Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #477
#478 Poster Session (EDC)
Monday, May 26, 2008
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
122. The Effects of Rule-Governed Responding and Self-Monitoring on the Handwriting of Three Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELLE I. TRAPENBERG (Columbia University Teachers College), Tracy Reilly-Lawson (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We tested the acquisition of rule-governed responding and self-monitoring on the appropriate handwriting skills of three participants through successive approximation. We also tested for the maintenance of these skills once the implemented rules were removed. The study used a delayed multiple baseline design across participants and incorporated a token system during intervention. Successive approximations were individualized for each participant based on data collected during baseline. Participants A and B had three intervention phases and Participant C had two intervention phases. During baseline Participants A and B had a mean of 0% and Participant C had a mean of 13%. All participants met criterion on self-monitoring and their handwriting increased significantly during intervention. During the return to baseline Participant B’s writing remained at high levels. Participant A’s handwriting accuracy decreased during reversals, but remained at a mean of 54%, 58% and 33% respectively. Participant C’s accuracy decreased to 83% during the reversal. These results show that the combination of self-monitoring and rule-governed responding is an effective way to teach handwriting.
123. Replicating the Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on Inducing the Naming Capability.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GEMMA RHODESIDE (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College), Tracy Reilly-Lawson (Columbia University Teachers College), Erica Wyner (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on inducing the naming capability in students with developmental disabilities. Three participants, 9 to 10 years of age, were selected for the study because they did not have naming in their repertoires. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. The dependent variables were point, tact, and intraverbal responses to 3-dimensional stimuli in Set 1 during pre and post probes. The independent variables were match, point, tact, and intraverbal responses to different sets of 3-dimensional stimuli during MEI. Following a pre-instructional probe, the participants were given MEI on untaught responses to a set of stimuli. Responses were rotated across the 4 conditions during the MEI sessions. After meeting criterion on the MEI, participants were given a post-probe. Novel follow-up probes were conducted after participants met criterion on the post-probe. The results of the study showed that MEI was effective for inducing the full naming capability in two participants and for increasing correct point, tact, and intraverbal responses for the third participant. Data from the novel follow-up probes provided further support for the effectiveness of MEI for inducing the naming capability and these results replicated findings from previous studies.
124. Correcting Faulty Intraverbals Through the Use of Multiple Exemplar Instruction and Response Prompts.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON E. EVERITT (Columbia University Teachers College), Petra Wiehe (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to correct the emitting of faulty intraverbal responses. In the first experiment, an ABCA multiple probe design was used to test the effectiveness of Multiple Exemplar Instruction and intraverbal response prompts on the emitting of faulty intraverbal responses. The participant in both studies was a 9-year-old female diagnosed with autism. During Experiment 1, the independent variables were the use of MEI to teach the student to tact the names of all four teachers and the use of a response prompt to correct her faulty intraverbals. The dependent variable in the first experiment was the number of correct intraverbal responses the student emitted when presented with the specified discriminative stimulus, “Hi (participant).” After criterion was achieved during treatment, a post probe was conducted and the student had emitted correct intraverbal responding to all four teachers at criterion level. The dependent variable in the second experiment was the generalized behavior of correct intraverbal responses to new individuals without the use of the response prompts. The independent variable was the teaching of the tacts of these individuals. After criterion was met during the treatment phase, the student was able to emit correct intraverbal responses. In addition, response generalized with new vocal verbal antecedents.
125. Anger Management Training with Students Placed in an Alternative School Setting for Disruptive Behavior Referrals.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TIFFANY DIANE CHANDLER (Mississippi State University), Sandy Davis Devlin (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: An anger management training program was implemented with four classes of students at an alternative school including fifth grade inclusion, seventh grade, eighth grade, and high school. Many of the students in the alternative school were placed there because of multiple discipline referrals at their home schools, for disruptive behavior including aggressive behavior, bullying behavior, and insubordination. Multiple students enrolled at the alternative school are, or have been, involved with the juvenile justice system. It is important for these students to learn healthy, positive ways to interact socially with peers and authority figures in an effort to reduce aggressive and inappropriate behavior. Each student involved in the study filled out a pretest consisting of ten items and will be reevaluated at the end of the anger management program which consists of ten sessions. The sessions involve teaching students how to use physiological, thinking, and behavioral tools to control anger. Students utilize role playing to practice new skills and engage in positive ways to deal with situations that are antecedent to anger and consequently aggressive behavior. A teacher acceptability rating scale will be implemented following the completion of the program.
126. Knowledge, Acceptability and Integrity of Curriculum Based Measurement and Brief Experimental Analysis Procedures with Teachers.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JENNIFER S. KAZMERSKI (Mississippi State University), Kristin N. Johnson-Gros (Mississippi State University), Richard Anthony Doggett (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Previous literature has established curriculum-based measurement (CBM) and brief experimental analysis (BEA) as a viable methodology to determine current skill level and the most effective intervention(s) for students who are having reading difficulties. However, review of previous literature has revealed that research is limited in the knowledge, acceptability, and integrity of teachers in regards to CBM and BEA. The current study expands upon the literature by assessing teacher knowledge and skill acquisition following training. The present study utilized a didactic training to instruct classroom teachers in CBM and BEA methodology and providing performance feedback. Knowledge and acceptability data was obtained pre-training, post-training, and post-feedback. The present study expands evaluated obtained data with a growth curve analysis to determine teacher knowledge, acceptability, and integrity of alternative assessment measures.
127. School Program Promoting Cooperation, Learning and Social Behavior of Emotionally and Behaviorally Disturbed Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HAGIT BERLINSKY (Israel), Michal Dines (Teacher in Emek Yezrael College), Michael Ben-Zvi (Private Practice)
Abstract: School-based programs were implemented in a school for behaviorally and emotionally challenging students. The program is a classroom-based positive point collection system that is functioning throughout the day, by all school staff for all students. All behavioral rules are operatively defined, and program rules are behaviorally data-based interventions. Achievements are scored in both behavioral and academic data, and evaluated by municipal and state educational agencies. Behaviors recorded are classroom attendance in time, equipment, sitting to study, compliance with academic and nonacademic instructions, proper talk and avoiding violence. Positive reinforcement are delivered on self restraint, academic activity, and help to peers and teachers. Gradual Punishing System is upon leaving class, verbal and physical violence, and leaving school. Behavioral staff training is part of school routine system. Validated results show increasing in academic achievement and decreasing in behavior problems
128. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT WARREN ROSS (University of Oregon)
Abstract: In an effort to respond to the fierce problem of bullying, this study field-tested a novel approach to effective and efficient school-wide bully-prevention intervention, blending school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction regarding a 3-step response to problem behavior, and a reconceptualization of the bullying construct. Bully-Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS), gives students the tools necessary to remove the social rewards maintaining inappropriate behavior, thereby decreasing the likelihood of problem behavior occurring in the future. A single subject multiple baseline across participants design was used within three elementary schools. In addition, a pre-post survey measure was evaluated to determine effects on perceptions of bullying. Results indicated that BP-PBS not only decreased incidents of bullying behavior, but also increased appropriate recipient responses to bullying behavior and appropriate bystander responses to bullying behavior.
129. Early Intervention for At-Risk Students in School: Evaluating First Step to Success.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BILLIE JO RODRIGUEZ (University of Oregon), Robert H. Horner (University of Oregon), Amy L. Kauffman (University of Oregon)
Abstract: As increasing numbers of students begin school at-risk for academic and social failure, schools are facing mounting pressure to provide evidence-based interventions in an attempt to alter the trajectories of these students. First Step to Success is an evidence-based early intervention designed to support these students through the use of universal screening; school intervention involving teacher(s), peers, and the child; and parent/caregiver training to support school adjustment. During the school-based component of the intervention, a consultant works closely with the target student to bring student behavior under the antecedent control of a “red/green” card used to provide feedback, and bring appropriate responding under control of reinforcement contingencies. As the student is successful, the consultant gradually transfers stimulus control (through the use of the card) to the teacher, and the program systematically is faded until the student is responding to the same contingencies maintaining other students’ appropriate behavior. This poster will present data evaluating variables that may contribute to child outcomes, including single subject data to be collected and shared demonstrating effectiveness of specific consultant feedback on teacher fidelity of implementation in general education classrooms. Implications for supporting the effective implementation of an evidence-based behavioral intervention in general education settings will be discussed.
130. E/BD Students Maintained in Regular Education Classrooms with PASS.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JEWLON MORRIS (Lamar Consolidated ISD), Carolyn Meeks (Lamar Consolidated ISD)
Abstract: A common and prevalent practice, in the USA, in educating students with emotional/behavioral disorders has been to isolate those students in a contained classroom. A large number of students in the last several generations spent their entire public school careers in some type of structure class. As a result the students were limited in contact with the full environment often associated with public schools ranging from academics through extra-curricular activities. The design of a system known as Positive Approach to Student Success (PASS), which was first implemented in the Galena Park ISD, exposed students with emotional/behavioral disorders to the Regular Education classroom. These students who had been removed at varying points during their academic history were given monitoring support, based on a system that included a daily scatter plot analysis of the student’s success. In the Lamar Consolidated ISD, where PASS has been implemented for 3 years, students who spent only 4% of their time in regular education are now spending, on an average, up to 88% of their time being exposed to the regular academic curriculum.
131. Using Pre and Post Assessment and Progress Monitoring to Determine Efficacy of the Stop & Think Social Skills Program in an Urban Classroom.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
HEATHER K. HALASZ (The University of Toledo), Wendy Cochrane (The University of Toledo), Sharla N. Fasko (The University of Toledo), Douglas Felt (Toledo Public School)
Abstract: Stop & Think social skills program is a widely-implemented classroom and school-wide intervention program. Students learn such skills as Friendship Making, Anger/Aggression Control, Classroom Survival Skills, and Dealing with Difficult Social Situations. A classroom teacher along with a counselor or school psychologist can implement the program in the classroom and encourage students to generalize newly-learned social skills daily. Social skills are presented through characterization, modeling, role-playing, and performance feedback. The Stop & Think program is being implemented in an urban 6th grade classroom with a diverse population of students. Pre and post-intervention assessments (parent & student survey) and weekly progress monitoring (behavioral data collected at school) are being collected in order to determine the efficacy of the Stop & Think program in this setting. A control group of 6th grade students is also being presented with pre and post assessments in order to compare the students’ progress over time.
132. Effects of a Teacher-Focused, School-Based Intervention on the Classroom Placement of Students with Behavioral Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL E ROBERTSON (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: One hundred sixty-five elementary school students with or at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) were randomly assigned at the school level to a multicomponent teacher-focused intervention or a treatment as usual condition. Data will be presented comparing intervention and control students’ changes in classroom placements to less or more restrictive environments. The presentation will outline the components of the intervention: the Good Behavior Game, teacher self-monitoring, a two-day classroom management training, and supplemental reading tutoring. School and participant demographics will also be presented, as well as the measure used to track students’ changes in educational settings. Results of data analysis of intervention and comparison students’ changes in educational settings will be presented, as well as a discussion of how the components of the intervention could have affected students’ educational placements. At the end of this presentation, learners will be able to: (a) determine whether the year long intervention affected the classroom placements of participating students; (b) identify possible school, classroom, teacher, and student characteristics that may affect successful mainstreaming of students with E/BD; and (c) understand the pros and cons of using student placement decisions as measures of social validity.
133. Improving the Self-Efficacy of Elementary Students with LD in General Education Classrooms thru Evidence-Based Practices.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
YOUN-OCK KIM (The Gongju National University of Education)
Abstract: This presentation provides an introduction to evidence-based learning strategies that teachers can use to address learning behavior problems that often characterize pupils with LD and to help these individuals develop greater self-efficacy and self-monitoring skills in general education classrooms. The study hired 18 elementary students with LD in the mid area of South Korea. The interventions were solid evidence-based practices employing multiple baseline design across subjects. The types of the interventions included vocabulary acquisition strategy, reading comprehension strategy, sentence writing strategy. The research results supports that evidence-based practices improved the self-efficacy of elementary students with LD in general education classrooms. The types and procedures for the interventions and analyzing data-based instructions will be included in detail in the presentation. Grade level: 2-8. Level: Beginning
134. Applying BEA to Increase Reading Fluency with Visually Impaired Student.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MEAGAN BOYD MEDLEY (Mississippi State University), Rachelle Schuck (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: In a suburban public high school, one Braille-reading visually impaired student participated in analysis of present levels of functioning for reading skills followed by brief experimental analysis to determine which of four experimental conditions proved the most influential and appropriate. Listening passage previewing, repeated reading, phrase drill, and conditional reinforcement were all conditions offered in brief experimental analysis. Following this analysis, the student participated in the appropriate intervention until a mastery level was reached and maintained. Poster presentation participants will learn about the use of brief experimental design with a student reading Braille, as well as methods used to determine present levels of functioning in Braille reading. A brief description of technologies used to aid in transcription of print materials to Braille will also be provided. This presentation will also concern how to take brief experimental analysis and apply it to low-incidence populations in order to determine the most effective and appropriate intervention for the subject matter and student. Brief experimental analysis and intervention results indicated that repeated reading worked best for this student in a low-incidence population.
135. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on Phonemic Stimulus Control and Abstraction.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PETRA WIEHE (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: A multiple probe design counterbalanced across participants was used to test the effects of MEI on phonemic stimulus control and abstraction. Four stages consisting of five phonemic sounds were taught. During baseline, participants were taught to either textually respond or write phonemic sounds to criterion. After meeting criterion, participants were probed for the abstraction of blends across the written topography (if taught to textually respond) or the spoken topography (if taught to write). The independent variable consisted of sounds being taught using MEI. Upon reaching criterion in each phase, participants returned to baseline conditions and were probed on the initial sounds for the abstraction of blends. Results for the study showed that participants acquired the capability to abstract phonemic blends across behavior topographies as a function of MEI.
136. Assessing Attention to Letters and Words in Young Children Employing Computer Technology.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NANCY H. HUGUENIN (Behavior Analysis and Technology, Inc.)
Abstract: Assessing visual attention in children can identify attentional deficits that interfere with academic performance. Computer technology was employed in this investigation to provide a detailed analysis of how young children visually attended to letters and words. During pretraining, the children were taught to respond to each letter of a consonant-vowel compound. The two pretrained letters subsequently appeared in four word discriminations. During the word-discrimination task, the children were required to discriminate words containing both pretrained letters from words containing only one of the pretrained letters. Two different stimulus-control tests were administered. One test assessed stimulus control by determining response accuracy when the letter compounds and word discriminations were presented. The other stimulus-control test measured the response topographies of the pretrained letters and test words using a touch screen attached to a computer monitor screen. While the children responded identically to individual letters during pretraining, they displayed a variety of attentional patterns when the same letters predicted reinforcement in the word-discrimination task. Although accuracy scores revealed variability in how young children attended to word discriminations, recording response topographies was a more sensitive stimulus control test in revealing individual differences. Utilizing multiple stimulus-control assessment techniques administered by a computer provided a fine grain analysis and revealed differences in how children of similar age attended to words, which is critical information for developing effective reading instruction.
137. Teaching Bilingual Equivalence Relations between Written Spanish Words, English Words, and Pictures across Teachers and Classrooms.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINE J. OLSON (Northern Arizona University), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University), Siomara Enriquez (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: Stimulus equivalence procedures often utilize match-to-sample (MTS) to train relations between a sample stimulus and two alternative or comparison stimuli. Although, Sidman (1992) and Hall and Chase (1991) reference the possibility of using MTS to teach relations across languages, only Joyce et al. (1993) have actively demonstrated the ability to teach bilingualism in a lab setting. The present study used MTS to teach relations between English and Spanish language stimuli to three typically developing children (pre-readers) who attend a bilingual elementary school. Procedures across one or more stimulus classes were conducted by a therapist, English language teacher, and Spanish language teacher, and across two different classroom settings with each child. Baseline emergent relations were probed by researchers. MTS training for reflexive and symmetrical relations between pictures, Spanish written words, and English written words were then conducted by both of the child’s school teachers (English and Spanish in their respective classrooms). Emergent relations were again probed after training by researchers with an interobserver agreement for 30% of all sessions. The results of this initial investigation are discussed in terms of possible improvements (teaching explicit relations across stimulus classes) in bilingual pedagogy and second language acquisition with typically developing children.
138. Latency Effects and Forgetting after Stimulus Equivalence Training in a Large Introductory University Course.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE L. CULLEN (Northern Arizona University), Lindsay P. Richerson (Northern Arizona University), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: Stimulus equivalence as a method to teach explicit relationships between stimuli has been used across many different populations (Joyce & Wolking, 1997). However, few studies have used stimulus equivalence with college students in large classroom settings. Stimulus classes were taught with response clickers in an introduction psychology class of 200 students at Northern Arizona University. Data from four undergraduate students from this class were selected to determine if forgetting occurred between training (across 3 stimulus classes in the large group) and responding on a written exam. This study addressed the question: if specific and novel stimulus classes are taught in a large group setting, do students retain these explicit relationships over time indicated by responses on a written exam? In order to do this we analyzed responses from in-class stimulus equivalence training (over 17, 10, and 3 days respectively) and compared them to their responses on specific questions on a written exam. The results indicated that some students were able to retain information for the exam while others were not. The results are discussed in terms of explicit teaching of stimulus classes in large undergraduate classes, latency between training and written exams, as well as forgetting over time.
139. Stimulus Equivalence and "Clickers" - Tools for Large Undergraduate Introductory Courses?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY P. RICHERSON (Northern Arizona University), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University), Nicole L. Cullen (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: Large introductory university classes are notorious for having difficulty teaching large amounts of information in short amounts of time. The current study combines current technology (i.e. CPS “clickers”) and teaching explicit relationships across stimulus classes (topics). Stimulus equivalence (S.E.) is a way to teach explicit relationships to achieve an implicit association (or to establish equivalent relationships) between different stimuli (Sidman, 1994). S.E. has been shown to be a useful tool for learning across many populations (Joyce & Wolking, 1993). However, few investigations have used this methodology within higher education in large undergraduate classes. Two introduction to psychology courses (186 students-control group and 178 students-treatment group) were compared. The independent variable was the presentation of topics using S.E. across a number of stimulus classes. The dependent variable was performance on exam questions. The treatment group learned applied concepts using S.E. methods; the control group did not. On the exam there were questions directly related to what was presented during S.E. training. This investigation specifically addressed the group differences between overall exam scores and teaching strategies. The results are discussed in terms of how S.E. methodology can be used in large group settings and include individual student responding.
140. Teaching Neuroanatomy Concepts Efficiently: Equivalence-Based Instruction Involving Class Merger.
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
DANIEL P. COVEY (Illinois State University), Daniel Mark Fienup (Illinois State University), Thomas S. Critchfield (Illinois State University)
Abstract: This study illustrates how the formidable task of mastering advanced technical knowledge can be reduced with equivalence-based instruction that yield more abilities than are expressly trained. College students with limited pre-existing knowledge of neuroanatomy served as subjects. They completed a computerized lesson that provided direct practice, with feedback, on a few carefully chosen conditional relations among stimuli involving the structure and function of four brain lobes. Two portions of the lesson each led to the formation of 4 three-member equivalence classes. Because pairs of classes shared a member, they spontaneously merged into a single, larger class. All told, teaching 16 relations led to the mastery of these 16 plus an additional 48 emergent transitive/equivalence relations of clear academic relevance.
141. Equivalence-Based Instruction and the Testing Effect: Retention of Trained Relations and Emergence of Untrained Relations.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH A. DALIANIS (Illinois State University), Shauna Summers (Illinois State University), Thomas S. Critchfield (Illinois State University), Daniel P. Covey (Illinois State University), Daniel Mark Fienup (Illinois State University)
Abstract: In the "testing effect" in cognitive psychology, testing without feedback enhances retention of studied information. In stimulus equivalence, "studying" a few relations leads to emergence of many others. We explored the connection between these phenomena. College students completed conditional discrimination training on selected facts about neuroanatomy. Pilot data now in hand verify that the procedure generates emergent relations among facts relating to four brain lobes. Every 3-5 days over 3 weeks, they completed a brief quiz on relations involving two of the lobes. At the end of 3 weeks, follow-up testing assessed retention of the trained relations and emergence of untrained ones, to determine whether testing enhanced either outcome. Enhanced retention will replicate the testing effect; enhanced emergence would be a novel finding.



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