat (fa/fa) is a genetic rat model of obesity that has been developed to allow specific factors related to obesity, including physical activity, to be examined. The degree to which activity functions as a reinforcer, however, has not yet been established in this rat strain. The current study examined differences in the reinforcing properties of exercise in female obese and lean Zucker rats. Twenty rats (n=10 in each group) were required to press a guillotine door under a progressive ratio schedule to gain entry to a running wheel for a 2-min reinforcer interval. The last ratio completed (breakpoint), response rate, and number of revolutions were compared between groups. Results indicate that obese rats had significantly lower break points and lower door-press response rates for wheel-running access compared to lean rats. Moreover, they made significantly fewer revolutions in the 2-sec reinforcer intervals. These results indicate preliminary support that obese Zucker rats may find exercise less reinforcing than lean rats.
5. Initial Food Bolus Placement as a Treatment for Food Packing in Children With Feeding Disorders.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JANELLE A ALLISON (Marcus Autism Center), David Jacquess (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Food redistribution procedures have resulted in successfully decreasing packing and latency to clean mouth in children with severe feeding disorders. Redistribution procedures involve collecting food from inside the child’s mouth (i.e., from the cheek and from under the tongue) and redepositing it on the tongue (Sevin, Gulotta, Sierp, Rosica, and Miller, 2002). In previous studies, using redistribution to strategically reposition food in the mouth following the occurrence of packing resulted in faster swallowing of the bite (Gulotta, Piazza, Patel, and Layer, 2005; Sevin et al., 2002.) We evaluated the effects on packing, expelling and latency to clean mouth of strategically depositing food on the middle and back of the tongue or on the side of the cheek sooner in the feeding sequence--during the initial presentation. Out of four children, two showed improvement in latency to clean mouth and packing when food was strategically deposited during the initial presentation. One child showed improvement in expelling while expels were variable with another and two children showed no difference in expelling when food was strategically deposited. Implications for understanding behavioral contingencies in treatment of food refusal and individualized treatment planning will also be discussed.
6. Instructional Programming: Facilitating the Emergence of Letter Naming.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JANNA N. SKINNER (University of Kansas), Tanya Baynham (University of Kansas), Anna C. Schmidt (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Research shows that letter naming is a critical prerequisite for early reading skills (Adams, 1990). This study was part of a research program to develop computerized instruction of early reading skills. The present study examined whether expressive naming emerged after teaching receptive letter naming. The alphabet was divided into halves. An expressive probe was given after each half was taught. Naming was accurate for the first half, but data demonstrate that earlier letters taught interfered with the acquisition of naming for the latter letters. A follow-up was run to test whether separating difficult-to-discriminate letters will help letter naming acquisition.
7. Using Palm Pilots®, iPods®, and iPhones® as Data Collection Devices.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
BRANDON F. GREENE (Integrated Behavioral Services, Inc.), Joey Coonce (Integrated Behavioral Services, Inc.)
Abstract: This poster will describe and illustrate how hand-held platforms, including the Palm Pilot® and various iMac® devices, have been programmed to record frequency, duration and interval data in field settings with a variety of populations. These devices have been programmed to allow the researcher or clinician to select one or numerous target behaviors and subjects. The presentation will also describe how they allow a researcher or clinician either to sync the device on a desktop computer or to transmit the data wirelessly through a web portal where it is instantly summarized, graphed and/or scatter-plotted for review.
8. The Effects of Jackpot Size on the Physiology of Gamblers.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JEFFREY E. DILLEN (Our Lady of Peace), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present study explored the use of a variety of physiological responses as supplemental dependent measures to operant responding of slot machine gamblers. Thirty participants completed a 2-hour study in which they were exposed to both money and no-money jackpot conditions. Results revealed that while most subjects displayed orderly operant data, physiology was not related to experimental conditions. In summary, a dependence on physiology to explain causes of gambling is incorrect and more operant approaches are needed.
9. Using a Brief Experimental Analysis to Inform Fluency Intervention for a Struggling Reader.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MIMI L. MCDONNELL (University of Minnesota), Dana Wagner (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Emily R. Monn (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The response to intervention model, which focuses on identifying and offering supplementary academic assistance to students who are struggling, has gained popularity in the public schools in recent years. Brief experimental analyses, in which different interventions are tested using a multielement brief experimental design, offer a way for practitioners to determine appropriate individualized interventions for these struggling students (Jones & Wickerstrom, 2002). In the current study, a brief experimental analysis of reading fluency was used to help inform intervention for an elementary aged student. Two conditions were compared: sentence-level modeling with repeated readings and an incentive for tracking, and paragraph-level modeling with repeated readings and an incentive for tracking. The sentence-level modeling with repeated readings and incentive for tracking resulted in the largest increase in fluency, and was implemented as a supplementary reading intervention. Progress was monitored both with passages that had a high degree of content overlap and general outcome measures. Results indicate that BEA can be an efficient way to identify effective instructional strategies for reading fluency intervention.
10. Decreasing Daily Caloric Intake with Self-Management.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA M. PREUSCH (Florida State University), Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University)
Abstract: The number of adults who are overweight or obese is continually increasing. Of the adults age twenty and over in the United States, 64.5% are overweight and 30.5% are obese. Calories are the measure of energy you get from the food you eat. If the amount of calories consumed is greater than the number of calories burned an individual will gain weight. In this study the low frequency of healthy meals eaten was due to ineffective natural contingencies that were less reinforcing than several competing contingencies. An AB changing criterion design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention package designed to decrease the amount of calories consumed daily. During baseline an average of approximately 2000 calories daily was recorded. During intervention the number gradually decreased until it reached an average of 1500 calories daily.
11. Short Term Remembering in the Pigeon.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CALEB D. HUDGINS (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Prior research using delayed matching-to-sample procedures has shown that accuracy of comparison selection is an exponential decay function of the length of the retention interval. Further, this research has shown that the initial discriminability (log d0) and the rate at which stimulus discriminability decays (b) can be differentially affected by procedural manipulations. These two facts might allow DMTS procedures to serve as baselines for a host of manipulations thought to effect short-term remembering in pigeons. One problem, however, is the number of sessions necessary to generate discounting functions. In this study, we sought to use rapid daily cycling of observing response requirements in a titrating delay matching-to-sample procedure in order to generate forgetting functions more rapidly. The ability to generate forgetting functions in a short span of time will allow them to be used as effective baselines in a host of experiments in which the effects of a large variety of variables may be investigated.
12. Transfer of Respondent Elicitation Through Intersecting Equivalence Classes.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BENIGNO ALONSO ÁLVAREZ (University of Oviedo, Spain), Hector Martinez Sanchez (Universidad de Guadalajara - Mexico), Juanpablo Saracho Vargas (Universidad de Guadalajara - Mexico), Luis Antonio Perez-Gonzalez (Universidad de Oviedo, Spain)
Abstract: Transfer of respondent elicitation through four intersecting equivalence classes was evaluated with college students. First, a matching-to-sample procedure was used to train conditional relations P-A (P1-A1, P2-A2) and P-B (P1-B1, P2-B2) and test for symmetry (A1-P1, A2-P2 and B1-P1, B2-P2) and equivalence (A1-B1, B1-A1 and A2-B2, B2-A2). The establishment of two equivalence classes A1-P1-B1 and A2-P2-B2 was predicted. Secondly, four new conditional relations Q-1 (Q1-A1, Q2-B1) and Q-2 (Q1-A2, Q2-B2) were trained and symmetry (A1-Q1, B1-Q2 and A2-Q1, B2-Q2) and equivalence (A1-A2, A2-A1 and B1-B2, B2-B1) were tested. Again, the establishment of two new equivalence classes (A1-Q1-A2 and B1-Q2-B2) was predicted. At this point, A and B stimuli would participate simultaneously in two intersecting equivalence classes. Finally, a skin conductance response was conditioned to A1 (CS+) by pairing this stimulus with a loud noise, while A2 (for half of participants) and B1 (for the rest of participants) served as CS-. For those participants exposed to A2 as CS-, it was expected that respondent elicitation would be transfer to P1 and B1 stimuli, but not to P2 and B2 stimuli. For those participants exposed to B1 as CS-, it was expected that respondent elicitation would be transferred to Q1 and A2 stimuli, but not to Q2 and B2 stimuli. These results would suggest that respondent elicitation can be transferred through complex stimulus relations.
13. Establishing Equivalence Classes in Children with OTM and MTO Training Protocols.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TORE VIGNES (Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Some earlier studies have found that the use of pictures as nodes in different training structures have resulted in a higher yields of responding in accord with equivalence (e.g., Arntzen, 2004; Holth & Arntzen, 1998). Contrary to these findings Smeets and Barnes-Holmes found that the use of pictures did not have such an effect, rather the opposite effect. We wanted to replicate the findings from Smeets and Barnes-Holmes (2005) and to expand the study by introducing more classes and other types of stimuli, both as abstract stimuli and pictures. Experiment 1 and 2 would be a direct replication except that we exclude the specific instruction used in Smeets and Barnes-Holmes (2005). Experiment 3 and 4 would be done with three 3-member classes and different types of stimuli.
14. Advances in Untangling the Neurocircuitry of Derived Relational Responding.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL W. SCHLUND (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins SOM), Michael F. Cataldo (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins SOM)
Abstract: Investigations of spatial and non-spatial memory and classic transitive inference suggest derived relational responding should recruit “binding”-related processes within the hippocampal complex. To explore this issue, twenty human subjects learned prior to neuroimaging two equivalence classes: (A1<>B1<>C1 and A2<>B2<> C2). During functional neuroimaging, within- and cross-class stimulus pairs were presented (e.g., A1 C1) and subjects judged whether stimuli were conditionally related, without corrective feedback. Our hypothesis, in which derived relational responding recruits the hippocampus, was assessed by contrasting activations elicited by each derived relation to cross-class stimulus pairs (e.g., A1 B2). Our hypothesis was partially confirmed with results showing greater activation to transitive and equivalence relations in the hippocampus, but activation to the symmetry relation in the parahippocampus. Also, relative to each derived relation, cross-class relations activated only the parahippocampus. Two unexpected findings, (a) greater activation in frontal and parietal regions for cross- class relations compared to each derived relation and (b) increasing reaction times and activation in frontal and parietal regions across transitive, equivalence, symmetry and cross class relations, suggest these regions are foundational to “relational responding”. Collectively, our findings demonstrate hippocampal involvement when nodes exist and frontal-parietal involvement when discriminating stimulus-stimulus relations.
15. The Emergence of Approval as Conditioned Reinforcement as a Function of Observation.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA LOPEZ MARTIN (Columbia University Teachers College), Michelle L. Zrinzo (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to determine if teacher vocal approvals can be conditioned as a reinforcer as a function of observation. A multiple baseline across participants design was implemented for the conditioning procedure. A performance task was implemented as a pre-baseline and post-conditioning to show the students rate of correct responding during two edible and approval phases. In the pre-baseline and baseline learning tasks both student's emitted low rates of correct responses during the approval phases and had difficulty acquiring all three of the learning tasks; demonstrating that teacher vocal approvals did not function as a reinforcer. The conditioning procedure was then implemented where the students observed a peer being reinforced while they both completed a performance task. Following completion of the conditioning procedure a return to the pre-baseline conditions was implemented and the students returned to the learning tasks. The results showed an increase in the number of correct responses to the learning tasks for both students and a higher amount of correct responses per minute for the approval phases. Therefore teacher vocal approvals were conditioned as reinforcers for both participants. This study was a systematic replication of Greer and Siner-Dudek (in press).
16. Compound Stimuli in Emergent Stimulus Relations and Equivalence.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
VINCA RIVIERE (Development - Autism), Jean-Claude Darcheville (University of Lille), Nora Giezek (Universitie Charles De Gaulle)
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted with normal developed adults. In Experiment 1, two procedures were randomly implemented. The matching-to-sample served to learn the classical A-B and B-C relations. During the simple discrimination, some stimuli became SD; on the others, the responses were extinguished. In Experiment 2, only simple discrimination procedure was presented with two types of stimuli. The first were compound stimuli and matched the classical relations A-B and B-C. The second were simple stimuli and a previously seen, some became SD the others became S-. The results are similar for the two experiments. Transitivity (A-C) and reflexivity (C-A) appeared only for th stimuli SD on the simple discrimination training. These findings suggest that the apparition of the logical properties of equivalence is dependent of the subject's behaviors and that the stimuli are spontaneously separable.
17. A Schedule of Mutual Reinforcement between Individuals.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HIROTO OKOUCHI (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract: Pressing a key by one undergraduate produced points exchangeable for money for another undergraduate, and vice versa. Obtained relations between responses and points in this condition were different from response-reinforcer relations generally obtained from usual reinforcement schedules. That is, points often were delivered with a delay from occurrence of the last response and/or independent of the responses. In most pairs, amount of points given was unequal. In general, one subject of each pair often was given many points with almost no responses, whereas another was given few points with a large number of responses. When a contingency that responses lost points (response-cost or punishment) was added for the latter subjects, their rates of responses decreased, then the rates of their partners increased for almost all pairs. When a contingency that responses produced points (response-dependent reinforcement) was added for the former subjects, their rates of responses increased, then the rates of their partners decreased for some of the pairs.
18. EAHB 2008 Student Paper Competition Winner: Effects of Stimulus Discriminability on the Acquisition of Conditional Discriminations in Adult Humans.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (West Virginia University), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The current study attempted to investigate the effects of the discriminability of sample and comparison stimuli on the acquisition of conditional discriminations in adult humans. In an arbitrary matching-to-sample procedure, five university students were trained on four types of conditional discriminations between simple (one-element) and complex (two-element) stimuli. Subjects learned simple-simple, simple-complex, complex-simple, and complex-complex conditional discriminations, where the first term designates the type of sample and the second term the type of comparison stimuli. The results are in general agreement with prior findings showing that, in a matching-to-sample procedure, the rate of acquisition of conditional discriminations is a function of the discriminability of the sample and comparison stimuli and that the former is a more important variable with respect to the rate of acquisition than the latter.
19. Human Matching Performance in a Rock/Paper/Scissors Game: Response Allocation in a Three-Alternative Choice Situation.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RACHEL N. CASSIDY (University of Florida), Brian D. Kangas (University of Florida), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida), Timothy D. Hackenberg (University of Florida)
Abstract: The generalized matching law has proven useful in describing the relationship between response allocation and reinforcement rates with both human and nonhuman subjects. There is, however, a paucity of studies examining matching performance under conditions in which there are more than two concurrent response alternatives. In an effort to more fully understand how humans allocate their responses in a three-concurrent choice situation, the present study had college students play the childhood game Rock/Paper/Scissors against a computer opponent. The probability of the computer's allocation of moves across the three alternatives (i.e., computer game play) was manipulated across 100-trial blocks within a session. A variation of the generalized matching law was derived to deal with the concurrent trio. The model predicts that human choice allocation across the three moves (i.e., human game play) should equal the appropriate counter-moves of the respective programmed computer's programmed game play probabilities. Results indicate that this variation of the generalized matching law adequately describes human response allocation under this three concurrent choice situation.
20. A Hairy Situation: Decreasing Maladaptive Behavior with Applied Behavior Analysis.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CATALINA REY (Florida State University), Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University)
Abstract: The present study looked to apply the principles of behavior analysis to decrease the frequency of hair playing. A modified changing criterion design was used to evaluate the effects of the treatment package, which included daily and weekly contingencies. Every time hair was played with, the participant placed a tally mark on the right forearm with a black permanent marker visible to the public, leading to secondary aversive social consequences. If the weekly goal was met by the set deadline, the opportunity to go out to any bars, clubs, or parties that weekend was earned. Hair playing decreased from an average of 350 per week to 200.
21. Behavior Analysis of Reciprocity: Three Studies, One Implication.
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
CARLOS SANTOYO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Reciprocity as a behavioral mechanism implies the regulation of social interchanges in different situations. As a quantitative model, reciprocity analysis describes the symmetry of interchanges, such as the ratio of initiating acts between partners, the ratio of successful initiating acts between dyads, or the ratio of time allocation between partners, in social interchanges. Such a model is used to analyze social interchanges of coercive children and children of different ages, both in field research and in school settings. Also reciprocity is a useful concept to analyze social interchanges in cooperation and equity laboratory studies with children and college students. Finally, reciprocity analysis is a functional strategy to understand coercive patterns in risk marital relations. Quantitative analyses of the reciprocity model are exposed on each different situation and each analysis discriminates between different classes of participants (i.e., risk and comparison groups) and distinctive social strategies (i.e., cooperation or free-riding).
22. Response Acquisition under Signaled Delay of Reinforcement in Temporally Defined Schedules.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CARLOS FLORES (Universidad de Guadalajara), Rebeca Mateos Morfín (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: A temporally defined schedule of delayed reinforcement was used to establish lever pressing by rats. A constant 8 s Td subinterval was introduced at different temporal locations into reinforcement cycle (64 s). The first response during Td produced reinforcement at the end of the cycle. Varying the temporal location of Td generated reinforcement delays of either 8 s, 24 s or 56 s. Three rats each were assigned to different delay duration. Response rates were considerably lower when Td was at the beginning of the cycle (56 s) than when the opportunity to respond was at the middle (24 s) and its end (8 s). The results are discussed focusing in the response rates and the convenience of responses per reinforcement proportion as an effectiveness acquisition measure.



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