Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Paper Session #47
International Paper Session - Clinical Applications of Core Behavior Analysis Principles
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM
Chair: Season Almason (Wapato School District)
An Application of Motivational Augmentals in Fitness.
Domain: Applied Research
MARIANNE L. JACKSON (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno), Steven C. Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The concept of verbal motivation has been further examined within the area of Relational Frame Theory. Motivational augmenting is described as a form of rule-governed behavior that temporarily alters the reinforcing or punishing functions of a given stimulus in a given context. This study attempts to apply this concept to responding in a fitness class. Verbal accounts of relevant consequences for exercising were assessed using the IRAP. These were then applied during classes in an alternating treatments design with a control condition. Data were analyzed and the motivational effects of these verbal consequences are discussed.
The Impact of the Sd and EO on Problematic Side-Effects of Extinction.
Domain: Applied Research
SANDY MAGEE (University of North Texas)
Abstract: For years behavioral researchers have warned against using extinction alone to treat severe problem behavior due to the potential for initial rate increases in the targeted problem behavior and other forms of aggression associated with the use of extinction. Previous research has investigated variables contributing to the occurrence of extinction bursts by reviewing the empirical literature. It is common practice to implement differential reinforcement or non-contingent reinforcement along with extinction to offset these problems. This presentation will describe the use of a trial-and-error learning demonstration to examine the independent effects of the presence of an Sd and EO on response rate increases, variability, emotional responding and extinction-induced aggression. Preliminary data from 3 undergraduate students in behavior analysis indicate that addition of an EO to an established Sd increased the likelihood of these changes in responding. Results will be presented from at least 3 additional undergraduate behavior analysis student participants. Data indicating intensity, duration, frequency and probability of these problematic side-effects along with recommendations for minimizing these effects in clinical applications will be discussed.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates: Interval versus Full-Session DRL.
Domain: Applied Research
SEASON ALMASON (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) procedures are typically used in applied settings to reduce behavior that is problematic only because it is occurring at an unacceptably high rate. The DRL procedures that are most frequently used in applied settings are full-session and interval DRL. Researchers have used these DRL procedures to effectively reduce unacceptably high rates of behavior for children with and without developmental disabilities as well for adults with developmental disabilities. However, there is no standard protocol for implementing these procedures and many procedural variations have been found to be effective. Also, these procedures have never been compared to see if one is more effective than the other. The purpose of the present study is to compare full-session and interval DRL schedules to determine which procedure is the most effective in reducing high rates of behavior.
The Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement for the Consumption of Mastered Foods on the Consumption of Acquisition Foods.
Domain: Applied Research
BRITTNEY CHAMBERS (St. Joseph's Children's Hospital), Merrill J. Berkowitz (St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center)
Abstract: An establishing operation is an event that effects the value of a reinforcer (Michael, 1982). Typically, a continuous schedule of reinforcement is utilized during the acquisition phase of learning a new behavior or skill. Once the learner is emitting the target behavior at high rates, an intermittent schedule of reinforcement is then utilized to maintain the behavior at high rates (Miltenberger, 2008). For many children exhibiting food refusal, learning to consume pureed food is followed by learning to consume higher textured food. Several studies have shown that the use of reinforcement has been effective in increasing the acceptance and consumption of food in children exhibiting a feeding disorder (e.g., Riordan et al., 1980). The current study examines the effects of thinning reinforcement for the consumption of lower textured foods (mastered) on the acquisition of higher texture foods. Two children admitted to an intensive day treatment program for the assessment and treatment of a feeding disorder participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across food groups will be utilized to evaluate these effects. The results of the evaluation and their implication will be discussed in relation to establishing operations. Limitation of the current study and recommendations for future research will also be provided.



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