Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #249
Sunday, May 28, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
Chair: Todd A. Ward (bSci21 Media, LLC)
72. Delay Discounting on the Miskitu Coast
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
WILL FLEMING (University of Kansas), David P. Jarmolowicz (The University of Kansas), Laura Herlihy (University of Kansas), Josephine Kapicka (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: Census data indicates that substance-use disorders are a growing concern for the Miskitu, a large indigenous population that inhabits the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) of Nicaragua. Low government funding and lack of infrastructure pose serious limitations to the extent in which substance-use disorders can be analyzed, assessed, and monitored in the RAAN. Delay discounting offers a unique approach to quantifying risk for substance-use disorders—as higher delay discounting rates predict higher risk —among the Miskitu at little cost and in highly inaccessible areas. Using modified monetary-choice questionnaires, 30 Miskitu men and women were interviewed in two central localities with relatively high population densities. Consistent with previous studies, linear regression analysis suggests an inverse relation between income and delay discounting rates among Miskitu without university education (n = 12), although no clear relation was observed between delay discounting rates and education itself. Associations between delay discounting rates and number of children as well as subsistence strategies were also observed. These results, despite limitations regarding sample size and generalizability, appeal to the heterogeneity of Miskitu risk for substance-use disorders and warrant continued investigation within more remote communities.
73. The Prevalence of Women in the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis: Has the Glass Ceiling Been Shattered?
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
ALICIA NEHRKORN (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)

The participation of women in applied behavior analysis has been a topic examined by researchers since the introduction of the field. Many have discussed the glass ceiling," limiting the ability of women to perform at the highest levels of the applied behavior analysis field. This poster will examine the participation of women in the field with regards to the prevalence of women registered with Association for Behavior Analysis International over the past decade and the locations with the highest prevalence within the United States. This data will be displayed using geospatial image mapping, providing a visual data set across the United States. This study hypothesizes that the prevalence of women has increased by no less than 25% over the past decade, and continues in an upward trend. The highest prevalence of women in the field of applied behavior analysis is presumed to have location in the New England area of the United States proportional to population.

74. Assessing Cultural Variables of Social Validity
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTI STENCIL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Helen Lee (Boston University), Robyn M. Catagnus (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Elizabeth Hughes Fong (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Amanda Karpien (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: Social validity measures information on the social significance of a clients treatment goals, interventions, and effects. It is an important feature of applied behavior analysis (ABA). Although information on consumers cultural information can affect their treatment goals, interventions, and reinforcers, it is not clear whether or how cultural variables have been recognized in the literature over the years. For example, understanding the social significance of a consumer's culture can help the intervention reach high treatment fidelity. The purpose of this review is to present a content analysis of social validity especially with respect to cultural variables across twenty years from 1996 to 2016. The cultural variables included race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, and other cultural information about consumer. The five ABA journal articles are selected: the Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Analyst, Psychological Record, and Analysis of Verbal Behavior. The preliminary results so far indicate that the majority of the articles did not measure social validity on the clients cultural backgrounds. Results will be further discussed with respect to the role of culture in human behavior and the science of behavior analysis. Considering increasing demand for serving clients from diverse cultural backgrounds, the importance of integrating cultural variables in social validity measures in behavior analysis will be also highlighted.
75. Barriers to Parental Engagement in Applied Behavior Analytic Home-Based Service Models
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
KYLE WORTMAN (University of New Mexico), Megan Martins (University of New Mexico), Susan Copeland (University of New Mexico)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: Parental engagement has been shown to be a key factor impacting the success of home-based services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder rooted in the concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis. However, there is a lack of research examining the variables which impact parental ability to engage in treatment and few attempts have been made to understand parental engagement from a behavior-analytic perspective. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify barriers to parental engagement encompassing the three domains of recruitment, retention, and ongoing involvement. A total of 15 articles were found in both behavior-analytic and nonbehavior-analytic journals using EBSCOhost databases. Analysis of the mostly nonbehavior-analytic literature revealed several recurrent themes. Parents of children with ASD have been found to have significantly higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children and children with other disabilities. The emerging consensus is that the significantly higher levels of parental stress are due primarily to persistent problem behaviors, regardless of the functioning level of the child. The literature also indicated an association between high parental stress and low parental self-efficacy, and there is evidence parents fitting this description are unable to adhere to treatment recommendations. External factors such as a lack of time, money, resources, social support, and stability of the treatment team have also been self-reported by parents as barriers to engaging in services. Additional individual factors such as the cultural values of the family, coping mechanisms, spousal difficulties, and the mental/physical health of the parents are also barriers to engagement. Given the bi-directional relationship between high parental stress/low parental self-efficacy and problem behaviors, a transactional model of parental engagement in behavior analytic services is proposed that acknowledges the interplay between these variables as well as individual and external factors. This model seeks to highlight the circular relationship between these variables and translate them into behavior analytic terms (e.g., a lack of reinforcement following attempts to be a behavior change agent that occurred prior to initiation of services may lead to less adherence to treatment recommendations). Thus, it is meant to aid clinicians in identifying and address potential barriers to efficacious treatment from the outset of services.
76. Delay and Probability Discounting of Opportunities to Reply to a Text Message in College Students
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton), Heather Fessler (Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton), Anne Foreman (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Jonathan E. Friedel (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Oliver Wirth (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine an impulsive decision-making process underlying texting while driving from a behavioral economic perspective. A sample of 67 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send or read text messages while driving. Based on this information, participants were grouped by those who frequently text while driving and those who infrequently text while driving. In a novel discounting task with a hypothetical scenario in which participants receive a text message while driving, participants rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply until arriving at a destination. The scenario presented several delays to a destination (range: 30 sec to 3 hours) and probabilities of motor vehicle crashes (range: 10% to 0.03%). The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted opportunities to reply to a text message while driving. The study shows that the rates of delay and probability discounting were much greater for students who frequently text while driving, suggesting that both delay and probability discounting play an important role in drivers decision to reply to a text message while driving.
77. Fostering the Sustainable Use of Common-Pool Resources Through Behavioral Interventions: An Experimental Approach
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
JULIO CAMARGO (Federal University of Sao Carlos), Verônica Bender Haydu (Universidade Estadual de Londrina)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: This study proposes the use of an experimental analogue of natural resource exploitation to evaluate the effects of the real-time displaying of the amount of available resources and the provision of written feedback messages on the resource extraction behavior of participants sharing a common-pool. The experiment involved the application of a three-member common-pool resources game. The members of the groups sharing the resources were changed periodically and were allowed to talk briefly to each other so that an experienced participant could give instructions to a newcomer. Twenty-two college students took part and were distributed into three groups: Control, Display, and Feedback. The amount of resources extracted individually and by the groups in every round of the game was analyzed, as were the verbal responses of the experienced participants when giving instructions to newcomers. Results showed that the manipulated variables were effective for the short-term decrease in the amount of resources extracted by the members of the Display and Feedback groups. The accuracy of the instructions was also important for the sustained maintenance of the pattern of consumption established by the manipulated variables, leading to the recovery and the preservation of the resources in a greater number of the games rounds.
78. Cultural Practice of Responsibility: An Experimental Analogue in Laboratory Microcultures
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
Vitor Araújo (Londrina State University; Pitágora College; INESUL College; Paulista State University), Paola Rafaela Vitali Taciano (Londrina State University), FELIPE L. LEITE (Imagine Behavioral Technology / University of Fortaleza - Fortaleza/Brazil), Camila Melo (Londrina State University)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: The present work aimed to develop an analog of an accountability cultural practice in two studies using laboratory microcultures. The first one investigates the influence of cultural consequences of this practice using public and also anonymous ways to blame and assess whether and how these practices are passed to further generations. Eighteen college students participated in a procedure in which the members of five microcultures (MC) could assign responsibility for specific group members regarding the group outcome. Group reinforcement depended on the accountability issue in the previous round according to experimental conditions in a ABAB design. In some microcultures, naive participants replaced previous ones, representing new experimental generations. The second study verified if verbal behavior affected the acquisition and maintenance of accountability cultural practices. The verbal episodes of three MCs were analyzed in terms of informative instruction, mythology or coercive rules. The results showed that accountability practices came under control of the programmed cultural consequence (group reinforcement) and they were transmission of intergenerational practice. It was not possible to demonstrate the differences between public and private practices. Cultural practices were selected even when the subjects did not describe the contingency accurately.
79. Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Journals: History and Status Update
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
KATHRYN M. ROOSE (University of Nevada, Reno), Molli Luke (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Mark A. Mattaini (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago), Richard F. Rakos (Cleveland State University)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: Behaviorists for Social Responsibility is the oldest Special Interested Group (SIG) in the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). It was formed in 1978 as Behaviorists for Social Action (BFSA), a SIG in ABAI's predecessor, the Midwestern Association for Behavior Analysis (MABA). One of the first activities of the SIG was to publish a journal, originally titled Behaviorists for Social Action Journal, and currently titled Behavior and Social Issues (BSI). Volume 1 issue 1 provided a mission statement for the SIG and the journal: BFSA was formed to involve those committed to an operant analysis of behavior against social justice: including racism, sexism, ageism, unemployment, unsafe working conditions, economic exploitation of workers and salary earners, and the threat of war. This poster will cover the history of the BFSR SIG with specific focus on the BSI journal, as well as its predecessors. Analyses were completed on authorship, institutions represented by authors, impact, and topics covered by journal articles. The poster will include data on these analyses, a discussion of alignment between the mission of the SIG and its activities, and implications for the future of the SIG and the journal.
80. The Impact of Monetary Fines on Behavior
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Discussant: Criss Wilhite (Fresno State)
Abstract: Students at the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center can earn money for academic behaviors. They can also lose money for pre-defined behaviors. Previously, the money lost was determined by multiplying the number of behaviors exhibited by a preset fine. Now there are three different types of fines. The first is a percentage, where the student loses a percentage of their earned money for each behavior exhibited. The second is a tiered level, where the student loses a specific dollar amount for each behavior exhibited until they reach a certain number of behaviors, then the dollar amount can increase. The last type of fine is the maximum penalty, where the student loses all of their money and goes into debt the maximum amount. We will be looking at how these different fines impact behaviors exhibited, in the categories of aggression, destruction, health dangerous, majorly disruptive, non-compliance, inappropriate verbal and educationally/socially interfering.



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