Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #62
Saturday, May 27, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
Chair: Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
90. Increasing Medical Adherence for Individuals with Autism
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEE STUESSER (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Medical procedures such as routine physicals and bloodwork are often associated with nonadherence and problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Although differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is often effective in increasing compliance and decreasing escape-maintained problem behavior, it typically includes an extinction component. Because extinction can be difficult to implement consistently or cannot be used with some individuals, it is important to identify interventions that can be effective when extinction is not in effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate DRA without extinction alone and in combination with fading for increasing adherence and decreasing disruptive behavior during routine medical exams in two individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. An indirect assessment was conducted to identify steps included in medical exams as well as those that may evoke disruptive behavior. A functional analysis (FA) was conducted to ensure that disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from medical demands. DRA alone or in combination with fading increased adherence and decreased disruptive behavior for both participants. Interobserver agreement was completed for 33% of sessions and was at least 90% for both participants.
91. Importance of Replication and Experimental Analysis in Behavioral Science: Examination of Factors Affecting Infants Choices
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
AMIR CRUZ-KHALILI (University of the Pacific), Vinthia Wiryananda Wirantana (University of the Pacific), Manjot Sandhu (University of the Pacific), Carolynn S. Kohn (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)

Researchers suggest individuals preference for others similar to themselves is innate, not learned. Mahajan and Wynn (2012) asked infants seated in their parents lap (N = 32) to choose between two foods, watch a show in which one puppet liked one food but not the other and the second puppet expressed the opposite preferences, and then choose one of the puppets; more infants (84%) chose the similar puppet, the one with the same food preference as the infant. These data are cited as evidence for our innate preference for similar others. We replicated and extended their methodology by including a parent bias manipulation and within-subject repeated measures. Infants (N = 24) were randomly assigned to make their first puppet choice before (Group 1) or after (Group 2) the parent bias manipulation. Few group differences were noted. On the first trial, a total of 37.5% of infants chose the similar puppet. Across at least 80% of trials, 12.5% of infants chose the similar puppet; 75% chose a puppet on the same side. Moreover, 16 (67%) parents reported their infants had little history with the two study foods. Results suggest factors other than innate preference account for infants puppet selections.

92. Increasing Caloric Intake and Decreasing Tube Dependence in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KERRI CALTABIANO (Clinic 4 Kidz), Ashlee Marie Matrigali Jackson (Clinic 4 Kidz), Elizabeth Kunz (Clinic 4 Kidz ), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Tube dependency occurs when individuals require enteral feeding to achieve appropriate nutritional intake. Gastrostomy (G-) tube dependence, generally occurring in infants and toddlers can become necessary due to medical conditions such as prematurity, chromosomal anomalies, and cardiac conditions, and can also occur due to behavioral or sensory issues. Tube dependency, which may initially occur due to medical complications, can lead to physical and emotional dependency on tube feedings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to increase caloric intake orally, while decreasing tube dependency in three children with feeding disorders, and a variety of medical conditions, including but not limited to failure to thrive (FTT) gastroesophageal reflex (GER), sleep apnea, prematurity, autism, and chromosomal anomalies (i.e., DiGeorge syndrome). Weight gain and growth were measured throughout treatment, and oral motor skills development was targeted throughout treatment as well. By implementing structured mealtime protocols which used common principles of applied behavior analysis (i.e., noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement, escape extinction), in addition to providing oral desensitization and oral motor skills training, we successfully eliminated tube dependency and achieved oral intake of caloric needs for all three children.
93. Effects of Writing and Peer Editing with a Script on the Acquisition of Read-Do Correspondence
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
Brittany Dianne Bly (Teachers College Columbia University), MELISSA BENINSIG (Teachers College Columbia University), Emily Anne Jestus (Teachers College Columbia University)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: We tested the effects of writing and peer editing with a script on the acquisition of read-do correspondence and functional and structural writing for 5 4th graders. The participants did not demonstrate read-do correspondence and self-management repertoires needed to acquire higher order operants prior to the study. The researchers measured read-do correspondence through 20 written complex directions and descriptive, informative, and instructional writing probes with functional and structural components. Through a pre- and post-test design, each participant acted as a writer and a peer editor with a script. The writer read a social studies article and used a script to complete an outline and 5-6 paragraph essay about the region. Following the completion of the writer’s essay, the peer editor would read and edit the essay with a script. The peer editor returned the essay back to the writer with the feedback. The writer and editor continued this sequence until each participant reached 90% criterion for their assigned role and then switched roles until criterion was met again in the new role. Writing and peer editing were functionally related to the increase of functional and structural writing and the acquisition of read-do correspondence across participants.
94. An Investigation of Activities that Promote Spontaneous Engagement in Pro-Social Behaviors
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEY RIPPLE (Mississippi State University), Jonathan Tritley (Mississippi State University), Shengtian Wu (Mississippi State University), MacKenzie D Sidwell (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: While research has been completed that combines different social skills interventions to examine if an intervention is more effective alone or in combination with another intervention (Loftin, Odom, & Lantz, 2008), there has been limited research examining specific combinations and components that are most effective (Camargo et al., 2014). The current study examined which of four activities was most effective in facilitating spontaneous engagement in pro-social behaviors. Participants were divided into three groups based on age and included 12 males and 4 females between the ages of 5 and 15 with varying diagnoses. Intervention alternated between “Skillstreaming days” (SD) or “activity days” (AD) to teach how to begin a conversation. SD involved direct instruction, modeling, and practice with feedback. AD involved direct instruction and participation in a craft, team-building activity, or game. Data was collected during the activity and examined the frequency of unprompted appropriate behaviors following intervention. Results available from one of three groups indicate that overall, craft resulted in the highest frequency of unprompted appropriate behaviors. Results from other groups will be examined. These results add to the literature by attempting to identify activities that best facilitate engagement in pro-social behaviors.
95. Increasing Consumption of Regular Textured Food Through Oral Motor Skill Development
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KERRI CALTABIANO (Clinic 4 Kidz), Chelsea Paula (Clinic 4 Kidz), Elizabeth Kunz (Clinic 4 Kidz ), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Pediatric feeding disorders arise when a child experiences deficits in picking up, chewing, moving, or swallowing food. These disorders can occur in typically developing children with medical conditions; however, the prevalence of feeding disorders increases in populations of children with developmental delays. These disorders can result in malnourishment, poor weight gain and growth, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and liquid dependency. When food refusal of regular textured food occurs, it is common for families to default to presenting liquids, or pureed foods, in attempts to keep their children healthy and nourished. While liquid dependence can provide an appropriate caloric intake for a child, it can hinder the development of the oral motor skills necessary to consume regular textured foods. Therefore, the purpose of this case study was to increase regular textured food intake while decreasing liquid dependency in three children with poor oral intake of solids. The children in this case study all had poor intake of solids, along with poor weight gain and liquid dependency. The children collectively also had a variety of medical conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER), cyclic vomiting, tongue tie, ulcerative colitis, failure to thrive (FTT), and choking/gagging. Oral motor exercise sequences were taught and evolved over the course of treatment, to include tongue desensitization, tongue lateralization, sensory activities, mashing, front and side placement chewing, and suck and swallow responses. Basic principles of behavior, such as escape extinction, visual boards as prompts, non-contingent reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and response costs, were used to implement skills training and treat oral motor skill deficits. In addition, weight gain and growth was monitored across the course of treatment. We were able to successfully reduce liquid dependence and increase overall volumes of regular textured food.
96. Re-establishing Oral Consumption in a Pre-Adolescent with a Recent Onset of a Feeding Disorder
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH A. MASLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Most children with feeding disorders present with food refusal, often attributed to medical, behavioral, and/or oral-motor concerns, early on in life. The effectiveness of behavioral treatment for this population has been widely reported in the literature. However, less research has examined behavioral treatment for children developing food refusal later in life. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a behavioral treatment to re-establish oral consumption in an 11-year-old girl admitted to an inpatient feeding program for the treatment of a recent onset of food/liquid refusal and weight loss. Her medical history was significant for necrotizing enterocolitis with bowel resection, chronic abdominal pain, and recurrent constipation. In the weeks prior to her admission, she had been hospitalized for malnutrition, weight loss, abdominal pain, and decreased oral intake. Despite a history of eating and drinking by mouth, upon admission she would only consume small amounts of solids and liquids, and was nearly 100% dependent on naso-gastrostomy tube feedings. An exit criterion behavioral treatment for increasing liquid consumption was evaluated utilizing a changing criterion design, and stepwise increases in the criterion were made until age-appropriate volumes were reached. These results support the use of behavioral treatments for recently acquired feeding difficulties.
97. Does Social Referencing Have An Overall Impact on Child Compliance?
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
MELONIE MENDEZ (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Discussant: Kat Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Studies have revealed the importance of a childs second year of life, with regards to their development understanding. Infant social referencing is a method of discriminative learning where maternal facial expressions can serve as indications of the consequences of the infants behavior in an indistinct context. In fact, in one experiment, infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination training (discrete trials) procedure using an ABAB design. The results replicated the findings that infants can learn social referencing via discrimination training. This paper explores the relationships between social referencing and child compliance, using facial expressions. This study examined the effect of social referencing on child compliance amongst three typically developing school-aged children, between the ages of 2 and 5-years-old. The social referencing paradigm was used to examine whether positive and negative messages would affect the childs response to engaging in play with an unfamiliar object/toy. Results indicated that positive trials produced higher rates of reaching responses, when paired with discriminative cues during the baseline phase; while, negative trials paired with discriminative cues resulted in lower reaching responses as depicted in the tables below.



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