Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Symposium #209
Research on a Low Cost Treatment for Pedestrian Safety: More Variables Influencing the Efficacy of the Gateway Treatment
Sunday, May 28, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall A-C
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Gateway In-Street sign treatment has been proven to increase driver yielding right of way to pedestrians to levels produced by other treatments that cost one or two orders of magnitude more to implement. The research presented in these three presentations provide data on the effect of the treatment on driver speed at a large number of sites. The effects of placing the sign in advance of the crosswalk on the distance drivers yield from the crosswalk, and parametric data on the effect of gateway gap size on driving yielding behavior.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Gateway width, Pedestrian Safety, Yielding Behavior, Yielding distance
Passive Effects of the Gateway In-Street Sign Configuration on Vehicle Speed
DE'LON DIXON (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study was a systematic replication of a study that examined whether the effects of a gateway in street sign configuration influenced the speed of vehicles when approaching the cross walk in absents of pedestrians. Data collection took place at nine different locations in the state of Michigan, at sites with two different speed limits. Vehicle speed was measured when the signs were present, and in absents of the signs. The signs reduced speed at all sites to a speed lower than baseline. These data extend on previous research of the gateway configuration, demonstrating the contribution of decreased speed to the gateway's effect on driver yielding behavior. These data were interpreted in terms of behavioral principles.

Distance Variations of the Gateway In-Street Sign Configuration on Increasing Pedestrian Safety

JOSHUA JAMES TURSKE (Western Michigan University ), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)

The gateway configuration of In-Street signs has been shown to produce an increase in the percentage of drivers yielding the right-of-way to pedestrians; this study examined at what distance the gateway configuration was most effective on yielding the right-of-way to pedestrians, how far in advance of the crosswalk drivers yield, as well as what time of day the In-Street signs were most effective at producing yielding in drivers. Data were collected on all vehicles that passed through the intervention at a residential neighborhood with a steady flow of traffic. To account for time of day, a data point was collected at the top of each hour from the hours of 9am to 2pm, where sign distance was varied each hour. The gateway treatment has been replicated on multiple sites across the state of Michigan, and was shown to be effective at increasing yielding right-of-way to pedestrians during this study.

The Effects of Gateway Width on the Percentage of Drivers Yielding to Pedestrians: A Parametric Analysis
JONATHAN HOCHMUTH (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Gateway in street sign treatment has been documented to be a cost effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. The present study systematically varied Gateway width to determine the effect of Gateway width on driver yielding behavior at a single site. Gateway width was varied in two foot intervals from 12 to 18 feet. Twelve feet was selected at the narrowest interval to allow larger vehicles to easily pass between the gap without striking one of the signs. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driving yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers need to navigate between the two signs it is highly likely they need to read the signs (a timely prompt to yield) before traversing the crosswalk and attending to the sign is likely most probable when the gap is narrow. Second, it has also been determined that there is an inverse relationship between vehicle speed and driver yielding behavior. One reason for this effect may by related to the less effort required to brake from when traveling at a lower speed than when traveling at a higher speed. Future research should examine whether gap width is inversely related to vehicle speed.



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