Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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33rd Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2007

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 26, 2007


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Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
Agency-Based Training: Can We Get There from Here?
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Discussant: James F. McGimsey (AdvoServ)
CE Instructor: Pamela G. Osnes, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Most individuals who are providing behavioral services are likely to receive more of their training in their agencies than they received in pre-service training. In some instances, agency-based training is the only training that the service providers will receive. In spite of this state of affairs, there is precious little attention given to how that training is delivered. There are often significant constraints on training that result in poorly designed training. If we accept that training is a method for skill acquisition then the training should be designed in ways that increase the probability of skill acquisition. This symposium will address the various issues associated with staff training as it is commonly practiced, propose a template for guiding training decisions, and provide an example of staff training done well.

 
Agency-Based Behavior Analysis Training (ABBAT): Trials and Tribulations.
PAMELA G. OSNES (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: In 2004, the Education Board of the Association for Behavior Analysis began discussions about an apparent gap in training experiences for professionals who are employed in agencies who dispense behavior analysis services but who are not Board Certified Behavior Analysts. While BACB certification provides standards and requirements for continuing education for BCBAs, there are many individuals practicing behavior analysis in agencies who are not part of the certification process who “fall between the cracks” in terms of receiving regular, in-service training opportunities to continue to hone their behavior analytic skills. In response to this identified area of critical need, the Education Board undertook an initiative to assemble practitioners from well-known and long-established behavior analysis agencies in the United States to develop a template of potential “best practices” for in-service training to make available for use in agencies. This presentation will disseminate the broad issues related to training that were identified by the ABBAT members, and will provide opportunities for audience discussion.
 
A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training.
RONNIE DETRICH (Wing Institute)
Abstract: Staff training is one solution for addressing performance but is not the only one. Often training becomes the default option even when it is not likely to be the most effective method for improving performance. The first part of this paper will propose a decision matrix for determining a method for improving performance. If staff training is selected as the best option a number of decisions have to be made in order to maximize the impact of training. The first decision to make is how will content be delivered. The most common form of delivery is a didactic format but depending of the skill being taught this may not be the most effective. Once decisions about delivery have been made, then it is necessary to determine how performance will be evaluated. The most common forms of evaluation are either role-plays or some type of paper/pencil test. Again, depending on the skill being trained these may or may not be appropriate methods for assuming that performance in the actual setting will reflect training. The decision matrix proposed in this paper will highlight the various options for content delivery and performance evaluation, suggesting the benefits of each as well as their limitations. This matrix should help trainers more effectively design training in agencies in which there are limits on resources and time for training.
 
Teaching and Learning the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction.
LIBBY M. STREET (Central Washington University), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Morningside Academy forms partnerships with public and private schools that want to implement our Generative Instruction model in their reading, writing and mathematics general education classrooms. I will describe Morningside Academy’s system for teaching teachers and other school personnel the model. Our system includes 3 phases: Prototypical/generic education, program-specific training, and in-classroom coaching. In phase 1, generic education, teachers learn our conceptual Generative Instruction model. Our consultants present slideshows, videoclips, and live demonstrations of principles and procedures. Participants are given many practice opportunities to learn the model. Mastery is demonstrated through (a) intraverbal behavior, including definitions, descriptions, and identification of written examples and nonexamples, and (b) demonstrations of the generic principles and procedures. In phase 2, program-specific training, teachers learn how to implement specific instructional programs and practice routines, consistent with the generic model. Mastery of phase 2 is also demonstrated by intraverbal behavior and demonstrations. In phase 3, in-classroom coaching, Morningside consultants provide hands-on assistance to teachers while they are implementing the programs with their students. Specifically, consultants provide interventions of increasing intrusiveness, beginning with signals, then tips and quips, then live demonstrations with their students, then requests that teachers videotape their lessons so that consultants can review them, frame by frame if necessary, with the teacher.
 
 
Symposium #19
CE Offered: BACB
Empirical Investigations of Precision Teaching with Students and Adults with Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Douglas A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sandra L. Harris (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Sandra L. Harris (Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Marlene Cohen, Ed.D.
Abstract:

While there is general consensus among Precision Teachers regarding the desired outcomes these procedures for building behavior frequency, standard practice varies with regard to certain procedural aspects. Very little published comparative evidence exists to guide instructors when making such methodological decisions. While a description, analysis and comparison of all these variations in clinical practice of Precision Teaching is beyond the scope of this symposium, an attempt will be made to continue to address a few of these procedural questions.

 
Evaluating the Maintenance of Skills Built to Fluency.
DANIA L. MATTHEWS (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Rutgers University), Jacqueline J. Wright (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Maintenance of acquired skills has always been a concern for behavior analysts working with individuals with autism. It is well known that many individuals with autism lose skills over time or require regular practice to prevent the loss of skills. Some behavior analysts have suggested that building skills to fluency (through rate-building) may protect learners from this type of skill loss. In this presentation, we will present data on the retention of skills taught through rate-building. Specifically, we will present data on retention checks. Data will be presented on a wide variety of learners and on a wide variety of skills. Data form one-month, two-month, three-month, and six-month retention checks will be presented. Implications of the data will be discussed.
 
The Effects of Precision Teaching with Frequency Building of Fine Motor Skills on the Performance of Functional Life Skills: Examining the Effects of Established Aims.
MARLENE COHEN (Rutgers University), Donna L. Sloan (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Carl V. Binder (Binder Riha Associates)
Abstract: In the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, much focus is placed on the intense training needs of young children with autism. Many educators believe that adolescents and adults with autism are less likely to make significant strides than their younger counterparts. Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures is one method that holds promise as an efficient and effective means of instruction for older learners. The current research is the attempt to replicate previous clinical demonstrations of the profound impact of Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures on the functional use of fine motor skills in adolescents and adults with autism during activities of daily living. Further, this research explores whether instruction of component motor skills should end when minimum frequency aims are initially achieved, or if continuing instruction of component skills to higher frequencies of performance will yield greater, positive effects on performance of functional composite skills. In addition, this paper will begin to examine whether maximum improvement is seen when component skills that are addressed in teaching are directly related to the movements involved in composite skills, or whether more generalized improvements in adaptive skills can be seen in skills that are not topographically related to the trained component skills.
 
Fluency Isn’t Just about Stuttering Anymore: An Examination of the Effects of Frequency Building of Component Language Skills on Students with Autism.
MARY SENS-AZARA AZARA (Rutgers University), Marlene Cohen (Rutgers University)
Abstract: A skill is fluent when a high rate of accurate responding is demonstrated (Lindsley, 1972), response rate and accuracy are maintained over time (Haughton, 1972; Binder, 1987, 1988), responses are readily available to the selecting environment for linking and combining with other skills (Johnson & Layng, 1992), and stability, endurance, application and retention of the skill has been validated (Fabrizio & Moors, 2003). All of these criteria are desirable outcomes of successful intervention in a speech and language program. This paper will examine the outcome of timed practice or frequency building as it might relate to speech therapy practices. Methods for teaching a skill to fluency as it pertains to speech and language programs will be discussed. Material will be of interest to speech pathologists and trainers with some knowledge of verbal behavior programs.
 
 
Symposium #20
CE Offered: BACB
Extensions of Functional Analysis Methodology at a Residential Treatment Center
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robert F. Littleton Jr. (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Ann Filer (BEACON Services)
CE Instructor: Thomas L. Zane, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Functional assessment procedures are the gold standard used to assess the causes of a wide range of maladaptive behaviors. Over the past several years, researchers have assessed the influence of a myriad of variables that could influence functional analysis results. By doing so, client treatment has improved in quality. This symposium reports the results of several extensions of functional analysis methodology and suggests clinical implications of the findings.

 
What is the Effect of Medications on Long-Term Functional Analysis Results?
THOMAS L. ZANE (Evergreen Center), Lawrence L. Lockwood (Evergreen Center), Tara-Lynn Burbee (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Research has documented that functional analysis results are influenced by several variables. For example, brief versus extended functional analyses sometimes differ in results. The influence of establishing operations (e.g., pre-session attention) can reduce the occurrence of behavior during functional analysis sessions. The question addressed in the current research was to what extent (if any) did medication changes influence functional analysis results. The subjects were several students attending a residential treatment center. These subjects engaged in maladaptive behaviors to the extent that psychotropic medication was given. Before changes in medication (either increase, decrease, starting, or stopping) took place, staff performed extended functional analysis sessions the week prior to the change, and a week after the medication would be at eventual strength (or totally eliminated from the bloodstream). FA results before and after the medication change were compared to determine any difference. Results were discussed in terms of clinical implications and suggestions for conducting functional analyses.
 
To What Extent Can Functional Analysis Procedures Determine the Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors?
TARA-LYNN BURBEE (Evergreen Center), Lawrence L. Lockwood (Evergreen Center), Thomas L. Zane (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Functional analysis methodology has been used successfully to determine the operant cause of a variety of behaviors, including noncompliance, aggression, self-injury, and self-stimulation. There is little research on using functional analysis procedures with behaviors thought of to be more psychiatric in nature, such as obsessive-compulsive. The purpose of this study was to conduct a functional analysis of classic obsessive-compulsive behavior. Students at a residential treatment center with such a diagnosis served as subjects. Teachers used analog environments to create conditions that would prompt the obsessive-compulsive chain of behaviors. Within that context, the classic functional analysis conditions were employed. Results were provided showing the extent to which there were differentiated results. Comments about possible modification of functional analysis procedures were made.
 
An Analysis of the Reinforcing Effects of Different Components of Attention.
LAWRENCE L. LOCKWOOD (Evergreen Center), Tara-Lynn Burbee (Evergreen Center), Thomas L. Zane (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Many maladaptive behaviors are determined, through functional analysis methodology, to be caused by attention. This is not surprising. However, often the attention provided by another person is multifaceted in nature. That is, there are several components of attention, including eye contact, touch, and tone of voice. It is not clear in many situations exactly what attention an individual is seeking by engaging in maladaptive responses. The purpose of this study was to systematically vary components of attention for attention-maintained behavior, to determine, per subject, what component(s) were and were not reinforcing. Students attending a residential treatment facility served as subjects. After standard functional analysis sessions were conducted to experimentally verify that the maladaptive behaviors were indeed a function of attention, customized sessions were run testing the effect of attention components (i.e., eye contact, touch, and verbalizations) on each subject, utilizing an alternating treatments design. Results showed that subjects varied on the type of attention influenced targeted behaviors. Results were discussed in terms of clinical implications and suggestions for functional analysis methodology.
 
 
Symposium #21
CE Offered: BACB
Factors Affecting Treatment Success II: Parent and Staff Training
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Annie AB
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis & Support Center, Ltd.)
CE Instructor: Sung Woo Kahng, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavioral interventions have proven to be effective in reducing problem behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities. Despite the efficacy of this technology, there continue to be barriers to long-term treatment success. One such barrier is effective parent and staff or teacher training. The purpose of this symposium is to present research in recent advances in parent/staff training. The goal is to facilitate a meaningful discussion of training, which we hope will promote a growth of research in this area.

 
Evaluation of an Outpatient Parent Training Service for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.
BRITT WINTER (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Increasingly, parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are integrally involved in the delivery of behavioral intervention services to their affected child (Koegel, Symons, & Koegel, 2002; Schreibman, 1988). The purpose of this program evaluation was to examine the effects of an outpatient clinic serving children with ASDs in the form of parent training in implementation of behavioral acquisition procedures (e.g., chaining, incidental teaching) and general contingency management systems (e.g., token economy). Parents were taught the procedures using a behavioral skills training model (BST) and implementation was assessed with their child for at least one behavioral target. Data from all families served in a 2-year period will be presented on: a) target areas identified by parents and clinicians, b) interventions recommended by clinicians, c) rate of acquisition by parents, d) procedural integrity of parent implementation during rehearsal and implementation with the target child, and e) child acquisition data for the targeted skill.
 
Further Evaluation of an Intensive Teacher Training Model.
DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Alyson N. Hovanetz (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Margaret J. Strobel (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Allison Serra Tetreault (Texas Young Autism Project), Joanie Garro (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Alice A. Keyl (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Angela Mahmood (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Shelley Mullin (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: The successful transfer of applied technologies to public school settings requires efficient teacher preparation models. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Drawn from the extensive literature on caregiver training, this relatively comprehensive program was intended to be feasible within the constraints of typical school settings. Nine certified special education teachers participated in an intensive 5-day summer program that incorporated both didactic and performance-based instruction. The teachers were taught a relatively large number of specific skills within two areas that have been the focus of extensive study for children with developmental disabilities (preference assessment and direct teaching). The summer training was designed to promote generalization of those skills into their classrooms during the subsequent academic year. Data were collected on teachers’ correct implementation of the skills. Results showed that the teachers met the mastery criteria for all of the skills during the summer training. Follow-up observations of the teachers up to 3 months after the training suggested that the skills generalized to their classrooms. Performance maintained across repeated observations with brief feedback only.
 
The Effects of Conversational versus Technical Language on Treatment Preference and Treatment Integrity.
DAVID P. JARMOLOWICZ (West Virginia University), Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Einar T. Ingvarsson (Youngstown State University), Richard A. Goysovich (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rebecca Heggemeyer (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan Gregory (University of Florida)
Abstract: Training direct line staff to effectively implement behavioral interventions is one of the key factors to long-term treatment success. In some cases, behavioral plans can consist of technical language that may be beyond the training level of some staff. Therefore, this study compared the effects of behavior plans written in conversational versus technical language on treatment preference and integrity. The results showed that staff preferred treatments written in conversational language. Furthermore, staff had higher levels of treatment integrity when following behavior plans written in conversational language. These data suggest that, at least for front line staff, using behavior plans written in simpler language may improve staff performance.
 
 
Symposium #24
CE Offered: BACB
Further Analysis of Parents as Behavior Change Agents
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Ford AB
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: William L. Holcomb (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Michele D. Wallace, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Teaching parent to be effective behavior change agents can be a difficult process. This sysmposium will further the current literature on parent training in a number of ways. The first paper successfully demonstrated that they were able to teach 14 parents of preschool children with autism to conduct paired stimulus preference assessments within a 90 min training session. The second paper evaluated the effect of training parents on principles of Applied Behavior Analysis with respect to their treatment integrity as well as their level of acceptablity of the behavior plan. The third paper assessed the efficacy of various parent training components in an addivitve fashion in an effort to identify the most necessary training component. Finally, the papers will be synthesized with respect to their collection implications for training parents as behavior change agents, the merits of each of the research projects, and with respect to future directions.

 
Teaching Parents of Children with Autism to Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference.
JENNIFER KERAS (New England Center for Children), Richard B. Graff (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Over the past 20 years, a great deal of literature has been published on assessing preferences and identifying reinforcers with individuals with disabilities. It is not clear how well this research has translated to practice, however, and it seems unlikely that parents frequently conduct systematic preference assessments with their own children with disabilities. In this study, 14 parents of preschool children with autism were taught to conduct paired stimulus preference assessments. Prior to training, a pretest was given to assess parents’ knowledge of preference and reinforcement; mean accuracy was 52.6% (range, 21% to 87%). Parents then received 90 min of training on conducting preference assessments that involved lecture, demonstration, and practice. Following the training, mean accuracy on posttests increased to 80.6% (range, 64% to 100%). The following week, parents conducted a paired-stimulus assessment in their home with their child, and a trained observer was present to collect interobserver agreement (IOA) and procedural integrity (PI) data on at least 50% of trials. Interobserver agreement and PI data indicated that parents accurately conducted preference assessment procedures and accurately recorded data on 98% of trials, suggesting that parents can learn some aspects of behavior analytic technology in relatively short periods of time.
 
An ABA Parent Training Program in an Outpatient Setting: Pilot Data.
ANDREA M. BEGOTKA (Children's Hospital of Wisconsin), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University, Dept. of Psychology), Melanie DuBard (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)
Abstract: For children with developmental disabilities and severe behavior disorders, complex behavioral interventions are often necessary for managing child behavior. Such interventions cannot be successful without properly training caregivers to implement the various treatment components and to generalize their training to the natural environment. However, treatment integrity often diminishes when the consultant is no longer present (Noell et al., 2005). One possible explanation is that caregivers do not understand the rationale behind the treatment components. In an effort to improve treatment integrity, caregivers in the present study received specific training on principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in conjuction with training on individualized treatment components. ABA training sessions were conducted in the home concurrently with assessment and treatment sessions in an outpatient clinic. Training included didactic training, modeling, roleplay, feedback, quizzes and parental demonstration. Data were collected on parent implementation and generalization across settings. Pre and post training data were collected on caregiver’s knowledge of behavioral principles and treatment acceptability. Inter-observer agreement averaged over 80%. Following training there was an increase in caregiver’s knowledge of ABA principles and caregivers rated the behavior plan as highly acceptable. On follow-up, caregivers continue to implement the treatment strategies 6 months post discharge.
 
An Evaluation of Different Parent Training Methodologies.
EDWIN DYER (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Parent training interventions typically consist of a combination of multiple training components such as verbal instructions, written instructions, modeling, feedback, and role playing. This study assessed the efficacy of these components in an additive fashion, such that the relation of these components to parental efficacy as a whole was assessed. In addition, this study tested an intervention that ciircumvented the need for direct trainer/trainee interactions, and took geographic constraints into consideration as well. Results indicated that no one component in particular was responsible for behavior change. Results will be discussed with respect to empowering parents as behavior change agents.
 
 
Symposium #30
CE Offered: BACB
Suicidal and Parasuicidal Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Gregory AB
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: James M. Sperry (The May Institute)
Discussant: John Stokes (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: John Stokes, M.S.
Abstract:

This symposium will present three papers dealing with suicidal behavior in adults with developmental disabilities. The first paper is an overview of the prevalance of suicidal behavior in adults with developmental disabilities. The second paper is a case study of an adult male with Developmental Disabilities, and a lengthy history of suicidal behavior. Treatment approaches are reviewed along with data from the interventions. The third paper is a case study of an adult female with developmental disabilities and a lengthy history of suicidal behavior. Treatment approaches are reviewed along with analysis of the data from the interventions.

 
Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities.
JAMES M. SPERRY (The May Institute), Christine M. Magee (The May Institute), Mark J. Hauser (The May Institute)
Abstract: This paper examines the existing literature concerning suicidal and parasuicidal behavior within the population of adults with developmental disabilities. Prevelance data are examined, and comparisons are made between adults with developmental disabilities and concurrent psychiatric disabilities, and those with developmental disabilities without concurrent psychiatric disabilities, and the general population.
 
Treatment of Suicidal Behavior in a Man with Developmental Disabilities and Depression with Psychotic Features.
CHRISTINE M. MAGEE (The May Institute), James M. Sperry (The May Institute), James K. Luiselli (The May Institute)
Abstract: This paper presents a case study of an adult male with developmental disabilities and depression with psychotic features. This individual has a lengthy history of suicidal behavior which has led to failed residential placements, and multiple psychiatric hospitalizations. Treatment approaches will be examined including behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions.
 
Treatment of Suicidal Behavior in a Woman with Developmental Disabilities and Borderline Personality Disorder.
MICHELLE J. GRAHAM (The May Institute), Christine M. Magee (The May Institute), James M. Sperry (The May Institute), James K. Luiselli (The May Institute)
Abstract: This paper will present a case study of a 42 year old woman with developmental disabilities and borderline personality disorder, who has had a lifelong history of self-harming behavior. This behavior has historically led to failed placements, and multiple medical and psychiatric hospitalizations. Treatment approaches are examined and analyzed.
 
 
Symposium #32
CE Offered: BACB
The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP): Field-Test Data from Typical Children and Children with Autism.
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Elizabeth A
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mark L. Sundberg (Sundberg and Associates)
CE Instructor: Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The VB-MAPP is designed to assess the verbal and social repertoires of a child with autism or other developmental disabilities in a brief and efficient manner. This assessment tool is based on Skinners analysis of verbal behavior, typical language developmental milestones, and field-test data from over 60 typically developing children and over 100 children with autism. The VB-MAPP contains 150 verbal behavior milestones across 3 levels and 14 different skill areas, as well as a more detailed task analysis and progress scoring system for each verbal operant. The results from the VB-MAPP assessment will suggest specific IEP goals, where to place a child in the verbal behavior curriculum, and will correspond with the specific intervention procedures designed to teach the absent or defective repertoires. The current symposium will present the basic components of the VB-MAPP as well as field-data from typical children, and children with autism.

 
The VB-MAPP: An Overview and Field-Test Data from Oregon and California.
MARK L. SUNDBERG (Sundberg and Associates), Lisa M. Hale (Seattle, OR)
Abstract: The basic structure of the VB-MAPP will be presented and how it can be used to place a child in a verbal behavior intervention program. Data from typically developing children will be presented to demonstrate how various items were sequenced. In addition, data will be presented from children with autism who have been assessed and placed by using the VB-MAPP.
 
A Description of a Preliminary Sample of the VB-MAPP as an Outcome Measure.
MICHAEL MIKLOS (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: This presentation will review outcome results for administration of the VB-MAPP with a sample of students presenting autism. VB-MAPP scores will be compared with other assessment findings compiled for the sample. The presentation will include a discussion of validity issues in terms of target behavior definition and functional levels across verbal operant categories. Data on approximately 30 students will be presented and will be compared with individual student functional levels on other language and developmental assessments. The presentation will address the question: Does the VB-MAPP identify levels of language functioning that are consistent with socially acceptable standards, while allowing for pin-pointed selection of target skills?
 
Programming with the VB-MAPP in the Pennsylvania VB Project.
WILLIAM A. GALBRAITH (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: A preliminary report of measured change in repertoires of verbal operants using the VB-MAPP for participating students will be presented. The changes in repertoires will be discussed in relation to instructional programming derived from the VB-MAPP protocol. Assessment protocols and teaching programs for several students will be reviewed.
 
Field-Test Data on the VB-MAPP from the Verbal Behavior Center for Autism, Indianapolis, IN.
CARL T. SUNDBERG (Verbal Behavior Center for Autism)
Abstract: The VB-MAPP was used to assess a variety of children with autism to determine their current levels of language and social skills. These children were then placed in a verbal behavior intervention program and outcome measures were obtained. Various aspects of the VB-MAPP as a tool for language and social assessment will be discussed along with recommendations for adjustments in the program.
 
 
Symposium #33
CE Offered: BACB
Toward an Analysis of Variables that Affect Preference and Reinforcer Assessment Outcomes: Part 2
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Edward D
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gary M. Pace (The May Institute)
CE Instructor: Gary M. Pace, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The identification of potent reinforcers is a critical component of any behavior change program. Systematic investigations of the variables that affect preference and reinforcer assessment outcomes continue to be an active area research, and a topic of interest to many practiceners of applied behavior analysis. The papers in this symposium assess the effects of several procedures on the outcome of preference and reinforcer assessments. These variables include delayed selection, characteristics of reinforcers (quality, magitude and delay), time since preference assessment, and the combination of preference and reinforcer assessments. The papers utilize a variety of participants including individuals with developmental disabilities, preschoolers, and individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome. These studies serve to highlight the range of variables, within several populations, that can affect the outcome of preference and reinforcer assessments.

 
The Effects of Delayed and Probabilistic Outcomes on the Preferences of Individual Preschools' Preferences in a Group Context.
STACY A. LAYER (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kansas), Nicole Heal (University of Kansas), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Effective methods for determining individuals's preferences for both discrete items (foods, toys) and contexts (interventions, teaching practices) are administered to children one at a time, thus prohibiting an important application of preference assessment methodology - to simultaneously determine preferences of multiple children. This study sought to determine the accuracy and efficiency of an assessment format in which selection outcomes were delayed and probalistic, unavoidable features of an assessment designed to simultaneously determine context preferences of multiple children. During the single arrangement, preference hierarchies were established by having a child repeatedly select from among several foods and sequentially restricting preferred items from the array. After being taught the associations between colored stickers and the same food item, group assessments were conducted with 3 children simultaneously, in which each child chose a sticker, and all children received the food correlated with a randomly selected sticker. Interobserver agreement data were collected on 100% of sessions and averaged 97.6%. Data analysis revealed that variability was not imposed on preference hierarchies by the group arrangement, and that the group assessment was associated with less selection variability for most of the participants. Thus, the group assessment is posited as an accurate and efficient arrangement for determining preferences.
 
Effects of Quality, Magnitude, and Delay on Selection of Food Reinforcers in Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome.
JESSICA L. THOMASON (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Claudia L. Dozier (University of Florida), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Florida)
Abstract: One of the most prominent behavioral characteristics of the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is hyperphagia, which leads to morbid obesity and a number of related health problems. Some reports have suggested that the food preferences of individuals with PWS differ from those of individuals with other developmental disabilities. The current study compares the relative influence of reinforcer characteristics such as quality, magnitude, and the delay to delivery on choices made by individuals diagnosed with PWS and those diagnosed with other developmental disabilities. First, an assessment is conducted to determine which reinforcer characteristic (quality, magnitude, or delay) is most influential over choices among concurrently-available vocational or academic tasks. Next, reinforcer characteristics are manipulated in an attempt to shift preference toward another reinforcer dimention. For example, response allocation towards immediately-available reinforcers might be shifted by gradually increasing delays to reinforcer delivery. Results are discussed in terms of (a) similarities and differences among the controlling variables of choice in individuals with and without PWS, and (b) the implications for the assessment and treatment of dietary management and food-related problem behaviors.
 
Do Changes in Preference Predict Changes in Performance?
CARRIE M. DEMPSEY (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jennifer Lynn Hammond (University of Florida)
Abstract: Results from several studies have shown that preference for reinforcers may vary over time, but the extent to which changes in preference and performance are correlated has not been well established. We examined whether initial preferences established through a paired-stimulus procedure changed during probes (using a multiple-stimulus without replacement [MSWO] procedure) and, if so, whether changes in preference were reflected in performance under single- and concurrent-reinforcement schedules. Results showed that preference changed frequently on a daily basis; nevertheless, responding for the originally preferred stimulus remained high under single-schedule conditions. More surprising was the fact that participants consistently allocated more responding to the originally preferred stimulus than to the daily preferred stimulus under the concurrent schedule in spite of several manipulations designed to shift response allocation. Potential reasons for and implications of these results will be discussed.
 
Identifying Reinforcers: Preference-Plus Reinforcer Assessment versus Progressive Ratio Assessment.
ANGIE CHRISTINE QUERIM (University of Florida), Joseph M. Vedora (BEACON Services), Gary M. Pace (The May Institute), Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Preference and reinforcer assessments are essential to identifying reinforcers to be used in behavior change procedures. In addition, progressive ratio schedules can be used to examine the reinforcing properties of a particular reinforcer by thinning the schedule of reinforcement. Two developmentally disabled adolescents participated in 4 phases of preference and reinforcer assessments. After establishing a preference hierarchy using an 8-item paired stimulus preference assessment, the two highest preferred and 2 lowest preferred edible items were examined in a single-operant reinforcer assessment. The same 4 items were then examined in a concurrent operants reinforcer assessment and compared to the traditional method of conducting a preference assessment followed by a reinforcer assessment. In the last phase another concurrent operants reinforcer assessment was conducted, during which the schedule requirements were increased contingent on responding. The concurrent operant and reinforcer assessments results were similar to that of the preference assessment and single operant reinforcer assessment. During the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement response, allocation was higher toward the more highly preferred items as the schedules increased. The data from this study suggest that a concurrent reinforcer assessment may be more efficient in determining reinforcers and progressive ratio schedules may be useful in determining the efficacy of a particular reinforcer.
 
 
Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Use of Behavioral Interventions in Community Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Elizabeth F
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Laura Schreibman (University of California, San Diego)
Discussant: Gail G. McGee (Emory University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Brooke Ingersoll, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although behavioral treatment methods have been established as efficacious for children with autism in laboratory settings, research examining their translation into service systems is virtually nonexistent. This symposium will present current research on how evidence-based interventions are used in education programs for children with autism. First, we will present an examination of the use of behavioral techniques by 80 early intervention providers. Their understanding of evidence-based practices and their adaptation of techniques will be discussed. Ninety-one percent reported using at least one behavioral technique in their programs; providers typically combined up to seven methods, and modified techniques based on child, personal and external factors. Next, we will present results of a study examining fidelity of teacher use of a specific behavioral intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Teachers received either traditional training or training specifically designed for classroom settings. Fidelity of implementation of PRT varied with the amount and type of training teachers received. Finally, we will discuss the incorporation of behaviorally-based parent training programs into community educational services, including how it is "working" in the real world (e.g., how many districts & families served, consumer satisfaction). Recommendations for improving effective translation of behavioral methods into community settings will be presented.

 
Use of Behavioral Interventions in Community Early Intervention Programs
AUBYN C. STAHMER (Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego)
Abstract: Although behavioral treatment methods have been established as efficacious for children with autism in laboratory settings, research examining their translation into service systems is virtually nonexistent. The current study examines the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions (e.g., Discrete Trial, Pivotal Response, PECS) in applied community settings. Eighty early intervention providers in Southern California were surveyed about specific techniques used in their programs, their understanding of evidence-based practices and their adaptation of techniques. Providers represent 80% of the eligible programs contacted for participation. Test/Retest reliability for the survey was 90%. Descriptive analysis comparing behavioral technique use across home and school-based programs was conducted. Ninety-one percent of providers report using at least one behavioral technique in their programs. However providers typically combine up to seven methods, and modify these techniques based on child, personal and external factors. Sixty-five percent use only parts of their main technique. Most providers (55%) chose a technique based on the belief that it was effective; while only 9% chose a technique based on research evidence. All of the providers had concerns about limited training in the specific techniques. Methods of using usual care data to inform behavioral intervention research and increase effective translation to community settings will be discussed.
 
Adapting a Behavioral Intervention Training Protocol for Classroom Teachers.
JESSICA B. SUHRHEINRICH (University of California, San Diego), Laura Schreibman (University of California, San Diego)
Abstract: Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a naturalistic behavioral intervention that has been shown to increase language, play and social skills in children with autism. Teachers report using PRT in their classroom; however, there has been no systematic examination of how well they use PRT. Additionally, no research-based protocol exists for training and monitoring teachers using PRT in a classroom environment. Two studies will be presented. The first study measured the effectiveness of training that teachers currently receive in PRT. Ten special-education teachers, who previously received some training in PRT, participated. None of the participants met the criterion for fidelity of implementation of PRT skills, however all teachers successfully met criterion for at least one of the skills. Teachers’ implementation of PRT systematically differed according to specific skill and the level of training they had received. The second study investigated the effectiveness of a training model for instructing teachers to use PRT in the classroom setting. Ten special-education teachers attended a 6-hour training workshop and received follow-up visits to their classrooms. These findings support the effectiveness of a training model that included both a workshop and follow-up visits in each teacher’s classroom.
 
Research to Practice: Training Teachers to Provide Parent Education.
BROOKE INGERSOLL (Lewis & Clark College), Anna Dvortcsak (Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Oregon Health and Science University)
Abstract: Parent training has been shown to be a very effective method for promoting generalization and maintenance of skills in children with autism. However, despite its well-established benefits, few public school programs include parent training as part of the early childhood special education (ECSE) curriculum. Barriers to the provision of parent training include the need for parent education models which can be easily implemented in ECSE programs and the lack of preparation for special educators in parent education strategies. This presentation will describe an evidence-based behavioral parent training model for children with autism developed for use in ECSE programs. The implementation of the program, teacher preparation, and preliminary outcomes and challenges will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #36
CE Offered: BACB
What Does an Educational System Require to be Successful?
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ernest A. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Discussant: Jose A. Martinez-Diaz (Florida Institute of Technology & ABA Tech)
CE Instructor: Vicci Tucci, M.A.
Abstract:

"A common cliche is that education is a complex endeavor. We examine at least a portion of this complexity in a number of ways. In its overall operation what does an educational system require in order to be successful? It requires a proper organizational structure as well as the proper science from which successful engineering practices can be drawn. It requires as well more than just a statement of the requirement. It requires a long-term demonstration of a successful model of instruction over a sufficiently diverse set of students and schools to provide a factual basis for evaluation of that success, and as important, for evaluation as to how to move beyond current gains. It also requires an analysis of the historical background by which such a model was set in place. Each of the participantsTucci, Scutta, and Vargasaddress each of these requirements separately, and to some degree, address the considerations pertinent to one across to the others."

 
The Competent Learner Model and the Triad Model of Education.
ERNEST A. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Abstract: Most attempts to enhance student performances concentrate on instructional technology. But instructional technology is only a small piece of the large puzzle of achieving success in the educational setting. Also relevant is the proper scientific base for what should be an engineering effort, not merely a technological one. And also important, and typically overlooked, is the organizational structure which operates the engineering effort. This paper features the integration of the Competent Learner Model with the Triad Model of Education to illustrate the synergy of the two.
 
Instructional Technology Required for the Implementation of Best Practices.
VICCI TUCCI (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Abstract: In this aspect of the symposium, we will briefly describe the Competent Learner Model (CLM). CLM was designed to equip naïve learners with the core repertoires (e.g., Problem Solver) to act effectively in “novel” circumstances. We will illustrate the components of the CLM (i.e., Learning Solutions) and delineate its phases of implementation.
 
Dissemination of "Best Practices" in Skinner's Home State of Pennsylvania.
CATHY SCUTTA (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: In this part of the symposium, we describe the state-wide organizational structures required to implement the Competent Learner Model and also report the preliminary data of the ÇLM's effects.
 
 
Symposium #37
CE Offered: BACB
When Foster Care Fails: Behavioral Programming in Residential Facilities for Troubled Youth
Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Edward C
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Hewitt B. Clark (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Brandon F. Greene, Ph.D.
Abstract:

N/a

 
The Design of Behavior Management and Incentive Systems in Congregate Residential Care: Past and Present.
BRANDON F. GREENE (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis has been at the forefront in the design of incentive systems to develop and manage behavior in variious settings. Examples include The Token Economy (1966) in which Azrin and Allyon demonstrated the motivating power of a token system with chronically mentally ill patients. The Teaching Family model also provided an example of the benefits of a complex, but well managed point system, for developing the adaptive behavior of troubled youth. Although such systems are viable in the hands of skilled practitioners, their use in congregate care settings by less skilled direct-care staff is questionable. Indeed, in such a context, "best practice" may not be feasible. This presentation will describe essential characteristics of a motivational system that may represent the best feasible practice. Data on its impact in a residential facilty for troubled youth will be described in the symposium.
 
Issues of Implementation and Impact of a Humane Incentive Systems for Challenging Youth in a Residential Facility.
AUTUMN KAUFMAN (Southern Illinois University), Courtney L. Deal (Southern Illinois University), Anne S. King (Hoyleton Youth & Family Services), Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The adminstrators of a residential facility for troubled youth enlisted the assistance of behavioral consultants in the re-design of its behavior management and treatment system. A key component of the original system was a multi-tiered rating system that required youth to refrain from engaging in "behavioral incidents" -- essentially any transgression (e.g., cussing, yelling, and more serious offenses) that direct-care staff regarded worthy of documenting. The "rewards" the system offered were limited and included preferred snacks and brief periods of one-to-one contact with favored staff. The system was replaced by one which offered a broader and more age-typical array of opporunties for the youth (e.g., "dates" and other contact with the opposite sex) and limited the basis for restricting such opportunities to serious behavioral offenses (aggressions, property destruction, runnibng away). The impact of these changes are described in this presentation.
 
Video Modeling and Virtual Self-Modeling to Teach Cooking and Golfing to Challenging Youth in a Residential Facility.
BEAU LAUGHLIN (Southern Illinois University), Ashley E. Welch (Southern Illinois University), Anne S. King (Hoyleton Youth & Family Services), Chris Cox (Hoyleton Youth & Family Services), Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: There are inherent restrictions on youth in resdiential facilities to experience age-typical opportunities. These include the "simple" opportuntities to learn basic cooking and lesiure skills. Therefore, to acquire these skills, such youth often require direct hands-on instruction by caregivers whose skills at providing such instruction may be limited. However, it may be possible to supplement or supplant such instruction by developing digital video in which instructors or peers demonstrate such skills. In fact, digital video technology affords the opportunity to make it appear as if the student him/herself is performing the skill (i.e., virtual self-modelng). This presentation will describe the development and evaluation of instructional and virtual self-modeling videos to teach cooking and leisure skills among challenging youth in a residential facility.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #38
CE Offered: BACB

The Brain behind Behavior: Etiologies of Social Dysfunction in Autism

Saturday, May 26, 2007
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Douglas C
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Karen Pierce, Ph.D.
Chair: Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
KAREN PIERCE (University of California, San Diego)
Dr. Karen Pierce One of the most striking features of autism is the failure to develop or to understand complex social relationships. The overarching goal of Dr. Pierce’s research program is to elucidate the neural underpinnings of these social deficits in patients with autism. Her studies have utilized several approaches, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and behavioral assays. Dr. Pierce has been awarded several research grants including those from National Institute of Mental Health and the Organization for Autism Research. She has also received an Autism Society of America Research Award and a University of California, San Diego Chancellors Research Award in recognition of her outstanding work. Dr. Pierce serves as an ad-hoc reviewer for well-regarded journals such as Archives of General Psychiatry and Brain. Dr. Pierce has published extensively in a wide range of areas from behavioral treatment to brain dynamics in autism. Her functional imaging work was previously highlighted in Time Magazine (May, 2002). She is an invited speaker, both nationally and internationally, as an expert on the pathogenesis of autism. Her current research interests include studies aimed at detecting autism at the earliest ages possible. Such studies will bring the field of autism research closer to finding a cure.
Abstract:

New research has shown that a baby that will eventually develop autism begins the first months of his life with seemingly normal social behavior; he smiles and coos and appears indistinguishable from other children. In fact, two new prospective studies followed infants at risk for autism (by virtue of having an older sibling with the disorder) from birth into toddlerhood and found no differences in social or language behavior from normally developing infants during the first six months of life (Zwaigenbaum, et al., 2005; Landa, et al., 2006). By the time infants were one year old, however, signs of autism that included increased passivity and abnormal attention and language development were in evidence. These findings are consistent with retrospective studies that have shown reduced responding to name and abnormal social interaction skills at the first birthday parties of infants later diagnosed as autistic. What has gone wrong in the developing brains of children with autism? Despite over 60 years of close scientific scrutiny, this essential question remains unanswered. While social behavior is complex and relies on the normal development of a host of systems relating to attention, language, and emotion processing, it also relies heavily on the normal development of face processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that capitalizes on the fact that rates of blood flow change in the brain when humans engage in a particular task (e.g., a math problem) or activity (e.g., daydreaming). fMRI as a research tool has been used extensively to study face processing in autism. Most studies focus on the fusiform gyrus, a brain region in the temporal lobe that contains an area in the middle lateral portion that responds strongly to faces (i.e., the Fusiform Face Area, or FFA). If functional responding in the fusiform appears abnormal in autism, it would not be surprising that higher-order cognitive functions that rely on the ability to interpret a face, such as theory of mind and emotion perception, would also be impaired. It is thus essential that this first step in understanding the social mind of autistic individuals, that is, testing the ability to decode information from a face, be tested thoroughly. This presentation will discuss the following: 1. The development of social behavior, particularly face perception, in normally developing infants and children; 2. Face processing fMRI research with adults and children with auti

 
 
Symposium #43
CE Offered: BACB
Effective Treatment of Students with Severe Behavior Disorders Who Failed to Respond to Traditional Positive-Only Treatment Programs
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Randle D
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Patricia Rivera (Judge Rotenberg Center)
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will address effective treatment of students with severe behavior disorders who have a history of not responding to traditional positive-only programs. The first presenter will present various case studies of specific students. A review of the students treatment histories will also be discussed and behavioral charts will be shown to document the students behavioral improvement. The second presenter will discuss the implementation of contingent skin shock as a supplement to positive behavior programming for students with significant histories of severe behavior disorders. Safeguards to ensure the proper implementation of the skin shock will also be discussed. A demonstration of the Graduated Electronic Decelerator (GED) used at the Judge Rotenberg Center will be provided. The third presentation will include the effects of sudden fading of the contingent skin shock device. Case studies will be discussed and behavioral charts presented documenting the behavioral regressions when the GED is faded abruptly. Finally, case studies will be presented showing the successful fading of the GED.

 
Successful Treatment of Students Who Have Failed Positive-Only Programs.
RACHEL NICOLLE MATTHEWS (Judge Rotenberg Center), Christine Chiudina (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Historically, some students have been enrolled at the Judge Rotenberg Center (JRC) after other, positive-only programs, have failed to contain, manage or modify their most problematic and severe behaviors. For most students, JRC is not their first residential placement and must come out of necessity when other treatment facilities either refuse to accept them or discharge them from their program due to an inability to provide successful treatment. Students who once required multiple staff and daily emergency restraints at other programs are now engaging in consistent academic completion in a classroom with peers and require no additional staff or emergency restraint. The Judge Rotenberg Center is not only able to contain severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors; they are able to provide a better quality of life for these students, often free of psychotropic medication.
 
Approval Process for the Use of Contingent Skin Shock and Subsequent Monitoring.
ROBERT VON HEYN (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: The process of getting approval to use contingent skin shock and the safeguards of its use will be presented. The first step is getting signed consent from the parent/guardian and approval from the funding agency. Next a detailed, individualized proposal is prepared by a doctoral level clinician and submitted to the court. The court then assigns an attorney to represent the individual who, in most cases, hires an expert to review the proposed treatment plan. An independent clinician also reviews the plan and writes their recommendations to the court. A hearing is scheduled and a judge decides whether he/she believes this proposed treatment is the most effective, least intrusive treatment available for that individual. Peer Review and Human Rights Committees must grant their approval before the plan can be implemented. All treatment is monitored across school, residence and during transportation by a digital video recording system which is also live monitored 24 hours a day. Quarterly reports are sent to the guardian, court and funding agencies and plans are reviewed yearly. A demonstration of the skin shock device used at JRC will be given.
 
Successful Fading of Contingent Skin Shock when Combined with Positive Behavioral Programming.
PATRICIA RIVERA (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Students in residential treatment with severe behavior disorders may require some type of aversive interventions to supplement positive behavioral programming when positive programming alone has not proved to be successful in reducing the frequency of dangerous behaviors. Case studies will be presented showing the course of treatment for some of these students from the Judge Rotenberg Center including the successful fading of contingent skin shock. Case histories will be presented along with behavioral charts documenting the success of the fading program. Academic progress and transitional planning will also be addressed.
 
The Effect of Abruptly Removing an Aversive Intervention.
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: In June of 2006, JRC was forced to remove interventions that had proven extremely effective in eliminating or significantly reducing the occurrence of severe problem behaviors for over 50 students who had not responded to positive-only interventions. After a Federal court order in September of 2006, these treatments were reinstated. In this presentation, we (a) discuss the effects of the abrupt removal in comparison with our gradual fading plan (b) present charts that describe the changes and (c) discuss clinical implications of abruptly removing an effective punishment contingency.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #52
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: The Evolution of Skinner's Thinking about Verbal Behavior
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Douglas B
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Julie S. Vargas, Ph.D.
Chair: Matthew P. Normand (Florida Institute of Technology)
Presenting Authors: : JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation), Ernest A. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Abstract:

B. F. Skinner took over 20 years to complete his book Verbal Behavior. In this talk, we address the development of his analysis. Our sources include major life events, publications, and notes Skinner wrote over the years, especially those written for his 1947 William James Lectures. We discuss the notes he made after the books publication in 1957. As with any evolutionary development, we also point to the effect of his analysis and to some of the directions in which it is now going.

 
JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation), Ernest A. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Dr. Julie S. Vargas is currently president of the B. F. Skinner Foundation and a former president of the Association for Behavior Analysis. She has taught at all levels from third grade to university graduate courses. Dr. Vargas is author of three books as well as articles, chapters, and encyclopedia entries. Her interests include instructional design, the life and work of B. F. Skinner, and verbal behavior.
 
 
Symposium #55
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Program Evaluation, Replications, and Methodological Issues
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Edward C
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Han-Leong Goh (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Han-Leong Goh, Ph.D.
Abstract:

These four presentations focus on behavioral training with parents of children in the child welfare system. Two presentations focus on the SafeCare model parenting program. The first presentation discusses the efficacy of the model in preventing child maltreatment, replications of the model in other areas of the country, and implications on staff training. The second presentation focuses on replication of the SafeCare model for assessment and training in home-based and clinic-based settings. The final 2 presentations focus on a parent training curriculum designed to increase parenting skills. One presentation focuses on evaluating potential effects of the curriculum on skill acquisition; repeated administration of quizzes showed systematic acquisition as a function of specific skills taught. The other presentation discusses methods to evaluate placement stability, such as duration and rate of placement changes, and the implications of these measures on evaluating potential effectiveness of the training curriculum. In general, all presentations discuss models of extending applied behavior analysis in parent training; specifically in child welfare. Furthermore, all presentations show therapeutic effects of training with this unique population, with discussions on methodological issues, outcomes, and future directions for research.

 
Multimodal Replications of the SafeCare Model.
ANNA EDWARDS (The Marcus Institute), John R. Lutzker (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Recently, there have been a number of replications of the SafeCare model parenting program (Lutzker & Bigelow, 2002) which has been greatly expanded to reach a variety of settings and professionals. Currently, the Marcus Center for Child Well-Treatment in Atlanta, GA is providing the SafeCare model parenting services program for the secondary prevention of child maltreatment in two urban Georgia counties through federal grant funds. These services are being implemented by Bachelors-level home visitors, all whom have social service experience. Additionally, the Marcus Center for Child Well-Treatment holds a contract with the Georgia Department of Public Health to train Nurse Home Visitors to implement primary prevention. Also, training will occur for caseworkers in California. Other locations have recently received grant funding to examine aspects of SafeCare, including an NIH funded statewide trial in Oklahoma and CDC grants designed to examine SafeCare with technology enhancements (e.g., cell phones, computer training). These multimodal replications will be discussed, including the primary and secondary prevention populations that are being served by them, the variety of professionals who are providing these services, and the implications for staff training and implementation of the model.
 
Behavioral Parent Training for Parents with Intellectual Disabilities.
JENNIFER L. CROCKETT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Susan A. Parks (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cathy Small (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Olivia Hird (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children of parents with Intellectual Disabilities are at risk of behavior problems and placement disruption. Parents with Intellectual Disabilities are often assumed to have insufficient parenting skills, frequently leading to the removal of their children based on their intellectual functioning rather than their parenting. We evaluated the effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training for four parents with Intellectual Disabilities. The behavioral skills training included both clinic-based and home-based assessment and training. We used a modification of Parent Child Interaction Therapy for the clinic-based training and the Home Accident Prevention Inventory-Revised (HAPI-R) and Checklist for Living Environments to Assess Neglect (CLEAN) from Project SafeCare for the home-based training. We will present data on the successes and challenges with working with this unique population of parents and children. We will provide additional information on attrition, Child-Protective Services involvement, and social supports necessary for maintenance of treatment gains. Data indicate that some of the parents with intellectual disabilities made great improvements in their parent-child interaction, effective behavior management skills, and the safety of their homes. Data further show that parents with intellectual disabilities maintain higher ‘show rates’ than typical for outpatient behavioral services.
 
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Positive Parenting Curriculum: A Multiple Probe Analysis of Acquisition of Key Skills.
KERRI P. BERARD (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Donnie M. Staff (University of North Texas), Allison Jones (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a program designed to teach parents who exhibit risk factors for child maltreatment to use a set of positive parenting skills was evaluated. Seven skills were taught to parents over a five-week series of three hour classes. A written quiz was administered to participants before the series of classes, immediately following each class, and after completion of all classes. The quiz contained questions corresponding to component skills taught in each class; therefore, repeated administration of the quiz permitted an analysis of component skill acquisition as those skills entered the repertoire. The results indicated that the participants showed improvements in test components as the curriculum components were introduced. There was also a relationship seen between curriculum components which permitted systematic and targeted evaluation of course materials and procedures.
 
Evaluating Placement Stability in Foster Care: Methodological Issues and Implications for Program Evaluation.
CAROLE M. VAN CAMP (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Stabilizing children's placements in foster homes is a primary goal of foster care agencies for children who have not been reunified with their parents or have not been adopted. In this presentation, we will discuss several methods of measuring placement stability, including calculating duration of placements and rate of placement changes. Placement data from over 300 foster parents calculated using several methods will be presented. Results indicate that factors such as the capacity of a foster home (i.e., how many foster children reside there at any given time) may also impact calculations of placement change rate. In addition, implications of these measurement issues on evaluating the effectiveness of a state-wide program to increase placement stability will be discussed. Placement data from over 200 foster caregivers who received behavioral parent training will be presented, with an emphasis on how each calculation method impacted the results of the program evaluation.
 
 
Symposium #56
CE Offered: BACB
Decreasing the Intrusiveness of Protective Physical Holds and Confinement Time-Out
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Ford AB
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Allen J. Karsina, M.S.
Abstract:

Physically holding an individual and using confinement timeout are common procedures used with individuals who exhibit severe aggression and self injury to ensure that they do not hurt themselves or others. It is incumbent upon clinicians to make sure the intrusiveness of these procedures is minimized without compromizing safety. The presentations in this symposium involve emprical evaluations of decreasing the intrusiveness of protective procedures while taking into account the behavioral effects of these procedures.

 
Reducing the Duration of Protective Hold Procedures.
NANCY A. PERHOT (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effects of reducing the intrusiveness of a physical restraint procedure with a 10 year-old participant diagnosed with autism were examined. A functional analysis of the participant’s aggressions indicated that escape from demands maintained the participant’s aggressions. An extinction treatment package was implemented for the aggression; physical restraints were used to safely manage dangerous aggressions. Physical restraints were initially implemented for 5 minutes duration, then systematically reduced to 3 minutes in duration, and finally 2 minutes. The frequency of holds did not increase, nor did the frequency of aggressions.
 
The Effects of Decreasing the Intrusiveness of Physical Interventions on the Rate of Intervention.
SHAWN E. KENYON (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effects of reducing the intrusiveness of a physical restraint procedure with a 14 year-old participant with developmental disabilities were examined. A functional analysis of the participant’s self-injury indicated that the behavior was maintained by non-social variables. A multi-element treatment package was implemented for the self-injury; physical restraints were used to safely manage dangerous self-injury. Physical restraints were done on the floor and required multiple trained personnel to implement safely, and lasted between 2 to 4 minutes each. The intrusiveness of the restraint procedure was reduced by replacing the procedure with a sitting or standing hands-held procedure implemented by one person holding the hands and a second person protecting against bite attempts. The duration of the hands held procedure was 15 seconds. Frequency of holds decreased significantly immediately, and frequency of self-injury did not increase.
 
Reducing Intrusiveness of Time-Out Procedures Used to Manage Dangerous Behavior.
MAGDA M. STROPNIK (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children), Jody M. Steinhilber (New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effects of reducing the intrusiveness of a confinement time-out procedure with a 15 year-old participant diagnosed with autism were examined. A functional analysis of the participant’s aggressions yielded undifferentiated results, and confinement time-out was used to safely manage dangerous behavior while a multi-component treatment package was implemented. A ‘break’ area, similar in size to the confinement time-out room but without a door, was used in place of a confinement time-out sequentially across two settings. Frequency of aggression did not increase with implementation of the break area, and use of the confinement time-out room was decreased.
 
Reducing the Frequency of Physically Guiding a Client to a Time-Out Room.
SARAH BUCKINGHAM (New England Center for Children), Britta Wehmann-Bell (New England Center for Children), Kimberly Keogh (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effects of reducing the frequency of physically guiding a 14 year old participant with developmental disabilities to a timeout room were examined. For this participant, physical restraint was often required to ensure his and staff safety during movement to timeout. Descriptive analysis data suggested that escape from demands and denied access to tangibles were related to the participant’s aggression and environmental destruction. A systematic treatment package was successful in increasing independent walking to timeout thus producing a decrease in manual guidance and physical restraint.
 
 
Symposium #57
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of Treatment Integrity on Behavioral Interventions
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Claire C St. Peter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Mistakes made during the implementation of treatments (frequently called "treatment integrity failures") can lead to decreases in treatment efficacy. The research presented in this symposium examines the impact of treatment integrity failures on common components of behavioral interventions for persons with disabilities. These interventions include both response-acquisition and response-reduction procedures. Weiss, Libby, and Paquette examine the effects of degradations in procedural integrity on acquisition of a novel, arbitrary response with 3 participants with autism. Two papers examine the effects of integrity failures on response-reduction procedures. Pabico, Roane, and Kelley examine the effects of a particular type of integrity failure, delay, in a punishment procedure. Finally, St. Peter Pipkin and Vollmer used a non-clinical population (college students) to determine possible effects of treatment integrity failures on DRA treatments. All three papers showed some detrimental impact of treatment integrity failures on intervention outcome. Results will be discussed in terms of the potential effects of treatment integrity failures on treatment outcome.

 
Variations of Procedural Integrity and its Effects on Task Acquisition within Chains.
JULIE S. WEISS (New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (New England Center for Children), Gregory Paquette (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of variations of procedural integrity in delivering prompts on task acquisition within chains. Three participants diagnosed with autism learned to put together two 8-step arbitrary Lego figures in a forward chaining sequence with most-to-least prompting. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of two prompting conditions, 100% procedural integrity with no programmed errors and 70% procedural integrity with errors programmed on 30% of trials. After acquisition, generalization probes were implemented with novel teachers and in a different environment. All sessions were videotaped. IOA was collected during 40% of sessions and averaged over 90%. All participants achieved independence in building the figures in the 100% procedural integrity condition. Participants either did not acquire in the 70% procedural integrity condition or acquired in the 70% condition but at a slower rate than the 100% condition Thus, degradations in procedural integrity interfered with skill acquisition. All participants generalized performance across teachers and environments.
 
An Evaluation of a Delayed Time-Out Procedure in the Treatment of Problem Behavior.
ROBERT-RYAN S. PABICO (The Marcus Institute), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: The use of reinforcement-based procedures (e.g., functional communication training) alone may not be always effective in decreasing levels of problem behavior (e.g., aggression, SIB, and pica) to clinically acceptable levels. Thus, the use of punishment-based procedures may be warranted. Previous literature on the use of punishment indicates that in order for punishment to be effective the procedure must be delivered following every occurrence of the response. Given this, in a child’s natural environment the delivery of a punishment procedure may not be practical to implement following every occurrence of problem behavior. For example, the parent may provide multiple warnings prior to placing the child in time-out or the child may attempt to avoid application of the punishment procedure. Thus, there are conditions in a child’s natural environment that may lead to delivery of the punisher on an intermittent or delayed schedule. In the current investigation, we evaluated the use of a delayed time-out procedure to decrease levels of problem behavior. Throughout all analyses, reliability data were collected on at least 25% of sessions. These results will be discussed in terms of examining the use of delayed time-out interventions that can be transferred to naturalistic settings.
 
Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures on DRA: A Laboratory Study.
CLAIRE C ST. PETER (West Virginia University), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is commonly used as a treatment for problem behavior. Although DRA procedures are typically straightforward, they may not be consistently implemented as designed. We assessed the effects of failures to deliver earned reinforcers (omission errors), inappropriate reinforcer delivery (commission errors), and blended omission and commission errors on DRA, using a controlled laboratory preparation with non-clinical participants. Seventeen undergraduates participated. Treatment integrity levels varied from 100% to 20% integrity. Results showed that omission errors did not result in increases in analog problem behavior, while commission errors and blended errors resulted in increases in analog problem behavior and decreases in analog appropriate behavior at 40% and 20% integrity. These outcomes demonstrate that certain types or levels of integrity failure are more detrimental than others. Additionally, results suggest that DRA is relatively robust during integrity failures, but that those failures can still lead to loss of treatment effects when they occur frequently.
 
 
Symposium #65
CE Offered: BACB
Training Parents to Implement Academic Interventions
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
CE Instructor: Keith D. Allen, Ph.D.
Abstract:

When children are struggling academically, it is not uncommon for their parents to be involved with assisting homework or providing extra tutoring. Effective tutoring requires time, resources, knowledge and skill in instructional techniques that many parents may not posses. In such cases, parents may benefit from training in individualized instructional strategies developed to improve their childs academic progress. This symposium presents information and research regarding training parents to implement academic interventions to improve childrens academic progress. Clinical and school-based cases will be presented detailing procedures for training parents to implement academic interventions. Data will be presented regarding the identification of effective instructional strategies for individual children using brief experimental analysis procedures. Data on parents implementation of academic interventions and childrens academic progress will be presented. Information in this symposium will link directly with research literature on parent training, brief experimental analysis of academic interventions, and effective instruction. Participants will acquire practical knowledge and ideas for future research on training parents to implement academic interventions and innovative strategies for using brief experimental analysis to identify effective academic interventions.

 
Training Parents of Children with Disabilities to Implement Academic Interventions.
MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Parents of children with disabilities are often at a loss as to how to work with their children to improve academic functioning. Most tutoring agencies are not skilled at working with children with disabilities such as mental retardation, autism, neurological injury and other types of neurodevelopmental disabilities. Most special educators are not trained to teach parents how to implement academic interventions at home. This presentation provides an overview of a clinic developed to train parents of children with disabilities to implement academic interventions at home. Individualized assessments, including brief experimental analysis of academic interventions, are conducted to identify and develop effective interventions. Behavioral skills training utilizing instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and immediate feedback is utilized to teach parents how to implement academic interventions. Parents are taught how to monitor progress and are assisted in making data-based decisions regarding changes in academic interventions. Issues regarding training parents to implement academic interventions at home will be discussed. Data gathered from children and families seen in the clinic will be provided. Data from individual cases will be presented to illustrate specific points. Research derived from clinic cases will be presented.
 
Improving Reading Outcomes Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Develop Parent Training Interventions.
VALERIE J. GORTMAKER (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Learning to read is critical for a child’s current and future well-being. Yet approximately one-fifth of the population suffers from a reading disability. This problem is compounded by the summer in which children with disabilities are subject to even greater declines in academic performance. The present study assessed the effects of summer parent tutoring on three children with learning disabilities using empirically derived reading interventions. Brief experimental analysis methods were used to identify customized reading fluency interventions. Parents were trained to use the intervention strategies with their children. Parents implemented the procedures during parent-tutoring sessions at home and results were measured continuously in high word overlap and low word overlap passages in order to determine whether generalization of effects occurred. Parent and child satisfaction with the procedures was assessed. Results demonstrated generalized increases in reading fluency in both high word overlap and low word overlap passages as a function of parent tutoring. Also, acceptability ratings by children and their parents indicated that they viewed the interventions as acceptable and effective. Results are discussed in terms of structuring reading fluency interventions that promote generalization and maintenance of treatment effects.
 
Training Parents to Match Student Needs with Effective Academic Intervention.
GARY L. CATES (Illinois State University)
Abstract: This presentation describes parent training in academic interventions across three students. The three students were demonstrating skills deficits in mathematics, reading, and early literacy respectively. Specifically, student one exhibited low math accuracy in subtraction. Student one’s parents were instructed how to utilize an intervention and develop new intervention materials as the student’s skills progressed. Student two was a home-schooled teen age student who exhibited low reading fluency. Student two’s parents were instructed on how to complete a brief experimental analysis of reading fluency interventions in an attempt to replicate clinic analyses. Finally student three demonstrated low letter identification accuracy. Due to slow weekly progress in the clinic setting, student three’s parents were instructed on how to perform discrete trial training in the home. Results are discussed with regard to potential variables affecting intervention integrity including stage of skill development, intervention complexity, and intervention acceptability. Discussion will also focus on potential directions for future research.
 
 
Symposium #66
CE Offered: BACB
Using the Science of Applied Behavior Analysis to Develop Methodologies to Improve Language and Social Skills in Children with Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Elizabeth F
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus)
CE Instructor: Jane S. Howard, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will present four studies involving attending, social responsiveness, and/or advanced language skills in children with autism. Methods for assessing and then addressing difficulties in acquiring advanced language response forms, responding to sophisticated mands by the speaker, as well as improving responsiveness to common environmental stimuli are discussed. Implications of these deficits and a rationale for these treatment protocols as they relate to improving the functioning for children with autism will be presented. This information may suggest methods which should assist BCBAs who are working with children and young adults in these skill areas.

 
Developing Complex Language: Teaching Syntax to Children with Autism.
JENNY FISCHER (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus), Coleen Sparkman (Therapeutic PATHWAYS, Inc.)
Abstract: Behavior analytic research and early intensive behavioral treatment programs have identified methods to improve language skills in individuals with autism. However, research to increase length of utterance and bring verbalizations under the subtle stimulus control which correspond to syntax is limited. The Fokes Sentence Builder is a program designed for use by speech and language pathologists to teach sentence structure to language delayed children. The effectiveness of the Fokes Sentence Builder, with modifications to enhance stimulus discrimination and generalization, was studied. Preschool-aged children with autism in an intensive behavioral treatment program were taught two target sentence structures. The children were successfully trained to produce the target sentences using the Fokes cards, and generalization of the target sentence structures to novel pictures was demonstrated.
 
Teaching Children with Autism to Respond to "Hidden Mands" during Conversation.
BRIDGET DENEAU (The Kendall School), Christina Sutyak (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: Even those individuals with autism who acquire age appropriate vocabulary may not become effective listeners or communicative partners. While research has indicated the potential utility of Skinner's elementary operants to improve language skills in children with autism, there is an absence of research on more complex forms such as “hidden mands" or "impure tacts". A behavior skills training program was designed to teach young children with autism to make responses to “hidden mands" during conversations. Results from suggest that Skinner’s proposed "hidden mands" may be distinct type of functional communication that can be taught to children with autism.
 
Measurement of Responses to Auditory Environmental Events of Children with Autism and Those without Developmental Delay.
CYNTHIA L. ROSS-OWENS (The Kendall School), Devon M. Cavagnaro (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus), Brittany Leah Sheets (The Kendall School)
Abstract: Clinicians and researchers have noted that children with autism exhibit lower levels of attending to auditory social stimuli and other stimuli which often evoke joint attention in children without disability (e.g., MacDonald et al, 2006). A protocol designed to measure attention by children to common environmental noises was developed in order to generate a comparison of response profiles to such stimuli by children diagnosed with autism as well as those without developmental delay. Implications of these differences will be discussed.
 
Improving the Responsiveness of Children with Autism to Auditory Environmental Sounds
JANE S. HOWARD (California State University, Stanislaus), Mette Madsen (The Kendall School), Coleen Sparkman (Therapeutic PATHWAYS, Inc.)
Abstract: Both clinicians and researchers have noted that children with autism exhibit lower patterns of attending to social stimuli (e.g., Dawson et al, 1998). This lack of responsiveness likely limits a child’s interactions with others, as well as precluding other types of learning opportunities. A preliminary treatment protocol designed to improve attending to such events will be desribed in the context of a single subject nonconcurrent multiple baseline across with preschool- and kindergarten aged children. Preimlinary data indicate maintenance and generalization of these responses to untrained situations and stimuli.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #71
CE Offered: BACB

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Fortune.

Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:20 PM
Douglas C
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Henry S. Pennypacker, Ph.D.
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
HENRY S. PENNYPACKER (University of Florida)
Dr. Henry S. Pennypacker, Professor Emeritus at the University of Florida, received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Duke University in 1962. He is the author or co-author of six books, 21 book chapters, and over 60 scholarly publications, including the seminal Strategies and Tactics of Behavioral Research with James M. Johnston. The focus of Dr. Pennypacker’s career has been the development and dissemination of behavioral technologies that offer measurably superior benefits when compared to traditional practices. In particular, his work in the area of manual detection of breast cancer serves as an excellent example of behavior analysis providing a novel procedure that has been successfully transferred to medical practice around the world. From 1977 to 1981, he served as Principal Investigator on a National Cancer Institute grant that supported the basic research. In 1981, Dr. Pennypacker became President of the Mammatech Corporation, which has since managed the dissemination of MammaCare, the resulting technology. Dr. Pennypacker has also served as President of the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis and the Association for Behavior Analysis. Since 2001, Dr. Pennypacker has been Chairman of the Board of the Cambridge Center for Behavior Studies.
Abstract:

In 1974, it occurred to us that if fingers could be taught to read Braille, they could be taught to detect breast lumps smaller than golf balls. For the next seven years, we conducted basic research that was a mixture of classical psychophysics and operant conditioning as we learned about the sensory system involved in pressure sensation and put that knowledge to use in building a more sensitive procedure for palpating breast tissue. In 1981, we formed the Mammatech Corporation for the purpose of disseminating the resulting technology with as little degradation as possible. The ensuing 25 years have taught us more than we really wanted to know about running a public company, interacting with large organizations like the American Cancer Society, and surviving in the hostile world of the medical marketplace. We have also learned that there is no substitute for precise measurement to maintain the integrity of any technology and that financial contingencies can be arranged to insure this outcome. Some highlights of this journey will be presented along with advice to budding behavioral entrepreneurs.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #72
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Autism and Feeding.
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:20 PM
Douglas B
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: William H. Ahearn, Ph.D.
Chair: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Presenting Authors: : WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Feeding problems are common among children diagnosed with autism and developmental disabilities. The feeding difficulties of these children potentially stem from and are maintained by numerous biological and environmental factors. This presentation will begin by providing an overview of factors that may trigger feeding difficulties with a particular focus on common problems encountered in children with autism. The presentation will also address empirical evidence for the gut theory of autism and the potentially harmful implications of arranging dietary restrictions as treatment for autism. Feeding assessments for classifying feeding difficulties will be discussed and evidence will be presented suggesting that the most common feeding problem for children with autism is food selectivity. Behavioral interventions for selective intake will then be reviewed. Systematically presenting previously rejected and/or novel foods will be illustrated as an initial step in the treatment process. Then an antecedent manipulation, the simultaneous presentation of rejected/novel and preferred foods exposure, will be described. Two effective differential consequence procedures, reinforcing acceptance/ignoring refusal-related responses and escape prevention, will be reviewed.

 
WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Dr. William H. Ahearn is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst who serves as the Director of Research at the New England Center for Children and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Master’s in Applied Behavior Analysis (MABA) Program at Northeastern University. He is also Past-President of the Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy (BABAT). Bill received his doctorate at Temple University in 1992 and subsequently completed a post-doctoral fellowship in the Department of Behavioral Psychology at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Ahearn then served as program manager for the Inpatient Pediatric Feeding Program at the Children’s Seashore House in Philadelphia before moving to the New England Center for Children in 1996. Bill has written a book chapter on managing feeding problems in children with autism and has published studies that have appeared in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Behavior Modification, Animal Learning and Behavior, The Lancet, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, The Behavior Analyst, and Behavioral Interventions. Dr. Ahearn currently serves on the Board of Editors for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and provides service to ABA, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, and the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
 
 
Symposium #75
CE Offered: BACB
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: Main Findings from the Multisite Young Autism Project
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Douglas A
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Tristram Smith (University of Rochester Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Tristram Smith, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The Multisite Young Autism Project (MYAP) was designed to evaluate early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism who are under 3 years old at the onset of treatment. Two sites (Wisconsin Early Autism Project and Central Valley Young Autism Project) have published outcome reports from this project. Sallows and Amerine-Dickens will present long-term follow-up data as well as results from new cohorts at these sites. Larsson will present the results of an A-B-A reversal study at another site (Pittsburgh Young Autism Project) that compared the efficacy of 40 hours per week of treatment to 10 hours or 20 hours. Smith and Eldevik will summarize the full MYAP dataset and describe a meta-analysis of published EIBI studies.

 
Outcomes in the Central Valley Autism Project and the Wisconsin Early Autism Project.
MILA A. AMERINE-DICKENS (Central Valley Autism Project, Inc.), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Howard G. Cohen (Valley Mountain Regional Center), Tamlynn Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Extending the studies reported by Sallows and Graupner (2005, AJMR) and Cohen, Amerine-Dickens, and Smith (2006, JDBP), we report three sets of new findings. First, data from new cohorts seen at the Wisconsin and Central Valley sites are presented and shown to have made improvements comparable to those reported in published studies. Second, follow-ups that were conducted 5 years after the onset of EIBI at the Central Valley site are described. Data indicate that the EIBI group (n = 21) continued to have more favorable outcomes than the comparison group (n = 21). Eight of the EIBI children were fully included in general education (compared to 6 at the Year 3 follow-up), and an additional 2 received only minimal supports. Finally, children who entered EIBI after the age of 3 1/2 years (n = 21) are compared to age- and IQ-matched children who received community services (n = 21), with the EIBI group making larger gains than the comparison group.
 
Studies of Intensity of Intervention in Replication of the U.C.L.A. Young Autism Project.
ERIC V. LARSSON (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Kara L. Riedesel (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Charryse M. Fouquette (Lovaas Institute Midwest/University of Kansas), Melissa J. Gard (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: Not only do traditional between-group designs yield substantial support for the efficacy of intensive early intervention for autism. Single-subject research also readily supports the value of intensive treatment. Within the field of ABA, there is a great deal of conceptual validity for consistent 24-hour schedules of reinforcement, as opposed to periodic interventions. The present study is of 10 children, each of whom had their weekly hours of treatment systematically manipulated to evaluate the effect of intensity upon various measures of treatment progress. In all measures, acquisition rate, levels of target behavior, rates of appropriate play behavior, and social validity measures, treatment intensity showed a substantial effect. Further replications of this variable, when extended into the 24-hour day through parent-training, continue to substantiate the importance of intensity of treatment in remediating the symptoms of autism.
 
Overall Results from the Multisite Young Autism Project.
TRISTRAM SMITH (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: Eleven sites provided data for the Multisite Young Autism Project. Across sites, a total of 151 children with autism received EIBI and were compared in a quasi-experimental design to 53 age- and IQ-matched children who received community services. Preliminary data analyses indicate that, three years after the onset of treatment, the mean IQ of the EIBI group was 21 points higher than in the comparison group and that the EIBI group also obtained significantly higher scores on measures of adaptive behavior and language. These results add to the evidence base for EIBI and indicate that this intervention can be replicated across sites.
 
Prediction of Outcome of Early Behavioral Treatment for Children with Autism: A Meta-Analysis.
SIGMUND ELDEVIK (Center for Early Intervention, Oslo, Norway)
Abstract: Intensity of treatment, age and IQ at intake have all been related to outcome of early behavioral treatment for children with autism. In a quantitative review of the literature these variables were correlated against the IQ-change reported after ca 2 years of behavioral treatment. Data from 14 studies with a total of 222 children were included in the analysis. Studies in which children received the highest number of treatment hours obtained far greater IQ change than other studies. There was a moderate positive correlation between mean IQ at intake and IQ change, but no relationship between age at intake and IQ-change was found. No significant correlations were obtained when using data from individual subjects in the analysis.
 
 
Symposium #76
CE Offered: BACB
Exploring Behavioral Economic Variables in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Maggie
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Iser Guillermo DeLeon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In behavioral economics, reinforcement contingencies are viewed as transactions in which work is exchanged for a commodity (a reinforcer). Overall consumption of a commodity is determined as a function of its price (work or response requirements), often in relation to the availability and price of concurrently available commodities. Investigators have recently begun to explore behavioral economic relations in the response allocation of individuals with developmental disabilities, most notably with the aim of interpreting responding under various experimental constraints related to enhancing habilitation efforts. The present symposium will further examine ongoing research in translating behavioral economic theory into practical application for individuals with developmental disabilities. Among other things, the presentations will collectively examine: a) how increases in price can clarify differences in reinforcer value, b) the correspondence between steady-state performance on variable ratio schedules and progressive ratio schedules, c) how changes in consumption of a reinforcer are influenced by the manner in which that reinforcer is delivered in applied settings, and d) how environmental constraints related to access (i.e. open vs. closed economy) and stimulus similarity can interact to influence consumption.

 
Evaluation of Relative Reinforcer Potency as Predicted by Reinforcer Preference.
NICOLE M. TROSCLAIR-LASSERRE (Louisiana State University), Nathan Call (The Marcus Institute), Amanda M. Dahir (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Previous research has evaluated the relationship between reinforcer value and treatment efficacy for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement (e.g., Roane, Lerman, & Vorndran, 2001). Results indicated that high, medium, and low preference items yielded differences in reinforcer value and the most valuable reinforcer produced greatest treatment outcomes. In the present study, the relationship between reinforcer preference and reinforcer value was further examined. Six stimuli were ranked using a paired stimulus (PS) preference assessment and changes in preference during the course of the investigation were monitored via multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments. A progressive ratio (PR) reinforcer assessment (Roane et al.) was then used to establish the relative reinforcer value of each item. Reliability data were collected for at least 25% of sessions and reliability coefficients exceeded 80% for each participant. Results indicate that (a) preference may not be stable across multiple assessments, (b) preference may predict relative reinforcer value as established by PS preference assessments, and (c) relative reinforcer value differences between stimuli appears to emerge only as schedule requirements increase.
 
Behavioral Economic Analyses of the Effects of Reinforcers of Differing Quality.
JASON C. BOURRET (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), Lauren Abraham (E.K. Shriver Center), Lindsay C. Peters (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Behavioral economic analyses typically involve examinations of responding maintained by, and consumption of, reinforcers at a range of “prices” with price equated with response requirement. In this presentation, we discuss a series of analyses of responding on variable-ratio (VR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement maintained by reinforcers identified to differ in terms of reinforcing efficacy in a paired-stimulus preference assessment (Fisher et al., 1992). Reinforcers were initially characterized as being of high, moderate, and low preference. Steady state levels of responding maintained by each reinforcer were then obtained on a series of VR schedules. These data were compared to those obtained for responding maintained by each reinforcer on PR schedules. Responding on concurrent VR schedules in which high- and moderate-preference reinforcers, and moderate- and low-preference reinforcers, were arranged in competition and in which selective responding to one of the response options resulted in escalation of the schedule requirement for that option was examined. A final analysis involved a comparison of the effects of effort manipulations on responding maintained by qualitatively different reinforcers on PR schedules.
 
Examining Shifts in Demand Curves as a Function of Intervening Exposure to Varying Earning Requirements.
MELISSA J. ALLMAN (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan Gregory (University of Florida), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Demand curves have been used as an index of the effects of increases in price (response requirements) on total consumption of a reinforcer. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity of demand curves to changes in reinforcer value following three sorts of exposure to stimuli: contingent access, noncontingent access, and total restriction. Three moderately preferred stimuli, identified via a paired stimulus preference assessment, were included in the analysis for each of 6 participants. Each stimulus was randomly assigned to one of three conditions. The stimulus assigned to condition A was delivered on an FR1 schedule for completion of an academic task for several weeks. The stimulus assigned to condition B was delivered noncontingently on a schedule yoked to the delivery of the stimulus in condition A. The stimulus assigned to condition C was totally restricted between the first and second demand curve analyses. Demand functions were derived for each stimulus prior to and after the manipulations. Results indicated that demand for the stimulus delivered noncontingently was generally more elastic following the manipulation than prior to the manipulation, whereas consumption generally remained constant for the stimuli in the other conditions.
 
Variables that Influence Responding under Open and Closed Economies.
TIFFANY KODAK (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Christopher E. Bullock (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nathan Call (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: The results of basic experimentation have identified two types of economic systems that may affect responding during reinforcement-based programs. In a closed economy, participants are only able to access reinforcement through interaction with the experimental environment, whereas in an open economy, participants are able to access reinforcers by interacting with the experimental environment and can access additional (free) reinforcers following completion of the session. Generally speaking, higher response rates occur under closed economies relative to open economies. To date there have been few applied examinations of the relative effects of open and closed economic systems on adaptive responding. In the current presentation, we present two cases in which responding under open and closed economies were affected by various experimental constraints. In the first case, no differences in responding were observed under either condition when a single reinforcer was delivered. However, when responding resulted in access to multiple reinforcers, response rates increased under both open and closed economies. In the second case we parametrically varied the similarity of items provided during and following sessions to evaluate the conditions under which open economies influence within-session behavior. Reliability data were collected on at least 33% of all sessions and averaged over 90% for both cases. Results are discussed in terms of factors that may influence responding during reinforcement-based skill acquisition programs for individuals with developmental disabilities.
 
 
Symposium #77
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Verbal Behavior in Children with Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Elizabeth C
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Tamara S. Kasper (Private Practice)
Discussant: Tamara S. Kasper (Private Practice)
CE Instructor: Kelle Wood, None
Abstract:

These studies compare relative effectiveness of procedures to improve Verbal Behavior in children with autism. The first study compares the Effects of Mimetic-Tact versus Intraverbal-Tact training on the Acquisition of Sign Tacts in two Children with Autism. Similar to results obtained by Partington, Sundberg, Newhouse, & Spengler (1994), the subjects acquired more tacts via intraverbal-tact transfer while acquiring fewer via mimetic-tact transfer demonstrating the superiority of intraverbal-tact transfer. The second study, Increasing Vocal Behavior in a Young Adult With Autism via Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing adds to current literature on stimulus stimulus pairing procedures and assists in appropriate candidate selection for these procedures. The last study, Comparison of two errorless teaching procedures for promoting independent responding in children with autism: Transfer of stimulus control with and without a probe following a time delay compares the relative effectiveness of two nearly errorless procedures for developing independent responses. Results across twenty- five subjects are compared in regard to the literature on errorless teaching. (Touchette and Howard, 1984,, Touchette, P.E. 1968, Terrace, H. 1963)

 
Increasing Vocal Behavior in a Young Adult with Autism via Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing.
ANGIE B. KEITH (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Tamara S. Kasper (Private Practice), Christie M. Penland (Early Autism Project, Inc.)
Abstract: Many children and young adults with autism do not imitate adult vocalizations, an essential skill for establishing functional vocal verbal behavior. Research suggests that procedures which utilize pairing of an instructor’s vocal model with delivery of a putative reinforcer may condition that sound or sound combination as a reinforcer when produced by the individual (Sundberg, et. al., 1996; Yoon & Bennet, 2000; Miguel, Carr, & Michael, 2002; Carbone; 2005, Lugo, et. al., 2005). Stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures have been used to increase free operant vocalizations and in some cases transfer these vocalizations to other operants (echoic, mand, tact). One study (Esch, Carr, & Michael, 2005) suggested that direct reinforcement may be necessary to establish durable vocal behavior and further recommended identification of variables that influence the effectiveness of the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure. The current study extends previous findings by evaluating the effectiveness of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on vowel, consonant-vowel and consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel combinations of a young adult with autism, previously considered non-vocal and non-verbal. Baseline, pairing, and post-pairing data were obtained. During the pre-pairing condition, the subject’s free operant vocalizations were recorded. During the pairing condition, the experimenter’s vocal model was paired with the delivery of the putative reinforcer. Results revealed an increase in target sounds/syllables for the participant as well as durable transfer to the echoic repertoire. Several vocalizations also transferred to mands. This study adds to current literature and assists in appropriate candidate selection for stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures.
 
Effects of Mimetic-Tact versus Intraverbal-Tact Training on the Acquisition of Tacts in Two Individuals with Autism.
STEPHANIE BURCHFIELD BURGESS (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Michael Meyers (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Jenn Godwin (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Tamara S. Kasper (Private Practice)
Abstract: Development of verbal repertoires in children with autism and limited vocal repertoires is the focus of many intensive behavior programs. For children who are non-verbal, manual sign language has been encouraged as an effective response form (Carr, 1979; Fulwiler & Fouts, 1976, Brady & Smouse, 1992; Layton, 1988). Many have examined procedures to facilitate the tacting repertoire. Carroll & Hesse (1987) and Arntzen & Almas (2002) examined the effects of mand-tact and tact-only training procedures on the acquisition of tact performance and demonstrated that fewer trials were needed to learn tacts in the mand-tact condition. Partington, Sundberg, Newhouse, & Spengler (1994) used procedures to transfer stimulus control from verbal to nonverbal stimuli in a subject who has an established mand repertoire and the subject was able to quickly acquire a total of 18 tacts. The current study extends these findings.
 
Comparison of Two “Errorless” Teaching Procedures for Promoting Independent Responding in Children with Autism: Transfer of Stimulus Control with and without a Probe following a Time Delay.
ANN D. ELDRIDGE (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Jenn Godwin (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Amy Watford, M.A.T. (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Jennifer Lacinak (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Abigail M. Gonzalez (Early Autism Project, Inc.), Samantha C. Apple (Early Autism Project, Inc.)
Abstract: One method of nearly errorless teaching has been advocated by various behavior analysts (Carbone, 2003; Sundberg, 1998; Zecchin & Wood, 2006; Godwin & Kasper, 2006). This method of instruction has also been used in several studies (Carbone et al., 2006; Keith et al., 2005) For some subjects and treatment teams, due to methodological issues and learner variability, this method of training appeared to result in errors for the subjects and may have resulted in delay in acquisition of skills. This study compared the relative effectiveness of two procedures for developing independent responses; quick transfer of stimulus control with and without a probe following a time delay. In procedure I, the subjects were taught to correctly and independently respond to a demand (tact or intraverbal) via quick transfer of stimulus control in which the subjects were presented with an Sd, immediately prompted to respond and then presented with another opportunity to respond independent of the prompt. During procedure II, the subjects were presented with an Sd, immediately prompted to respond and then presented with another opportunity to respond independent of the prompt. A time delay during which the subject was presented with two high probability motor imitation trials was instituted, followed by a probe of the target item. Results across twenty- five subjects are compared in regard to the literature on errorless teaching. (Touchette and Howard, 1984,, Touchette, P.E. 1968, Terrace, H. 1963)
 
 
Symposium #81
CE Offered: BACB
Practical Applications of Token Systems, Visual Schedules, Behavior Plans, and ABA Consultation
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Randle D
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Melissa J. Andretta, M.S.
Abstract:

This symposium includes presentations that focus on the practical applications of using the science of behavior for the educational needs of students with autism and other developmental disabilities. Practical issues and suggestions for an ABA Consultant is applicable to individuals who provide ABA consultation services, as well as owners of companies that provide ABA consultation services. Practical applications and examples of: token-based motivational systems will focus on using motivational systems to increase habilitative responses (academically, behaviorally, and socially). Practical applications and examples of behavior plans/contracts will focus on developing and implementing behavior plans/behavior contracts, based on the results of a functional analysis. Practical applications and examples of visual schedules will focus on using various schedules to promote independence, social interactions, communication skills, as an instructional tool, and to replace inappropriate behaviors with habilitative responses. Examples of specific token systems, behavior plans, and activity schedules, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data, will be shown during the presentation.

 
Practical Issues for an ABA Consultant Working in School-Based and Home-Based Educational Programs.
MELISSA J. ANDRETTA (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Jennifer Folbert (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical issues that an ABA consultant may face when proving services to children with autism. While there will be reference to specific interventions, this presentation is designed to illustrate components, and concerns, that can be applied by a consultant who is a behavior analyst. This presentation will cover topics that are applicable to individuals who provide ABA consultation services, privately, as well as topics that are relevant to owners of companies that provide ABA consultation services. Specific examples of the application of behavior analysis to consultation services will be discussed, and visual representations of any materials or data will be provided.
 
Practical Applications and Examples of Token-Based Motivational Systems.
JENNIFER FOLBERT (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical applications of using token systems with children with autism, to increase habilitative responses (academically, behaviorally, and socially). Data systems will be discussed in terms of creating data sheets, visually representing data, and using that data to determine if a change in the token system is necessary, (on a continuous basis). Examples of specific token boards used with each student, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data for each student, will be shown during the presentation.
 
Practical Applications and Examples of Behavior Intervention Plans Used by Children with Autism.
MELISSA J. ANDRETTA (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Jennifer Folbert (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical applications of developing and implementing behavior intervention plans/behavior contracts. Methods for determining the function of target behavior will be discussed, and examples will be provided as necessary. There will be a focus on how to develop a behavior plan based on the results of the functional analysis. Data systems will be discussed in terms of: analyzing the function of the inappropriate behavior, visually representing data, and using that data to determine if a change in the token system is necessary, on a continuous basis. Examples of specific behavior plans used with each student, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data for each student, will be shown during the presentation.
 
Practical Applications and Examples of Using Visual Activity Schedules.
JENNIFER FOLBERT (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: The presentation will focus on practical applications of visual activity schedules used by children with autism, to promote independence, social interactions, communication skills, as an instructional tool, and to decrease inappropriate behaviors and replace them with habilitative responses. Methods to create an initial schedule, for students on various levels (a reader, a pre-reader, a writer, etc.), as well as for different purposes (a play schedule vs. an instructional schedule, vs. an academic schedule, etc.) will be discussed, and examples of such schedules will be presented. Examples of specific visual schedules used with each student will be presented.
 
 
Special Event #82
CE Offered: BACB
Symposium in Honor of Sidney W. Bijou: Scientist, Clinician, Humanitarian
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Molly AB
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
Chair: Gary D. Novak (California State University, Stanislaus)
CE Instructor: Gary D. Novak, Ph.D.
Abstract:

At the age of 98, Sidney Bijou continues to be an inspiration to generations of behavior analysts all over the world. For more than 60 years, Sidney W. Bijou helped found and foster two major movements in behavior analysis: a behavior analysis of child development, and applied behavior analysis with children with special needs. This symposium will chronicle the distinguished career of Bijou from his recruitment by Skinner to the Psychology Department at Indiana through his days at the University of Nevada Reno. Additionally, Bijous influence on the internationalization of behavior analysis will be described. As well as documenting the individuals influencing and influenced by Bijou, the speakers will also present many of the methodological, theoretical, and clinical contributions Sidney Bijou has made over his long and distinguished career.

 
The Early Contributions of Bijou: The Development of Behavioral Development.
HAYNE W. REESE (West Virginia University)
Abstract: After receiving his doctorate from Iowa, Bijou was recruited by Skinner to direct a new clinical psychology program at Indiana. My paper will look at Bijou’s career at Indiana and Washington. I will describe the important personal, scientific, and clinical experiences that led to development of methodology for the study of functional relationships and contributions to the theory of behavioral development and applied behavior analysis.
 
Sidney W. Bijou: The Illinois Years, 1965-1975.
EDWARD K. MORRIS (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This paper describes Sidney W. Bijou’s (b. 1908) activities, accomplishments, and contributions during his tenure at the University of Illinois between 1965 and 1975. While there, he was a professor in the Department of Psychology, a member of the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children, and the director of his own Child Behavior Laboratory (CBL). The CBL housed two laboratory preschools, a center for teaching and research, and offices for students and staff. Among his scholarly and professional activities, Bijou directed the laboratory preschools, refined behavioral assessment tools and procedures, advanced behavioral interventions with children, elaborated his behavior-analytic theory of development, and contributed to the international dissemination of behavior analysis (e.g., to Mexico, Japan). Among the particulars, this paper reviews Bijou’s contributions to the literatures in child development and behavior analysis (e.g., books, articles), his service and leadership roles in both fields (e.g., founding and editing the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology), and his teaching and mentoring (e.g., courses, graduate advisees). Bijou retired from the University of Illinois in 1975 as a professor emeritus.
 
Tales from the Desert: Sid’s Time at Arizona and Nevada.
PATRICK M. GHEZZI (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This paper is given to reflections on my personal and professional relationship with Sid Bijou at The University of Arizona (1984-1992) and the University of Nevada (1994-2000). The development of a method for studying linguistic behavior from an interbehavioral point of view highlighted our professional activities at Arizona. During this time, Arizona basketball ascended to national prominence, giving Sid an outlet for his passion for sport and giving me the opportunity to spoof him in a most memorable way. Sid’s professional activities at Nevada centered on his role as the co-founder of UNR’s Early Childhood Autism Program. His resurgence as a clinician exposed the reasons why he choose a career in psychology in the first place, why he was so successful at it, and why it’s never too late to have a second childhood.
 
Bijou's Influence on the Study of Child Development in Mexico and His Kantorian Notion of Setting Factors.
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
Abstract: This paper I will first provide a brief historical account of Bijou's influence on the study of behavior analysis of child development in Mexico and his publications in Spanish language. Second, I will elaborate on Kantor's (1959) influence on Bijou's notion of setting factors in behavior analysis of human development and the diverse categories they identified. I will end with some clarifications on the meaning of behavior analysis of child development.
 
 
Symposium #83
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Three Diverse Applications of Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG): Caregivers, Juvenile Delinquents, and Gymnasts
Saturday, May 26, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Betsy B
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Janet L. Montgomery (University of Florida, Behavior Analysis Services Program)
Discussant: Ragnar S. Ragnarsson (ICEABA)
CE Instructor: Janet L. Montgomery, M.S.
Abstract:

Three pilot studies using TAG showed promising outcomes. Floridas Behavior Analyses Services Program (BASP) conducted two types of follow-up trainings (video, video with TAG) for caregivers who completed a 30-hour parenting course. Two skill components were compared after having been retrained with the video or the video with TAG. Average improvement scores for both components after video training were 29%. Average improvement scores after TAG were 50% for both components. Twenty-two juvenile delinquent youth participated in eighteen sessions utilizing TAG for a task analyzed list of components such as fighting and fight negotiation. This study showed skill enhancement and participants viewed TAG as socially acceptable as measured by positive verbalizations. Five gymnasts were taught four skills using either conventional training (verbal praise, encouragement, verbal correction for errors) or TAG (a specific behavior marked with a click with no verbal correction). Baseline was measured via three trials of four skills per gymnast. Behaviors were scored as 1 or 0 with total scores averaged across groups over three trials. Conventional training scores increased over baseline from 7% to 25% while TAG scores increased over baseline from 61% to 67%. Additional data collection is in process to support these preliminary outcomes.

 
Feedback via Auditory Marker to Improve Task Analyzed Components of Caregiver Skills.
VICTORIA FOGEL (University of Florida), Janet L. Montgomery (University of Florida, Behavior Analysis Services Program), Judith A. Kosarek (University of Florida), Tony Manzolillo (University of Florida), Vanessa Magdalena Bracero (formerly Burgos) (University of Florida), Angela M. Howland (University of Florida)
Abstract: The University of Florida and University of South Florida’s Behavior Analysis Services Program (BASP) teaches behavioral parenting skills to caregivers. Although BASP’s curriculum has produced improvements in caregiver’s skills, some skill components have not been performed correctly by large percentages of caregivers. This study was conducted to determine whether Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG) would improve performance on components of the BASP caregiver curriculum that have typically been performed with low accuracy. Preliminary unpublished studies show that TAG may improve the accuracy of other skills, such as those used in golf and gymnastics, but has not been evaluated in a classroom setting such as BASP’s training. Two types of brief follow-up trainings were conducted (standard video and standard video with TAG) for caregivers who had completed a 30-hour parenting course. Two skill components were compared after having been retrained with either the standard video or the standard video with TAG. Average improvement scores for both components after receiving the standard video follow-up training were 29%. Average improvement scores after the TAG training were 50% for both components. Additional data are being collected on the use of TAG in the 30-hour class.
 
Teaching with Acoustical Guidance: Effects with the Juvenile Delinquent Population.
KERI GORMAN (TAGteach)
Abstract: This study applied Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG) technology to juveniles involved in the court system. The Juvenile Detention Center manager identified the negative behaviors of negative verbalizations and low rates of chore completion, but due to unique features of this population, the social acceptance of TAG (using an auditory marker as feedback) was questioned. Twenty-two youth involved in the county court system and six staff members participated in eighteen, 30 to 60 minute sessions. TAG was shown on video, described, and modeled followed by participants practicing in role-plays. Next, the youths tagged each other on “fun” activities (e.g., rock climbing, magic trick, ball pass) to enhance skill competency. Tagging was paired with reinforcement (candy) on a variable interval schedule. Finally tagging as an enhancement to living and social skills was introduced with participants required to tag for a task analyzed list of components such as “making a room” and also for “fighting and fight negotiation”. This study showed skill enhancement in skills taught and all participants taught via this method viewed TAG teaching as socially acceptable in this setting as measured by positive verbalizations regarding this method. This outcome provides an open door for ongoing teaching with this population.
 
Teaching Gymnastic Skills with an Acoustical Marker.
THERESA MCKEON (TAGteach International)
Abstract: Clicker training effects with animals are documented, however, few studies have discussed Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG) with humans. Study 1 involved teaching two groups of five artistic gymnasts of normal intelligence four skills. Two skills were taught using conventional training methods (verbal praise. encouragement, verbal correction for errors). Two additional skills were taught using TAG where gymnasts were told which task analyzed component would be marked with a click and no verbal corrections were used. Baseline was measured via three trials of four skills per gymnast. Skill elements were scored as “1” or “0” and total scores were averaged across groups over three trials. Conventional training methods produced scores ranging from 7% to 25% increase over baseline while TAG training scores increased over baseline from 61% to 67%. Study 2 assessed TAG with three mentally challenged rhythmic gymnasts across three unmastered skills. The changes noted from baseline to post-TAG training were from 0% to 75% accuracy in 8.5 minutes, from 0% to 100% accuracy in 5 minutes, and from 25% to 100% accuracy in 1.2 minutes. Both Studies 1 and 2 showed positive results and all athletes reported greater satisfaction with TAG teaching than with conventional methods of teaching.
 
 
Panel #98
CE Offered: BACB
The Efficacy of Positive ABA Approaches with the Most Challenging Behaviors: A Review of the Empirical Evidence
Saturday, May 26, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.
Chair: Thomas J. Willis (Institute For Applied Behavior Analysis)
GARY W. LAVIGNA (Institute For Applied Behavior Analysis)
THOMAS J. WILLIS (Institute For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract:

This panel first reviews the literature that demonstrates the efficacy of Positive ABA Behavior Supports in addressing the most severe and challenging behavior. Additional Type III case studies are then presented that add to this evidence base. The target behaviors addressed include severe physical aggression, self-injury, and property destruction. In each case, behavior problems were brought under control, both in terms of occurrence and episodic severity. Each person's quality of life was also measureably improved. These results were achieved through the implementation of positive, multi-element behavior support plans based on comprehensive functional assessments. Further, the results have been lasting, indicating the generalization of treatment effects over time. Finally, given the existing and growing evidence of PBS efficacy, a number of explanations are offered as to the challenges Positive Behavior Supports continue to face. An important perspective for Behavior Analysts is to recognize is that if a positive ABA approach is equally or more effective than an aversive approach, ethics require the use of the less restrictive alternative.

 

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