Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Symposium #234
The Latest in Time-Out and Compliance Training Research
Sunday, May 28, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 4
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeffrey F. Hine (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)

Time-out and compliance training procedures have been cornerstones of behavioral parent training programs addressing childrens problem behavior for decades, yet resistance to treatment has been reported, and it remains important to identify refinements to these procedures that are effective and feasible to implement. This symposium presents recent research examining procedures for time-out and compliance training for childrens problem behavior. First, we present a comparison of the effect of time-out with and without warnings on childrens compliance with instructions. Results suggest that both procedures produced an increase in compliance, however, all participants experienced fewer time-outs when warnings preceded time-out. In an effort to identify compliance training procedures that reduce resistance to instructions, we present on a modified incidental teaching procedure, incidental compliance training (ICT), which produced robust increases in childrens compliance. Finally, we will present a review of non-exclusion time-out (NETO) procedures, which discusses the frequency of important procedural parameters, its general effectiveness as a treatment for childrens problem behavior, and the spectrum of intrusiveness occurring across NETO procedures. These results contribute to the identification of effective time-out and compliance training procedures that are less-restrictive, and which reduce childrens contact with time-out and resistance to instructions.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): compliance training, time-out
Evaluation of a Modified Incidental Teaching Procedure to Increase Child Compliance
COREY MILES COHRS (Apex Children's Program), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Noncompliance is a common and socially significant problem that left untreated, can eventually lead to more significant impairments in overall behavioral health and well-being. To treat noncompliance, numerous empirically supported behavioral parent-training programs rely on timeout as a core component, however, timeout has been found to generate undesirable side effects, including resistance in children. To reduce resistance to treatment of noncompliance, a modified version of incidental teaching was developed because of its reputation for reducing resistance to other types of instruction. ICT. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Incidental Compliance Training ICT to increase the compliance of clinically referred children. In a combined reversal, multiple baseline design, robust and immediate increases in compliance were observed and sustained across five participants, ages 3- 7. Little resistance was observed and parents rated the treatment as easy to implement. Benefits and limitations ICT are discussed.
The Effect of Warnings to Timeout on Child Compliance to Parental Instructions
LENY D. VELASQUEZ VELASQUEZ (Centre for Autism Services Alberta), Ana M Cathcart (UNL), Abigail Kennedy (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: One common component of behavioral parent training packages is the use of a warning prior to implementation of a timeout following noncompliance to parental instructions. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of warnings on compliance. An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate compliance to warned versus unwarned timeouts with three typically developing children. All participants showed a significant increase in compliance upon implementation of the timeout package, either with or without a warning. However, compliance decreased over time in the Warning condition for two participants and increased in variability for a third. All participants had more timeouts in the No Warning condition. Results also showed preliminary evidence for parental preference of Warned timeouts. Implications are discussed.

Non-Exclusion Time-Out for Children's Problem Behavior: Parameters, Effectiveness, and Practical Considerations

ABIGAIL KENNEDY (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), William J. Warzak (University of Nebraska Medical Center)

Researchers have applied non-exclusion time-out (NETO) as a method for reducing childrens problem behavior for over four decades. Four types of NETO have been evaluated: contingent observation, time-out ribbon, planned ignoring, and withdrawal of a specific reinforcing stimulus. NETO has been described as the least restrictive type of time-out, however, no prior review had reported findings regarding NETO specifically and as such, it remains unknown how procedural parameters have been applied during NETO procedures. In this paper, 44 studies encompassing 83 NETO procedures identified through an applied literature search are reviewed regarding participant and behavioral variables, procedural parameters, and NETOs general effect on problem behavior. Results support prior conclusions that NETO is the least intrusive type of time-out, but indicate that the intrusiveness of NETO methods varies considerably across types of NETO. Future areas of research and implications for clinical applications are discussed.




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