Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #399
#400 International Poster Session
Monday, May 26, 2008
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
121. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Immediate and Delayed Feedback on the Sitting Posture in VDT Working Environment.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
SHEZEEN OAH (Chung-Ang University), Eunjeong Yu (Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University)
Abstract: This study examined the relative effectiveness of immediate and delayed feedback on unsafe sitting behaviors that may cause VDT syndromes. Participants were four white-collar workers (2 males and 2 females) who spend most of their working time interacting with computers. Chairs were developed particularly for the present study such that they could detect participants' unsafe sitting postures using sensors and provide feedback on the computer monitors. Under the delayed feedback condition, the feedback was provided after each 6 hour session was completed. Under the immediate feedback condition, on the contrary, whenever participants engaged in unsafe postures more than 14 seconds, the small “pop-up” windows appeared on the computer monitor. multiple baseline design across participants was adopted. After baseline phase, the delayed feedback condition was first introduced and then the immediate feedback condition was added for the next phase for two participants. For the remaining two participants, the delayed plus immediate feedback was first introduced after baseline and then the immediate feedback was withdrawn for the next phase. The results indicated that feedback, regardless of the frequency, increased safe sitting behaviors considerably. However, the immediate feedback was more effective than the delayed feedback in increasing safe sitting behaviors.
122. Assessment of Safety Discrimination Following Training of One or Two Stimulus Classes.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELICA CRUELLS (Queens College, City University of New York), Matthew A. Taylor (Queens College, City University of New York), Marc Olvina (Queens College, City University of New York), Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: This study assessed the effects of training safe, unsafe or a combination of safe and unsafe stimuli on discrimination between safe and unsafe stimuli. The subjects were enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course. This study used a between-subject design to assess discrimination between safe and unsafe behavior following: safe training, unsafe training, and a combination of safe and unsafe training. The training incorporated the following components: instructions, modeling, practice, and feedback. The data suggest that participants in the combination safe and unsafe training group showed greater discrimination than the safe only and unsafe only training groups.
123. Managing Coping Strategies to Decrease Stress Levels in Mexican Female Employees.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
LUIS MARIANO CAMBEROS GARCÍA (Monterrey Technological Institute), Karen Anacris Berlanga Villarreal (Monterrey Technological Institute), María De Los Ángeles Mendoza Perez (Monterrey Technological Institute)
Abstract: The objective of this research was to establish the relationship between stress levels and its reduction through coping strategies, within the applied behavior analysis approach. The target group was young Mexican female employees suffering from work related stress. The sampling of this research was intentional with three stressed women between 20 and 23 years of age working for a department store as credit analysts in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The research was n=1 Quasi experimental. As part of the decision taken, a comparison among subjects was made by including an alternative multiple baseline design. The dependent variable (job-related stress level) was assessed by applying exploratory tests and self-recording formats. The behavior modification program used was an ABA design. During baseline, the graphics showed an important variability on the target behavior. The treatment was constituted by coping skills training, job stress management and cognitive decision making training. The results showed that the stress levels in the subjects increased during the presence of specific job stressors. By introducing the subjects how to cope those stressor factors their stress levels were modified with a decreasing tendency, although, important limitations were deadlines and working conditions of the subjects.
124. Reducing Individual Work Distress in Professional Women through Stress Inoculation.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
AMPARO PAGÉS UREÑA (Monterrey Technological Institute), Ana Cristina Calderón Pérez (Monterrey Technological Institute), Gina Alejandra Martínez Martín (Monterrey Technological Institute), Aixa Lanett Powell (Monterrey Techonological Institute)
Abstract: This research was realized using an organizational management approach. The main objective was to establish a cognitive technique to reduce work distress in professional Mexican women in mid-adulthood in the State of Mexico. The sample was represented by three professional distressed women working in a sales and logistics department from a technological educational institute. The design n=1 was based on ABA design by implementing an inoculation stress technique. The job related distress was measured by a behavioral assessment and by testing. The results have shown that distress is directly related to working environment and its conditions, the mishaps and the work overload. By self-applying the technique already mentioned, the subjects in 80% were able to learn how to face their distress so the maladapted behaviors and consequences were reduced.
125. Coping Skills Training on Structural Stressors within the Organization.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
DIANA GABRIELA NAVARRETE MANCERA (Monterrey Technological Institute), Brenda Adriana Hernández Arellano (Monterrey Technological Institute), Rebeca Gonzalez Vazquez (Monterrey Technological Institute)
Abstract: The objective of this research was to help the employees cope with the structural stressors that can be present within their organization. Our sample consisted of four male subjects, between 23- and 33- years old, performing administrative roles from different enterprises. The information was collected by self-observational records as well as behavioral interviews during the assessment and evaluation phases. The research design applied was a group-case design ABA (reversal) in which we used coping skills training techniques through the learning of efficient relaxation and stress-coping cognitive reframing. The graphics on the visual analysis have shown a tendency of instability during baseline, a decrease of stress levels during treatment and a tendency of stability during the second baseline. As a result of the visual analysis we could observe a reduction in stress levels in most of our subjects. The employee learned to handle the structural stressors that are present in his daily work. The importance of this investigation relies on the relationship and negative influence that the organizational structure and processes have on the employee’s behavior, emotions and cognitions. Once the employee learned to handle the structural stressors, his performance improved and the organization was benefited.
126. Load Dispatchers Work Conditions: A Behavior Analysis.
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
GUILLERMO E. YABER (Universidad Simon Bolivar)
Abstract: Work environment, tasks, and job-aversive related stimulus conditions that generate escape and avoidance responses are described for 138 load dispatchers working for public and private companies in Venezuela. A self-report questionnaire that measures frequency and intensity of "job stressors" was used. Load dispatchers are frequently exposed to a variety of aversive stimulus conditions. Phone and radio devices ringing constantly during the morning shift, with heavy workload and raining climate, are the combination of events that may occur simultaneously and produce maximum aversive stimulation for load dispatchers. Working for the public sector increases "stress" related verbal reports. Behavioral contingency analysis suggests that the work of a dispatcher in front of a console is equivalent to a concurrent avoidance program of reinforcement. Actions for improving the work environment and self-management strategies to manage aversive stimulation are suggested. Given that gas and oil dispatchers are similar jobs of load dispatchers, and considering the strategic importance of an adequate energy supply for all countries of the American continent, it is suggested to extend this study to those work occupations.
127. Program for the Strengthening of Administrative and Academic Behavior Requisites in a Master's Program.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Ana Miriam Herrera Jiménez (Universidad Veracruzana), Esperanza Ferrant Jimenez (Universidad Veracruzana), Maria E. Malott (ABAI), Rosalia Ortega Cortes (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: As a requisite for Master's and Doctoral Program in Mexico to receive financial aid, equipment and scholarships for their students and consequently to be accredited as quality programs, a series of academic and administrative requisites established by the Secretary of Public Education (SEP) and the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) must be satisfied. The objective of the present investigation was to identify the effects of implementing Malott’s (2002) Organizational Model to improve and increase those behavioral requisites in the Masters Program in Psychological Investigation Applied to Education. These requisites are: physical infrastructure, academic staff, degrees completed, follow-ups of former students, academic communication with other programs, modernization of the course structure, research and publication of research by faculty and students, and grants obtained for research The participants were: the coordinator, teachers and students of the Master’s program. Having identified the behavioral requisites or products, the reception and processing systems and the material required, the required actions were implemented to increase the number and quality of the behavioral requisites, thus permitting the Master’s Program to enter the National Standard of Graduate Programs and benefit with the resources provided by the SEP and CONACYT.
128. An Evaluation of Methods for Teaching Teachers to Use a Mathetics Error Correction Procedure.
Area: OBM; Domain: Basic Research
DONNIE M. STAFF (University of North Texas), Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas), Ethan A. Hahn (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Error correct is a common practice among teachers. An empirically validated and systematic approach to error correction could be a useful tool for any teacher. This experimenter evaluated the performance of 5 university-level TFs (Teaching Fellows). Following a student error, the TF implemented a 5-element error correction procedure. First, the TFs reworded the question making the student(s) response correct. Then, the TFs prompted the student(s) to repeat their previous response. Next, the TFs told the student(s) the answer to the originally posed question. Thirdly, the TF provided the student(s) with a rationale for that answer, typically by stating the critical components of the concept being discussed. Finally, the TFs tested the student(s) ability to produce the correct answer given the original question by repeating the question to the student(s). This study evaluated 2 different ways of training staff to implement element 4. The participants in 1 experimental group were simply reminded to complete the 4th element. The participants in the 2nd experimental group were trained to complete the 4th step correctly, via feedback and modeling from the principal investigator. The investigators also evaluated the effects these error correction procedures have on student test and overall grades.
129. Resources in Program Survival.
Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
JEFFREY M. GORDON (University of Kansas), L. Keith Miller (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The survival of effective behavioral programs is a prerequisite for solving socially significant behavioral problems. Program survival is defined as the continued use of an effective applied behavioral intervention under non-research conditions. Some studies have survived for extended periods. For example, Fox, Hopkins, and Anger (1987) report an intervention that survived for 25 years, Andrews and Feyer (1985) 22 years, Altus, Welsh, and Miller (1992) 15 years, and Welsh, Altus, and Miller (1994) 13 years. Program survival research has been related to many important areas of applied behavior analysis including: social validity, external validity, metacontingencies, response generalization, and institutionalization. Given the importance of program survival to behavioral research, we created the Journal of Program Survival, JOPS; an online database of 560 articles, 214 that show some evidence of program survival.
130. Changing the Behavior of the Lunch Ladies Using Feedback from the Principal.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: The lunchroom in an elementary school was known for disruptive behavior of the students and four lunch ladies yelling at the children. The room was loud and considered an aversive environment by the teaching staff. A baseline was conducted and determined that the lunch staff were rarely on-task during the four lunch periods. They engaged in yelling at students, and talking to one another about personal topics. Using a multiple baseline across the four participants and introducing one or two minute feedback sessions from the principal, the behavior of each participant improved dramatically immediately.
131. Teaching Chinese.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
HANG WU (University of Kansas), L. Keith Miller (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This study examined how the form in which instruction is delivered to the tutors during the training section can affect the accuracy of the tutors following the instructions, and further the efficiency of Chinese teaching, which refers to the number of Chinese characters the students could learn to pronounce and make sentence correctly within the limited time. Three tutors were trained to follow the tutoring procedure by watching video training program and getting personal training. All three tutors increased their tutoring performance from pre-training session to after-training session by looking at the percentage of accuracy of the tutors following the procedures and the students' learning outcomes.
132. The Effects of a Multicomponent Package Intervention on Portion Control at an Ice Cream and Coffee Shop.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
AMY MURDOCK (Furman University), Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University)
Abstract: Front line employees at a privately-owned ice cream and coffee shop were to control the portion sizes of ice cream served. Portions targeted for improvement were the child and adult size ice cream cones. Regulations for portion control included measurement from base to the “peak” of the ice cream cone. The Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) was used to determine targeted areas for improving this pinpoint. Results of the PDC suggested a performance problem with employee compliance to the manager’s regulations resulting in weak antecedents and lack of consequences contingent upon occurrence or nonoccurrence of the desired behavior. An intervention package consisting of job aids, goal setting, graphic feedback, and monetary rewards was designed to address the areas targeted by the PDC to improve employee compliance with portion control compliance. An AB design was used to introduce the intervention. Overall performance increased, suggesting the package intervention, designed by the results of the PDC, may be an effective strategy for addressing compliance issues in food service settings.



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