Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #295
#298 Poster Session (EDC)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
South Exhibit Hall
103. The Effects of Cross-Age Tutoring Program on the Social Skills of Tutors with Emotional Disorders and the Acquisition of English Vocabulary of Tutees.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
YU-MING HSIEH (National Changhua University of Education), Hua Feng (National Changhua University of Education)
Abstract: The study was to investigate the effects of a cross-age tutoring program on the social skills of tutors with emotional disorders and the acquisition of English vocabulary of tutees. The multiple probe across behaviors design and A-B-A' design was used in this study. Two 9th-grade students with severe emotional disorders in Kaohsiung Junior High School were trained as tutors. They were paired with two 8th-grade students with learning disabilities for eleven weeks. The independent variable of the study was the cross-age tutoring program. Prior to the tutoring program, two tutors were trained during ten sessions to be a part of the cross-age tutoring program. The tutor training program included social skills, prompting skills, and helping skills. The dependent variables were the percentage change in targeted positive social skills and self-concept of the tutors, and the percentage of correct English spelling or writing of the tutees. Interviews were conducted for tutors, tutees, resource room teachers, and regular class teachers. Major results of this study were as follows: (a) the tutors did well in each training session and expressed good teaching techniques and attitudes, (b) the cross-age tutoring program showed positive improvement on social skills of the tutors with severely emotional disorders, (c) the program showed positive improvement on the self-concept of the tutors, and (d) the cross-age tutoring program resulted in great improvement on the tutees’ ability to learn English. The interviews of tutors, tutees, resource room teachers, and regular class teachers showed positive comments on this program.
105. The Learning of Basic Mathematical Concepts as a Function of the Method of Programmed Learning.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), María Eugenia Prado Figueroa (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta Garcia (Universidad Veracruzana), Esperanza Ferrant Jimenez (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: Teachers do not always have adequate strategies, methods, or techniques for teaching mathematics, often resulting in high frequencies of failing, dropping out, low attention levels, and dislike or aversion shown by the students, especially in primary schools. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of learning basic mathematical concepts (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) by means of programmed instruction in the following five conditions: conference, programmed material, programmed material then conference, conference then programmed material, and programmed material plus mentoring as a principal condition and as a complementary activity. The participants were forty students distributed in two second grade groups of an underprivileged primary school in the Xalapa, Veracruz school district, randomly assigned to different sequences of the five experimental conditions. A counter balanced design (Jacobs & Razavieh, 1989) was used. The results permitted the identification of: (a) the experimental condition of conference as the principal treatment condition followed by programmed instruction as a complementary learning was the most effective for learning mathematical concepts and (b) teaching tools and materials were generated in the study to ensure an optimum performance both by teachers and students.
106. The Effects of a Taped-Numbers Intervention on Kindergarten English Language Learners’ Acquisition of Numbers.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHERINE R. KROHN (University of Tennessee), Emily J. Fuller (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: Taped-interventions can increase students’ sight-word reading ability and basic math fact fluency. In this study, the intervention was modified to target the emerging abilities of four Kindergarten students, including three English Language Learners. Specifically, the primary objective was to increase the four struggling students’ ability to recognize and name numbers (0 through 9). On each day of the intervention, the students would attempt to name each number before it was identified on the tape using a constant time-delay of 2 seconds between numbers. Results from the multiple baseline design across participants showed the students quickly learned to identify the numbers and maintained this enhanced performance. One student demonstrated highly variable performance. When additional components were added to address maintenance and motivation problems (i.e., feedback and overcorrection), this student increased his accuracy to 100%. Discussion focuses on efficient remediation procedures and altering interventions based on responsiveness.
107. Comparing the Effects of the Observational System of Instruction to Peer Tutoring on Two Eighth Grade Students’ Acquisition of Social Studies Concepts.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTA CANON (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College), Meghan E. Nienstedt (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of two behaviorally based tactics of instruction. The effectiveness of the observational system of instruction was compared to that of peer tutoring on students’ abilities to acquire eighth grade social studies concepts. Two participants were used in the study and were taught concepts from two different sections of the eighth grade social studies curriculum. They were first taught concepts of a specific section of the eighth grade social studies textbook using the observational system of instruction (OSI). The students played the game until each met a criterion of 90% correct answers from both direct and observed instruction. The results of the OSI were then compared to the students’ abilities to acquire social studies concepts of a different section of the text using only peer tutoring.
108. The Effects of Contingency Contracting on Increasing the Numbers of Correct Learn Units in Middle School Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ILANA GARCIA (Columbia University Teachers College), Meghan E. Nienstedt (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of two separate contingency contracts on increasing the correct and total numbers of learn units completed by 8th grade middle school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Two males, 13 to 14 years of age, were selected as participants for this study. An ABABA design was used to evaluate the effects of contingency contracting on the numbers of correct learn units completed. During each treatment phase the participants were assigned a correct learn unit goal and point goal. The participants had to meet their goals in order to obtain the reinforcers – a bowling trip and lunch in town. The results showed that the implementation of each contingency contract significantly increased the participants’ correct and total numbers of learn units and decreased their learn units to criterion. When the contingency contracts were not in place the participants’ numbers of correct and total learn units decreased substantially. These results illustrate promising results for classroom teachers interested in increasing their students’ correct numbers of learn units and decreasing learn units to criterion.
109. Effects of a Peer Tutoring Procedure on the Tutor for Social Studies Tacts and Spelling Words.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH GOLDSTEIN (Columbia University Teachers College), Tsambika Fas (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of a peer tutoring procedure on the tutor’s acquisition of social studies tacts. Two students from a self-contained middle school classroom for children with emotional disabilities rotated roles as the tutor and the tutee for two different sets of stimuli in a delayed multiple probe counter balance design. Following successful results with the social studies tacts, the participants participated in a second delayed multiple probe counter balance design, this time targeting grade level spelling words. The data indicated that the students acquired both tacts and spelling words in both the tutor and tutee roles. A functional relationship was demonstrated between peer tutoring and the acquisition of tacts and spelling words for both the tutor and the tutee.
110. Teaching Discrimination of Common Errors in Writing.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: In this study we examine the use of using discrimination activities on a computer, to teach twenty common errors found in writing. Students will complete lessons on the computer, working to a preset level of fluency for correct and incorrect answers. Material will be broken down into different concepts, using multiple examples for each individual concept. Data will be plotted on a standard celeration chart. Using pre-test and posttest data, we will look at generalization of the material.
111. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction and Repetitive Writing on the Acquisition of Spelling Words.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
IRENE CHAN (Columbia University Teachers College), Darcy M. Walsh (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Multiple exemplar instruction and repetitive writing were tested in this study for their effects on teaching and acquisition of new spelling words. Using a multiple probe design, participants of this study received a pre-probe on the Dolch Sight Words List Three after which treatment was implemented. Pre-probes showed all four participants could spell less than 50% of the Dolch Word List. Two participants used positive practice repetitive writing while two participants were given MEI worksheets. The two participants who began with repetitive writing showed no improvements in spelling. After one probe session following the repetitive writing, MEI was implemented for these participants. Following the implementation of MEI, Participants A met criterion after 3 sessions, B met after 6 sessions and C met after 7 sessions. Participant D was dropped from the study after prerequisites were determined to be missing. The use of MEI also resulted in the emergence of novel untaught responses in all participants. By the last post-probe, all participants spelled at least 17 untaught words correctly.
112. Comparison of the Copy, Cover, and Compare Strategy to a Structured Worksheet at Increasing Spelling Outcomes.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN J. THOMPSON (Gonzaga University), Shelby R. Walsh (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of the copy, cover, and compare (CCC) strategy and a structured worksheet format for spelling words. The participant was a 12-year-old student with learning disabilities. An alternating treatments design was used to compare progress between the two types of interventions. Results indicated that both methods were initially effective at increasing spelling accuracy. The data suggest that consistently higher spelling rates occurred with CCC strategy although the student did not prefer it. The trend also indicated that over time the structured worksheet strategy was less effective for the student. Discussion and implications will be discussed.
113. Using an Activity Schedule to Increase Social Behavior of a Child with ADHD.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: Many school age children with ADHD display social deficits. They exhibit more inappropriate social behavior than typical peers. In addition the frequency of spontaneous pro-social behaviors demonstrated by these children is significantly decreased as compared to same age peers. In an effort to increase pro-social behaviors, clinicians frequently train teachers to increase the density of reinforcement for demonstration of social behavior. Given the low occurrence of spontaneous displays of socially appropriate behavior within this group there is little opportunity for this behavior to meet with reinforcement. In this study a 9-year-old girl with ADHD was taught to follow an activity schedule (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993) that prompted her to engage in an appropriate social interaction in the presence of her teacher every 20 minutes and to ask the teacher for reinforcement. The results of the study indicated the schedule served as a prompt for the child to demonstrate appropriate social behavior therefore allowing the teacher to reinforce the behavior more frequently. Rates of pro-social behavior increased and rates of inappropriate social behavior decreased. The teacher reported preference for this intervention over the previous plan that required the teacher to contrive social situations.
114. Increasing the On-Task Behavior of Secondary Students with ADHD Through Self Monitoring.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTALL J. GRAHAM (The Ohio State University), Ralph Gardner III (The Ohio State University), Yi-Wei Hsin (Yu Da College of Business)
Abstract: Adolescents with mild disabilities often have high rates of off-task behavior during school hours. The fact is these students may be capable of successfully doing the academic work required in their classes; however, off-task behavior often prevents them from demonstrating their abilities. The result is that adolescents with mild disabilities who are placed in general education classrooms are at increased risk for school failure. One strategy designed to increase students’ opportunity for success in school is self-monitoring. This study used audiotaped chimes and a student checklist for on-task/off-task behavior. The study took place in a high school study hall specifically for students with disabilities. The three participants were tenth graders and had the diagnosis of ADHD. The observers used a 10-second whole interval recording system to record on-task/off-task behavior within an alternating treatment design. The conditions included: baseline, self-monitoring, and self-monitoring with reinforcement. Results indicate self-monitoring alone was effective enough to significantly increase the on-task behavior of two participants. Additional reinforcement was needed to increase the on-task behavior of the third student. All of the students demonstrated improved on-task behavior that more closely resembled their typical peers.
115. Improving Student Writing Skills Through Classroom Functional Assessment.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA ROSA (Anna Reynolds Elementary School, Newington, CT), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University), Holley Duffy (Anna Reynolds Elementary School, Newington, CT)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to increase writing output of a second grade student during Writer’s Workshop time in a regular education classroom. Functional assessment data were collected through teacher interviews, student interviews, and videotaped ABC recording. Assessments revealed multiple functions maintaining the student’s off-task behavior, including task avoidance and peer/teacher attention seeking. Baseline data were collected through videotaped partial-interval recording, latency recording, and permanent products. Data were analyzed for latency, rate, and quality as well as the percentage of intervals engaged in writing behaviors. Latency, rate, and quality data were also collected on peers for comparison to the subject’s performance levels at baseline. Baseline data indicated that the subject’s latency and rate of writing were much lower than the peer comparison students, as was the quality. The percentage of intervals in which the subject engaged in on-task writing behaviors was also quite low. The results of the classroom based functional assessment will be presented with links to appropriate intervention planning.
116. The Effects of Listener Emersion Protocol on Increasing Students Following Directions.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JANET C. SOLORZANO-CORREIA (Columbia University Teachers College), Melody Ann Messina (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study was a replication of the listener emersion protocol, a program to teach students to respond to vocal stimuli: it was a multiple probe design across settings. The dependent variable for the pre-probe was the number of directions followed across three non-instructional settings. The dependent variable during training was measured across accuracy, rate, and audio stimuli. After meeting criterion for the three different treatment phases a post probe was conducted, which showed an increase in the number of directions followed. The same results were reflected in a sixty-day maintenance probe.
117. A Comparison of Three Types of Opportunities to Respond on Student Behavior and Active Student Responding.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TODD F. HAYDON (University of Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to provide information on an experimental study that compared two types of teacher questioning procedures (choral responding and a mixture of choral and individual responding) on the academic and social behavior of students at-risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Information will be shared about the research design, findings, and implications for large group instruction. Four students identified as having chronic disruptive behaviors that placed them at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) participated in this study. This study took place during a large group teacher-directed content vocabulary lesson. The dependent measures for this study included the following student behaviors: (1) correct responses and incorrect responses, (2) on-task and off-task behavior, and (3) disruption. Included in this study are three phases: (1) baseline condition, (2) teacher training, and (3) comparison of two interventions (i.e., choral responding only vs. mixed choral and individual responding). Using an alternating treatments design the results of the study will be discussed and graphs of the data provided.
118. Effects of Two Response Card Review Procedures on Participation, Academic Achievement, and Off-Task Behavior of Fifth Grade Students in an Inclusive Classroom.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLES L. WOOD (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Ya-yu Lo (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Anne M. Hedrick (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: This study used an alternating treatments design embedded within an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of three review procedures following math lessons: single student response, response cards, and response cards with a game. Participants included 22 students, nine of whom were students with disabilities, in a math inclusion class in a suburban setting. Data were collected on four target students' participation, next day quiz scores, and off-task behavior. Results showed that target students’ participation increased and off-task behavior decreased when response cards were used during review. Students’ responses on a social validity questionnaire favored response cards as a method for review.
119. The Effects of a Variable Momentary DRA on Toddler Location Prior to Meals.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE M. RODRIGUEZ (New England Center for Children), Rachel H. Thompson (New England Center for Children), Jessica L. Haremza (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Child engagement is a primary indicator of quality in early education programs (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2002) and is considered foundational to the social and cognitive development of young children (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). In the present study, we evaluated a differential reinforcement procedure designed to increase child engagement during a classroom transition to meals. Six typically developing toddlers, aged 12 to 30 months participated. In the intervention condition, teachers transitioned each child to meals only when he was seated on the mat where a teacher-led play activity was conducted. In the reversal condition, teachers selected each child to transition when he was by the barrier to the meal area (a practice commonly observed under natural conditions). Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 40% of sessions, with equal distribution across conditions, and averaged 96.6%. When the data for all children were aggregated, the intervention increased the mean percentage of intervals during which the children were on the play mat and decreased the percentage of intervals during which children were by the barrier to the meal area. In addition, an examination of individual child data showed positive outcomes for 5 of the 6 children.
120. Increasing On-Task Behavior & Assignment Completion of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PATTI R. WARD-MAGUIRE (The University of South Dakota), William J. Sweeney (The University of South Dakota), Paul Malanga (Arlington Developmental Center)
Abstract: According to Higgins et al. (2001), “the token economy strategy is the most effective way to improve classroom behavior” (p. 100). Token economies are used with individual students or a group of students. “Token economies have been used with an astonishing wide range of populations and age groups and in numerous educational treatment settings” (Kerr & Nelson, 1998, p. 113). The behaviors (i.e., being out of seat, inappropriate talking, being off-task, and any other behavior requiring teacher redirection) displayed by student with E/BD, interfere with the learning process. These behaviors do not lead to success in or out of school (Higgins et al., 2001; Jolivette, Stichter, Nelson, Scott, & Liaupsin, 2000). Unfortunately, limited research is available in the area of token economy systems and response cost procedures when used with high school students. Ward (2004) conducted a similar research study and determined that a token economy with embedded response cost is an effective intervention procedure. The proposed study is a systematic replication of the research conducted in 2004. According to Johnston and Pennypacker (1993) systematic replication is “when the repetition is conducted under conditions that are nearly identical to the original conditions. This requires exposing subjects to conditions that are somewhat different from those that produced the original effects” (p. 247). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a token economy when used with high school students diagnosed with emotional/behavioral disorders. The intervention, i.e., token economy, was expected to decrease classroom disruptions (off-task behavior) while increasing on-task behavior and work completion. The experimental designed used was an ABAB reversal design with follow-up probes to evaluate the effectiveness of the token economy with participants. The token economy appeared successful at both dramatically improving the on-task behavior of the participants as well as improving their subsequent work completion. The participants, teachers, and other service providers also believed that the introduction of the token economy was both effective at improving performance in the research setting as well as in other classes not included as part of this systematic replication. The implications of the intervention are also discussed and indicated that the intervention was successful in increasing time on-task and work completion.
121. The Effects of Response Cards on Off-Task Behaviors and Academic Performance of African American Boys with EBD.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN B. PATTERSON (University of North Florida), Susan Syverud (University of North Florida), Janice Seabrooks-Blackmore (University of North Florida)
Abstract: The use of appropriate interventions is a critical component of educating students, particularly African Americans in special education. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of response cards on the off-tasks and academic performance of eight African American boys identified as having emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) and learning disabilities (LD) in special education. Findings indicate that the use of response cards could be an effective intervention strategy for decreasing off-task behaviors while improving academic performance and positive outcomes for students with EBD. This study supported earlier findings in which response cards were used during class instruction.
123. Establishing Experimental Functional Analysis Skills with a Brief Training Procedure.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JON A. LOKKE (University College of Ostfold, Norway), Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College )
Abstract: Systematic training and acquisition of experimental functional analysis skills are documented in several published studies. However, the total number of behavior analysts trained in experimental functional analysis skills is low. Our study from 2007 (Lokke, Lokke, & Arntzen) included 14 participants. All participants reached a success criterion of 95 % in less than a day of training. Since the demand condition is the most complex condition, we wanted to expand the knowledge of acquisition of functional analysis skills by investigating a brief functional analysis skills training with only the demand condition and using the play condition and attention condition as generalization tests. Twelve students at the Master's program in Behavior Analysis at Akershus University College participated in the current study. The training was integrated in an ordinary course using feedback in class and video modeling, with a variety of exemplars created by the participants (see Moore et al., 2007). We present data from baseline, intervention and generalization tests. A cost and time efficient program for training experimental functional analysis is important due to increased interest in the technology in society at large.



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