Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #473
#474 Poster Session (CSE)
Monday, May 26, 2008
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
61. Swimming Skill Acquisition via iPod Video Modeling.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
JOANNA M. KOOISTRA (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), Kionne A. Feaster (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), Paula K. Davis (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale)
Abstract: Four typically functioning adults, who had experience in the water but were not skilled swimmers, were taught to swim the freestyle stroke via iPod video modeling. Participants’ ability to swim the freestyle stroke was assessed through task analyses, time, and distance swam. After instruction, all participants met training criteria, which was completing 90% of the steps on the task analysis and swimming the full length of the pool (75 ft) across three consecutive sessions. Post-test, 2-week, and 4-week follow-up data showed maintenance of the swimming skills. Reliability data were obtained for 33% of all test trials and averaged 97% agreement (range 96-100%). Results of the study demonstrate the effectiveness of an alternative method for adults to acquire swimming skills through the use of a video iPod. This method of instruction may be useful for those who do not have access to organized swimming lessons or who may prefer a more individualized instructional format. The use of a video iPod may be successful at teaching other skills in a discreet manner as well.
62. Possible Influences of Behavior Function on the Daily Patterns of Problem Behavior in Educational Settings: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
KENDRA L. WICKLAND (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Amanda M. Colby (St. Cloud State University), Nairim C. Rojas Ramirez (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Conditional rates of problem behavior in educational settings were evaluated in two studies. Study 1 analyzed conditional rates of problem behavior across each day of the week for six individuals in a residential treatment facility. The results show that individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by escape from academic demands displayed the highest rate of problem behavior on Monday and the lowest rates on Saturday and Sunday. By contrast, individuals with attention-maintained problem behavior did not exhibit these same patterns. Study 2 evaluated rates of or the percentage of time with problem behavior, attention from teachers, and demands from teachers across weekdays for five individuals in public school settings. The results of study 2 were consistent with Study 1 and showed that individuals with escape-maintained problem behavior displayed higher rates of problem behavior on the first school-day of the week. In addition, the results indicated that daily patterns of problem behavior did not vary as a function of attention and demands from teachers. Several possible operant processes that may account for these behavior patterns are discussed.
63. ABA on the Run: The Use of a Premack Contingency to Increase Running Behaviors.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA L. FERGUSON (Florida State University), Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University)
Abstract: The benefits of running include increased energy, feelings of well-being, weight management, and decreased depression. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 62% of the population is not engaging in vigorous leisure-time physical activity. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of applying the principles of behavior analysis and self-management techniques to increase running behaviors. A Premack contingency was implemented to maintain running at a specific weekly goal. A changing-criterion design was used to demonstrate the functional relationship between running and access to homework. The target behavior was assessed daily. As a result of the intervention package, running behaviors systematically increased from 0.0 minutes daily to 30.0 minutes daily.
64. Behavioral Observation Used to Estimate Pesticide Exposure for Farm Workers in Brazil.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID A. ECKERMAN (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), Cristiano Coelho (Universidade De Brasilia), Erick Rôso Huber (Universidade Católica de Goiás)
Abstract: Long-term exposure to low levels of pesticides has been shown to impair behavior (Eckerman, et al., 2007; Kamel & Hoppin, 2002). Obtaining a quantitative measure of this level of exposure for an individual, however, is a challenge. The validity of retrospective self-reports is suspect for many reasons. The validity of biochemical measures is suspect as well, since these measures assess short-term rather than long-term effects of exposure. We provide an additional measure that may be helpful in indexing the level of exposure for an individual by making weekly observations of the type of activity this individual engages in while working on a farm. Each of these activities is assigned an exposure-risk factor based on expert judgment. An additional adjustment is made depending on the kind of protection an individual is seen wearing (e.g., mask, gloves, type of shoes, special clothing). Each observation thus provides an estimate of momentary exposure. A sum is made of these momentary exposures obtained over a 12 week period, and this sum is multiplied by the worker’s reported job attendance. This sum is cross-validated as a measure of exposure by comparing its correlation to behavioral deficits to those based on other measures of exposure.
65. Relation between Depression and Family Conflicts in Adolescents of Mexico.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
NORMA COFFIN (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Monica Alvarez Zuñiga (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Maria de Lourdes Jimenez Renteria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Arturo Silva Rodríguez (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: From a clinical and epidemiological view, those factors which influence an adolescents’ mental health may be considered as risk factors, since they are tied to certain type of behaviors, manifested in a voluntary way, with an enormous probability of causing negative consequences in their mental health, concerning to a personal- subjective and a social-community perspective, affecting their family relationships (Irwin, 1990). Also, depression, unstable academic records, chaotic relationships with parents and friends, drug abuse and another kind of negative behaviours may be included in a depressive state. Some symptoms could be a lot of sleep, alimentary disorders, and even pre-delinquent conducts. Based on this, the aims of the present study were to identify differences in adolescents´ depression, according to their gender and community (urban or rural), in which they live. The Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to evaluate 3291 participants with a mean age of 13.4 years. Results show that depression was found to be negatively related to the familial cohesion. T student test showed a clear difference by gender.
66. A Needs Assessment and Intervention to Increase Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Behaviors within Commercial Properties.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN MARIE LYONS (Virginia Tech), Rachael E. Budowle (Center for Applied Behavior Systems, Virginia Tech), Elise A. Drake (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Human behavior is a factor that contributes significantly to the degradation of our environment. Conversely, there are many changes in human behavior which can have a meaningful impact on environmental protection. The literature has called for community-based interventions to decrease environmentally destructive behaviors and also to increase environmentally protective behaviors. Fluorescent lamp recycling among commercial businesses is an environmentally protective behavior that is not well researched. Fluorescent lamps contain mercury. If lamps are not disposed of correctly, the mercury can contribute to the degradation of the environment. Despite this fact, lamp recycling rates remain low. Approximately 600 million fluorescent lamps are disposed of each year in the United States alone. Of these disposed fluorescent lamps, 82% go to landfills, 16% are incinerated and only 2% are recycled. Interventions aimed at increasing fluorescent lamp recycling in commercial properties are clearly necessary. A needs assessment was conducted to collect data on lamp disposal methods in the community, as well as ratings related to fluorescent lamp recycling concerns, motivations and intentions. Following the needs assessment, pledge cards were used as a commitment strategy, and incentive strategies were implemented. Results and implications of both the needs assessment and the intervention will be discussed.
67. A Large-Scale Community Approach to Increase Recycling Among Apartment Residents.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY ELIZABETH BERG (Virginia Tech), Madison R. Earnest, III (Virginia Tech), Amanda Wormington (Virginia Tech), Anya Morgulis (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: The negative consequences of human behavior on the environment have become a serious issue. Certain behaviors having positive consequences on the environment have been popular targets for intervention. Recycling is a targeted behavior because of the significant impact it has on diverting waste from our limited landfills as well as preserving our natural resources. In order for recycling to be effective, however, it must be a recurring behavior. Various interventions, including feedback, prompts, goal setting, and reward programs, have been proven to increase recycling behaviors; however, long-term response maintenance is a problem after the removal of the intervention. This study aimed to increase recycling behaviors in apartment complexes in a college town by first conducting a needs-assessment of recycling programs already in place, as well as the use of these programs and their availability to tenants. An intervention using pledge cards as a commitment strategy was then developed to target property managers’ implementation of suitable programs allowing for proper recycling by tenants. Tenants were also targeted to increase long-term recycling behaviors. Results of the needs-assessment and the efficacy of the interventions will be discussed as well as implications for the community and future research.
68. Efficacy of a Self-Management Intervention for Increasing Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors among Adolescents.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
DANA F. LINDEMANN (Western Illinois University), Colin R. Harbke (Western Illinois University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University)
Abstract: During the last three decades, adolescent obesity rates have more than tripled, and as such, prevention programs increasing healthy weight-related behaviors are needed. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate a behavioral self-management intervention for increasing healthy exercise and eating behaviors among adolescents. Approximately 80 male and female adolescents, ranging from 13 to 16 years of age will participate in a 6-week self-management program. Following sessions on self-management, healthy exercise, and healthy eating, participants will develop and implement their own self-management plans. Participants will respond to several pre- and post-test measures related to eating and exercise behaviors and maintain weekly food and exercise diaries. Data will be collected November 2007 through February 2008. The primary outcome variables are exercise and healthy eating behaviors, will be compared between pre- and post-testing and across the weekly food and exercise diaries. This intervention may result in a long-term change in healthy eating and exercise behaviors, and because of its low cost it is feasible for large samples of adolescents in both community and school-based populations.
69. A Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SONIA DENISE BAKER (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: This review examined the efficacy of using video modeling as an intervention for improving the social and behavioral skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Seventeen studies were included in the review. The review was organized according to the behavior targeted during intervention. Behaviors were classified as (a) increase peer interaction, (b) increase on-task behavior, (c) a combination of peer interaction and on-task behavior, and (d) decrease in inappropriate behavior. This review explored the effectiveness, feasibility, and suitability of video modeling as an intervention. Limitations and implications for future research will be discussed. The results suggest that video modeling is an effective intervention strategy for addressing social and behavioral skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
70. Effects of Functional Communication Training Using a Contrast Demand.
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ADAM KARLSGODT (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: Historically, functional communication training (FCT) has been regarded as an effective intervention for treatment of problem behavior in the natural setting (Carr & Durand, 1985; Wacker et al., 1990; Durand & Carr, 1992). One concern surrounding its practice in the school setting is the perceived decrease in task completion once a functional response has been learned to escape demands appropriately. A potential solution to this problem would be to arrange a contingency where one could escape increased demands to engage in pre-selected daily activities, which were previously escaped through aberrant behavior. In the present investigation, the effects of FCT using a contrast demand and FCT with extinction were compared. Results indicate that FCT using a contrast demand was effective in decreasing aberrant behavior.
71. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Judge Rotenberg Center.
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
NICK LOWTHER (Judge Rotenberg Center), Courtney Jean McHugh (Judge Rotenberg Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Center), Robert Von Heyn (Judge Rotenberg Center), Joseph Assalone (Judge Rotenberg Center), Rosemary Silva (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Examining post-treatment outcomes of residential care clients remains an important aspect in assessing the long-term durability of treatment that clients receive while in the care of a facility and the generalizability of treatment effects to natural environments. This study is an ongoing investigation of the post-treatment outcomes of former students of the Judge Rotenberg Center (JRC), a residential care facility that employs a highly consistent application of behavioral treatment and educational programming for children and adults with severe behavior problems, including conduct disorders, emotional problems, brain injury or psychosis, autism, and developmental disabilities. The students are evaluated after leaving JRC using objective measures of quality of life indicators and subjective measures of life adjustment. It is anticipated that approximately 60 former students from several months to years post-treatment will be included in this study.
72. A Review of Sensory Integration Intervention on Self-stimulatory and Self-injurious Behaviors.
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
PEI-YU CHEN (University of Washington), Takanori Koyama (University of Washington), Nicole Lynn Casillas (University of Washington)
Abstract: Self-stimulatory behavior (SSB) and self-injurious behavior (SIB) are characteristics displayed by children with severe disabilities and have been a major concern of teachers and parents. Sensory integration (SI) intervention has been one of the treatments implemented to decrease SSB and SIB with a lack of evidence-based studies supporting its efficacy. We analyzed nine empirical studies on SI with two purposes. First, we appraised the definition of SI coined by Ayers (1972) and examined how the literature applied the principles of SI interventions. Findings revealed that 55.5% of the studies did not conduct pre-assessment prior to intervention. Twenty-two percent created sensory profiles of the subjects, and 22.2% of the studies conducted a Functional Behavior Assessment. Second, the effectiveness of SI on SSB and SIB was investigated. Treatment procedures varied with 89% of the studies providing controlled vestibular, tactile, and other stimulation input during treatments. More than half of the reviewed studies found positive effects of SI intervention in reducing SSB and SIB with four studies indicating mixed results over control treatments. Half of the reviewed studies reported behavior generalization across time or settings.



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