Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


33rd Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2007

Program by Continuing Education Events: Sunday, May 27, 2007

Manage My Personal Schedule


Invited Tutorial #135
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Behavior-Analytic Strategies for Introducing Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Douglas B
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Philip N. Hineline, Ph.D.
Chair: Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Presenting Authors: : PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University)

We frequently encounter difficulty in gaining acceptance for effective behaviorally-based interventions or educational practices; similar difficulty arises in gaining or maintaining a place for behavior analysis within academic curricula. Simply arguing the merits of the case by appealing to the practical effectiveness or the conceptual coherence and relevance of our approach often does not work. In the applied domain, a partial remedy is to improve the aesthetic characteristics of the strategies and techniques that we propose. In the domain of persuasion, we could better apply our own principles, as well as some techniques from other disciplines. For example, in place of confrontation, our principle of shaping suggests that we begin with a potential allys current repertoires and attempt gradual change. In the field of rhetoric and persuasion, a key strategy is to initially establish bases of agreement or commonality before attempting to persuade. Coupled with these should be a concern to discriminate which of the differences matter, between ones own and the position of others and especially to discriminate when those differences matter. My objective in all this is to address these issues in a principled way, thus understanding our own approach more effectively even while introducing it to others.

PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University)
Dr. Philip N. Hineline With a B.A. from Hamilton College and Ph.D. from Harvard University, Philip N. Hineline spent three years at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research before moving to Temple University, where he is now a professor. Teaching at both basic and advanced levels, he has received several awards for excellence in teaching, including Temple's university-wide Great Teacher Award and the Distinguished Teacher Award from the College of Arts and sciences. Outside the university, he served first as Associate Editor, as Editor, and then as Review Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He has been President of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABA), as well as of Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. In 1995, he received the award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis from ABA, and in 2002, the Award for Outstanding Contributions to Basic Research from Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. His conceptual writing has focused upon the characteristics of explanatory language and the role of those characteristics in the controversies that have confronted behavior analysis. His empirical research has contained a consistent theme: to develop an understanding of behavioral and psychological processes as extended in time.
Panel #136
CE Offered: BACB
ACT and ABA: Natural Progression or Conceptual Regression?
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Cunningham AB
Area: TPC/CBM; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Daniel J. Moran, Ph.D.
Chair: Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services)
DANIEL J. MORAN (Trinity Services)
KURT SALZINGER (Hofstra University)
STEVEN C. HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
RICHARD M. O'BRIEN (Hofstra University)

Proponents of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and its theoretical foundation Relational Frame Theory have described this approach as the basis for a third wave of Behavior Therapy. Skeptical observers view the ACT/RFT third wave as only waving goodbye to the scientific basis of Behavior Analysis. In this Panel Discussion, Steven C. Hayes, a developer of the ACT/RFT model and Daniel J. Moran will present ACT as a necessary extension of behavior analysis. They see ACT as giving greater breadth to the clinical field and filling a gap in the behavioral account of complex behaviors. But some behavior analysts are not convinced that the cognitively oriented approach embodied in ACT and Mindfulness is the direction that the field should take. Kurt Salzinger will discuss the ACT/RFT model from the perspective of traditional behavior analysis. Richard M. OBrien will review some of the core concepts of ACT/RFT as positive additions to the behavioral model or digressions from it with the goal of bringing this approach solidly within applied behavior analysis.

Symposium #139
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches to the Study of Social Interactions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Auburn University)
Discussant: Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development)
CE Instructor: Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson, Ph.D.

Social interactions primarily consist of approach (i.e., initiations and response to initiations) or avoidance behavior between individuals. Social interactions involve complex nonverbal, verbal, and behavioral cues that typically influences an individuals behavior in some predictable ways. The hallmark deficit in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is the social impairment, which involves a significant difficulty with social interactions. Measurement procedures for social interactions varies across studies in our field, with many research studies using parent or teacher reports as well as standardized assessments, to describe a childs social skills and interactions. The first paper in this symposium will present results from a study that conducted a parametric analysis of some of the variables involved in a social interaction in young children with ASD. In addition, a new behavioral assessment, the Social Interaction Inventory-Revised (SII-R) that was developed to quantify social interactions will be introduced. The second paper presented will share results from a study that included typically developing children for the purposes of providing normative data for the SII-R. The third paper will present results from a study that included children with ASD and a follow-up assessment to determine if the SII-R is sensitive to changes in social interactions in children with ASD.

Examining Factors that Affect Social Behavior among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
ROSE F. EAGLE (Institute for Child Development), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development)
Abstract: This study investied factors that affect the social behavior of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The effects of two types of adult-initiated social behavior on the social behavior of two groups of children with ASDs were examined. The two groups included were 1) children with minimal language, and 2) children with some communicative language. The participants experienced two conditions: 1) “Passive Behavior” in which an unfamiliar adult sat quietly without making any social initiations, and 2) “Social Behavior” in which an unfamiliar adult made frequent social initiations. There was no significant difference between the two conditions or the two groups on the measures of interpersonal distance. Measures of socialization behaviors and symptom severity were significantly correlated with frequency of social initiations. A large proportion of participants (10 of 22) did not respond to the manipulation (i.e. remained inactive). Thus, differences between the inactive children and the active children were examined. The active children, though further away from the adults, made significantly more social initiations. Implications are discussed in terms of behavioral subtypes in ASDs.
The Social Interaction Inventory, Revised: The Development of Norms for a New Measure of Social Behavior.
EMILY HUBER CALLAHAN (Institute for Child Development), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development)
Abstract: A qualitative impairment in social interactions is one of the core components of autistic disorder as defined in the DSM-IV-TR. Most programs developed for individuals with autism include social skills instruction or training and growing attention has been directed at the development of effective interventions (Koegel, Koegel & MeNerney, 2001; Strain & Hoyson, 2000; Hestenes, & Carroll, 2000). However, there are limited tools available to assess social skills and even fewer designed to assess improvements in social behavior. While there are some measures that are useful for identifying children who may be displaying deficits or delays in social functioning, they do not provide information about the specific nature of a child’s social difficulties and were not designed to track behavior change. The focus of the current study was to use the Social Interaction Inventory-Revised (SII-R) (Gillis, Romanczyk & Lockshin, 2005) to assess social interactions in typically developing children 2- to 5-years of age to establish a set of norms. Furthermore, patterns of age differences in social competence and development were examined using this measure. Age was not significantly related to scores obtained on the SII-R. However, a significant positive relationship was observed between social initiations made by the participant and a participant’s responses to the initiations of the examiner suggesting that the development of these two skills are coordinated in typically developing children, and that these skills develop very early.
The Social Interaction Inventory, Revised: An ASD Sample and Six-Month Follow-Up.
Abstract: An accurate assessment tool is crucial in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of children with deficits in social development. While many tests rely on self and/or third party questionnaires, the Social Interaction Inventory- Revised (SII-R) is unique in that it utilizes direct observations of social interaction in a controlled clinical setting. The SII-R attempts to assess skills in two domains of social interaction: Social Initiation and Social Responsivity. In the present study, the SII-R was administered to a sample of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (N=40). The children with ASD scored significantly lower than typical children in both domains. These results are consistent with the impairments in social skills typically seen in individuals with ASD. Six months after the first administration, a second administration of the SII-R was conducted with the same sample of children. Scores are compared with progress on social skills goals for each child, while attending an applied behavioral analysis day school program. The results are discussed in terms of utility of the SII-R as a behavioral measure of social competence for young children with ASD and as a measure of change of social competence over time.
Symposium #146
CE Offered: BACB
Extensions of Functional Analysis Methodology for Clarifying Ambiguous Outcomes
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Ford AB
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Eileen M. Roscoe, Ph.D.

The four papers included in this symposium discuss various extensions of functional analysis methodology that may facilitate clear outcomes. In the first paper, Jeffrey Tiger will describe a modified functional analysis that included the delivery of consequences by the participants sibling. In the second paper, Sacha Pence will present data showing that the inclusion of modified social positive test conditions facilitated clear determination of function for two participants. In the third paper, Tiffany Kodak will describe an assessment for identifying various forms of attention for inclusion in a functional analysis. In the forth paper, Lynlea Longworth will present data on an empirically-based method for identifying tasks for inclusion during the demand condition of a functional analysis.

Functional Analysis and Treatment of the Sibling-Directed Aggression of Two Brothers Diagnosed with Autism.
JEFFREY H. TIGER (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Tiffany Kodak (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nitasha Dickes (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Darrel Moreland (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Christopher E. Bullock (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kelly J. Bouxsein (Georgia State University, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: This data set provides a case example of an idiosyncratic application of functional analysis methodology. Two adolescent brothers, both diagnosed with autism, were referred for the treatment of aggression. Individual functional analyses were conducted with each brother. The results for the younger brother indicated that his aggression was maintained by escape from social interaction, however, the results for the older brother were inconclusive (i.e., near-zero rates of aggression across conditions). An additional functional analysis was conducted in which both brothers were present during the assessment, but social consequences were provided only upon the older brother’s aggression. The results of this analysis suggested that the older brother’s aggression was maintained independent of therapist mediated consequences, and was likely maintained by his younger brother’s reaction to aggression (i.e., return aggression). Function-based treatments were then implemented for each brother, including: (a) an enriched-environment for the older brother to compete with the stimulation produced by aggression and (b) functional communication training for the younger brother, to strengthen an alternative response that would result in the termination of social interaction. These treatments were evaluated in reversal designs.
Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Idiosyncratic Forms of Social Positive Reinforcement.
AIMEE GILES (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Sacha T. Pence (New England Center for Children), Arianne Kindle (New England Center for Children), Griffin Rooker (New England Center for Children), Amanda M. Mahoney (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In this study, results of initial functional analyses were inconclusive for two individuals diagnosed with autism who exhibited aggression and/or self-injury. Based upon staff report that their problem behavior was maintained by an idiosyncratic form of attention (participant 1) or by an idiosyncratic form of edible (participant 2), modifications to an attention condition and a tangible condition were evaluated, respectively. For participant 1, a modified attention condition, involving the delivery of preferred conversational topics contingent upon behavior, was included in an extended functional analysis. For participant 2, a modified tangible condition, involving frequent delivery of the statement “You can’t have that now” and delivery of a specific type of edible contingent on problem behavior, was evaluated. Results showed that inclusion of these modified conditions led to identification of an idiosyncratic form of social positive reinforcement, access to preferred conversational topics (participant 1) or access to specific edibles (participant 2). For participant 1, a differential-reinforcement of alternative behavior treatment matched to the maintaining variable identified was conducted and found effective in decreasing problem behavior.
An Evaluation of the Types of Attention Maintaining Problem Behavior.
TIFFANY KODAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), John A. Northup (University of Iowa), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University), Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Previous research indicates that certain types of attention (i.e., statements related to behavior, tickles) may have greater reinforcement value than other types for certain individuals (Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996; Piazza, Bowman, Contrucci, Delia, Adelinis, & Goh, 1999), although only one or two forms of attention are typically provided contingent on problem behavior during the attention condition of the functional analysis (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994). Various other forms of attention that are not typically assessed during functional analyses may be responsible for behavioral maintenance in the natural environment (e.g., eye contact, tickles), and further research is warranted to identify additional forms of attention that may influence the occurrence of problem behavior. In this investigation, three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities and/or autism were referred for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. Various forms of attention were provided contingent on problem behavior to identify the influence of each form of attention. Results indicated that the attention forms affected problem behavior differently; these outcomes are discussed in terms of their implications for assessment and treatment procedures.
Assessing the Utility of a Demand Assessment for Functional Analysis.
LYNLEA J. LONGWORTH (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Griffin Rooker (New England Center for Children), Sacha T. Pence (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In the current study, we evaluated the utility of conducting an empirically-based demand assessment prior to conducting a functional analysis (FA) to identify appropriate tasks for inclusion during the demand condition. Three individuals, diagnosed with autism, who exhibited aggression or self injury, participated. During the demand assessment, a variety of tasks were singly presented, and problem behavior and compliance were measured. From this assessment, low-probability (low-p) demands (those associated with either low levels of compliance or high levels of problem behavior) and high-probability (high-p) demands (those associated with either high levels of compliance and low levels of problem behavior) were identified. During the functional analysis, alone, attention, play, low-p demand, and high-p demand conditions were conducted. Two separate functional analysis graphs were created, one with all conditions included except the low-p demand condition, and one with all conditions included except the high-p demand condition. Results showed that clearer outcomes were obtained for two of the three participants when the low-p demand condition was included rather than the high-p demand condition.
Symposium #147
CE Offered: BACB
Factors Affecting Treatment Success I: Treatment Integrity
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Sung Woo Kahng, Ph.D.

Behavioral interventions have proven to be effective in reducing problem behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities. Despite the efficacy of this technology, there continue to be barriers to long-term treatment success. One such barrier is treatment integrity, which is the extent to which an intervention is implemented as designed. The purpose of this symposium is to present research in treatment integrity. The goal is to facilitate a meaningful discussion of treatment follow through, which we hope will promote a growth of research in this area.

Evaluating Delayed Reinforcement as a Treatment Challenge in Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.
MELISSA M. SHULLEETA (University of Maryland, Baltimore Co.), Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Keith MacWhorter (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In the field of applied behavior analysis, research is conducted using controlled experimentation. However, in an applied setting, effects of treatments may be challenged by integrity failures. The current study introduced a methodology where an initially successful differential reinforcement-based treatment was faced with delayed reinforcement. Specifically, varying delays to reinforcement were evaluated to investigate how long the treatment effects were maintained. For one participant, results suggested that treatment gains were not compromised with less than full implementation. However, with robust changes in delays to reinforcement, problem behavior eventually increased for another participant. Results may aid in planning treatment generalization, while future research may be conducted to assess manipulations of additional variables that constitute full treatment implementation.
A Parametric Evaluation of the Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Procedure.
ELIZABETH S. ATHENS (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a commonly used treatment for problem behavior. Usually with DRA problem behavior is placed on extinction while an alternative, more appropriate behavior, is reinforced. In some cases, however, the targeted problem behavior is too disruptive or dangerous to place on extinction. The purpose of the current study, therefore, is to evaluate a variation of the DRA procedure designed to provide more immediate, longer duration, and higher quality reinforcers for appropriate behavior relative to reinforcers for problem behavior. To do this, we differentially manipulated the parameters of reinforcement along several dimensions. Specifically, for the appropriate response (relative to the inappropriate response) we made a) reinforcement following this behavior more immediate b) the duration of reinforcement greater c) increased the quality of reinforcement or d) a combination of these parameters. Under such manipulations, for several participants, differential reinforcement effects were obtained. The procedure is conceptualized as differential reinforcement insofar as reinforcement parameters differentially favored appropriate behavior.
Direct Observations of Treatment Integrity: Assessing Observer Reactivity.
ROBIN CODDING (University of Massachusetts, Boston), Gary M. Pace (The May Institute), Andrew Livanis (Long Island University)
Abstract: Performance feedback enhances the implementation of individual behavior support plans. In order to effectively provide performance feedback to classroom teachers a viable method of assessment must be identified. Both direct and indirect assessment techniques have been employed. Although direct observations may have the advantage of providing more specific feedback to teachers, this method of assessment has been criticized as evoking reactivity from participants. That is, the individual observed may employ an intervention as intended simply because the observer is present. The present study describes a study that assessed the effects of observer presence on teacher performance before and following performance feedback. Observations were conducted by a support professional for three public middle school teachers working in a classroom designated for children with behavior disorders. Following an alternating treatments design, teacher observations were conducted either inside the classroom or from behind a one-way mirror on a variable-interval schedule. Results from a multiple-baseline design demonstrated that staff performance was unaffected by the presence of an observer, and, that performance feedback lead to improved treatment implementation. These results suggest that direct observations do represent a viable method of assessment of treatment integrity.
Symposium #149
CE Offered: BACB
How to be Successful Using Headsprout Early Reading with Diverse Populations
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Betty Hanson (Private Tutor)
Discussant: David W. Anderson (Headsprout)
CE Instructor: Mary Huffstetter, Ph.D.

Headsprout Early Reading is a demonstrably effective program at teaching elementary school children how to read. Its eighty on-line lessons take a beginning reader from being a non-reader to a reader performing at about the mid second grade level in approximately thirty hours of instruction. Since its inception, however, creative educators have crafted implementation strategies, additional materials, and clever models of use to bring the benefits of Headsprout Early reading to an even broader audience. This symposium highlights applications and implementation support for users not typically well served with traditional educational approaches to the teaching of reading.

Using Headsprout Early Reading to Build a Culture of Reading.
JOHN E. HUMPHREY (Cedar Rapids Schools)
Abstract: When Headsprout Early Reading becomes part of the everyday routine of students and school faculty it can be a major influence on building a culture of reading. While Headsprout Early Reading has continued to be supplemental, the school has embraced a way to use Headsprout so that not only are students learning to read via the computer and in a classroom, but also they are becoming confident readers so that when paired with older students everyone is working together to learn and be successful. Included are data, videos, war stories, and thoughts from working with over 100 students with Headsprout.
Using Headsprout Early Reading with Pre-K and Struggling Older Learners.
MARY HUFFSTETTER (Literacy Launchers)
Abstract: This presentation describes the use of Headsprout Early Reading with both pre-k at risk learners and with older struggling readers. The presentation will provide summative evaluation data from randomized controlled studies and work performed by the author in developing effective implementation strategies that can help ensure success with these types of learners.
Using Headsprout Early Reading with Difficult to Teach Special Education Populations.
SUSAN O. SMETHURST (Toronto Schools)
Abstract: Special education has often been characterized by creative uses of curricular and other materials to teach hard to reach learners. This presentation will demonstrate how Headsprout Early Reading can be augmented to reach students who have not been helped by other methods. The presentation will provide case studies in the customized use of Headsprout Early Reading with their difficult to teach learners.
Symposium #150
CE Offered: BACB
Innovative Parenting Practices: Teaching Parents to Become Effective Teachers
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Mohsen AB
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lynn Yuan (Fred S. Keller School)
Discussant: Susan Mariano-Lapidus (CABAS)
CE Instructor: Lynn Yuan, Ph.D.

The proposed symposium is consisted of four papers that used behavioral techniques to teach parenting skills. The first study examined the effects of parent education training on their childrens learning achievements in school. Dependent variable included standardized assessment and the criterion-referenced assessment on thirty preschoolers. The independent variable consisted of parent education training package that included: (a) parent education workshop and (b) individual parent session. The second study evaluated the effect of a parent-training curriculum on parents positive teaching interactions. Specifically, the number of accurate tacts and positive responses to situations were measured. The third study investigated the effectiveness of a parent training package which emphasized teaching parents to identify appropriate skills of a target repertoire for their child to test for a) how many appropriate behaviors of particular target skill the parents could identify, (b) children's mastery of the appropriate behaviors within a particular target skill, and (c) parents generalization of identifying appropriate skills across other target behaviors. The fourth study examined specific skill such as increasing rates of childs compliance through the use of unflawed antecedent commands and contingent consequations. Results are discussed in terms of parents understanding of three-term-contingencies, observational learning, and effective parenting repertoires.

The Relationship between Children's Achievements in School and a Parent Education Curriculum.
LYNN YUAN (Fred S. Keller School), Gina DiLeo (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: The study examined the effects of parent education training on their children’s learning achievements in school. Fifteen parents who participated in a parent education program were randomly assigned to the experimental group and fifteen parents who never received parent education training were randomly assigned to the control group. Dependent variable measures included Preschool Language Scale and Preschool Inventory of Repertoire for Kindergarten on thirty preschoolers between the ages of three-year to five-year olds. The independent variable consisted of parent education training package that included: (a) biweekly parent education workshop and (b) weekly individual parent session. Results are discussed in terms of parents’ involvement in their children’s learning across settings, components in parent training curriculum, and parenting repertoires.
The Effects of a Parent Education Training Package on the Acquisition of Parenting Skills and Their Children’s Learning.
BARBARA KIMMEL (Fred S. Keller School), Lynn Yuan (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a parent training package which emphasized teaching parents to identify appropriate skills of a target repertoire for students with developmental disabilities was investigated. The training package included parents’ mastery of correct observation of teacher’s delivery of instruction in classrooms and mastery of identifying three-term contingencies via videotape of a parent delivering instruction at home. After the mastery of the training package, post-experimental probe was conducted on: a) How many appropriate behaviors of particular target skill the parents could identify, (b) children's mastery of the appropriate behaviors within a particular target skill, and (c) parents’ generalization of identifying appropriate skills across other target behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of parents’ understanding of three-term-contingencies, observational learning, and effective parenting repertoires.
CABAS Parent Education: Increasing Child Compliance via Parental Emission of Unflawed Commands and Contingent Consequations.
ARA J. BAHADOURIAN (Lehman College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: This study examined the efficacy of the parent education/training program of the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS) model in increasing rates of child compliance. Five parents of children attending a CABAS special needs preschool received both didactic instruction and home-based in vivo training in the use of unflawed antecedent commands and contingent consequations (including verbal and physical positive reinforcement, planned ignoring, and physical follow-through) during weekly toy playing, sharing and clean up sessions with their siblings. The study incorporated a multiple probe design using five parents who started receiving parent training on different days, resulting in a variation of a delayed multiple baseline across subjects design. Results indicated that rates of child compliance increased for all five children as a function of parental expertise in emitting unflawed commands and providing contingent consequations for their children.
Symposium #160
CE Offered: BACB
Translational Research on Choice Responding
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Betsy A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
CE Instructor: Wayne W. Fisher, Ph.D.

Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their responding among available response options. In this symposium, a series of translational studies ranging from basic to applied are presented that show how variables that affect choice responding, such as reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality, can be quantified and manipulated to improve our understanding of behavior and inform clinical assessments and interventions.

Human Risky Choice in an Adjusting-Delay Procedure.
CHRISTOPHER E. BULLOCK (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Timothy D. Hackenberg (University of Florida), Patrick S. Johnson (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Participants were exposed to a discrete-trial choice procedure in which responding on either of two response options produced 30 s of video access after some delay. For one option (risky choice), the video was delivered after a delay, the length of which was randomly selected from 2 preset values. For the other option, the video was delivered after a delay that was set at 1 s at the beginning of a condition and was thereafter adjusted as a function of choice. Sessions consisted of 20 trials, arranged in blocks of 4. The first 2 trials of each block were comprised of forced exposure to each option followed by 2 choice trials. If the risky-choice option was selected twice, the delay to the adjusting option decreased by 2 s for the following block of trials. If the adjusting option was chosen twice, then the delay produced by this option increased by 2 s for the following block of trials. If each option was chosen once, the delay to the adjusting option was not changed. That is, within a condition the delay value of the adjusting option varied while the risky-choice delays were held constant. However, across conditions the delay values of the risky-choice option were varied (1, 59; 10, 50; 20, 40; 30, 30) while holding the arithmetic average constant. The value of the adjusting delay at which a participant was indifferent between the two options depended on the specific delay values that comprised the risky option. In some cases the delay at which indifference occurred was ordered with respect to the smaller delay of the risky-choice option. The data are discussed in terms of the feasibility of hyperbolic-delay discounting to account for the findings.
Applied Explorations on the Relation between Effort and Relative Stimulus Value.
ISER GUILLERMO DELEON (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Gregory A. Lieving (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa J. Allman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Lisa M. Toole (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David M. Richman (University of Illinois)
Abstract: Recent research with non-humans has suggested that the relative value of stimuli can be influenced by the effort required to earn reinforcers associated with those stimuli (Clement & Zentall, 2003; Friedrich & Zentall, 2004). Generally, these studies have observed a shift in preference towards stimuli (e.g., key colors, feeder locations) associated with reinforcers earned through greater effort over stimuli associated with reinforcers earned through lesser effort when relative effort is later equated during preference tests. The current series of studies was designed to explore this phenomenon in relation to (1) preferences for qualitatively distinct reinforcers themselves rather than the stimuli associated with those reinforcers, in children with developmental disabilities; and (2) sensitivity to response cost (i.e., contingent loss of reinforcers) for stimuli earned through greater versus lesser effort in college students. In Experiment 1, children’s preferences for reinforcers, as measured by standard preference assessments, generally increased as a function of effort required to obtain them and decreased when those reinforcers required no effort to obtain them. In Experiment 2, a similar preparation was used to alter food preferences for a child with highly selective eating patterns. In Experiment 3, college students’ sensitivity to loss of stimuli exchangeable for money was an increasing function of the effort required to earn them. The results from these experiments extend the basic findings to humans in more naturalistic settings and stimuli. Taken together, the results have broad applied and conceptual significance in the characterization of the dynamics between behavior and consequences.
Examination of Choice Responding in the Development of Treatments for Destructive Behavior.
HENRY S. ROANE (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Ashley C. Glover (The Marcus Institute), Robert-Ryan S. Pabico (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Translational research involves the extension of laboratory findings to clinical populations and problems. One such extension is the use of concurrent-operant arrangements to evaluate preference for different reinforcers (Fisher & Mazur, 1997). Most reinforcement-based treatments for destructive behavior can be interpreted as a choice paradigm in which response allocation is based upon factors such as response effort, the schedule of reinforcement, and the quality of reinforcement. In this presentation, we will present cases in which treatments for destructive behavior were conceptualized as a choice arrangement (i.e., appropriate behavior and destructive behavior resulted in different reinforcers). Each case will be discussed in terms of the variables that affected response allocation. For all datasets, reliability data were collected with two independent observers for over 30% of sessions and was over 90%. Results will suggest the manner in which the availability of multiple reinforcers in a choice paradigm affects the efficacy of reinforcement-based interventions for destructive behavior. These results will be discussed in terms of practical considerations that are associated with the use of multiple reinforcers when developing treatments.
Competition between Positive and Negative Reinforcement.
WAYNE W. FISHER (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Joanna Lomas (The Marcus Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: Results of previous studies (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999) showing that participants chose alternative behavior maintained by positive reinforcement over destructive behavior maintained by negative reinforcement may have been due to (a) a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or (b) the positive reinforcer acting as an motivating operation (MO) that altered the aversiveness of the demands. In Experiment 1 of the current investigation, we maintained an escape contingency while introducing and withdrawing a concurrent schedule of noncontingent positive reinforcement (food delivered on an FT schedule). For both participants, noncontingent positive reinforcement acted as an MO and lowered escape-reinforced destructive behavior. In Experiment 2, we compared the relative effects of positive and negative reinforcement using equivalent communication responses under both a restricted-choice condition (in which participants could choose positive or negative reinforcement, but not both) and an unrestricted-choice condition (in which the participants could choose one or both reinforcers). Both participants chose positive over negative reinforcement in the restricted-choice condition (indicating a preference for positive reinforcement). However, in the unrestricted-choice condition (in which participants could choose one or both reinforcers), one participant chose both reinforcers, indicating that motivation for escape was not abolished. In contrast, the other primarily chose only positive reinforcement, indicating that for this participant, the positive reinforcer acted primarily as an MO and lessened the effectiveness of the escape contingency. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of positive reinforcement on escape-reinforced problem behavior.
Symposium #161
CE Offered: BACB
Treatment Outcome for Children with Autism: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Douglas A
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.

To date, there are few studies that report the long-term effects of applied behavior analysis treatment with children with autism ( e.g. Lovaas, 1987; Mceachin et al., 1993; Harris & Handleman, 2000; Sallows & Groupner, 2005).These studies have focused on variables such as classroom placement, IQ scores from standardized tests, and other such measures to infer treatment efficacy. There is little information on behavioral variables of treatment outcome for children with autism. In addition, few studies have provided a longitudinal analysis of treatment efficacy with follow-up many years after treatment completion. The present study presents preliminary findings of longitudinal evaluation of treatment outcome of 10 children with autism over a span of 15 years. Data were collected on behavioral measures, four appropriate behaviors and four inappropriate behaviors, during six month intervals on the waiting list for treatment at the Claremont Autism Center, during treatment, and after treatment for up to 15 years post-treatment. Thus, a multiple baseline design across children was used to assess the efficacy of the behavioral treatment at the Center, and the children who started their treatment at under 6 years of age were followed well into their 20s. In this symposium, we will present the importance of longitudinal analysis with children with autism, our methodology and treatment efficacy variables, and findings from our initial 10 children analyzed in terms of concrete behavioral measures.

Longitudinal Treatment Outcome Analysis: Where’s the Data?
KARI BERQUIST (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Sarah Kuriakose (Pomona College), Melanie Jira (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: From a perspective of treating children with autism, only one treatment approach has provided the field with hard data to show treatment efficacy; this is the approach of applied behavior analysis. While this is the case (e.g Lovaas, 1987; Mceachin et al., 1993; Harris & Handleman, 2000; Sallows & Groupner, 2005), it has only been recently that applied behavior analysis has proliferated the autism treatment world. There are few studies that have actually been done evaluating general treatment effectiveness of the ABA approach. If ABA is going to continue to propose its superiority in the treatment world due to empirical investigation, then we are going to need to provide the treatment world with more than a few major large scale studies providing our evidence. In this presentation, the importance of evaluation of treatment outcome is emphasized. As well, the ease of adding an infrastructure to treatment programs to provide such evaluation variables is provided.
A Cost Efficient Way to Do Longitudinal Treatment Outcome Evaluation.
GINA T. CHANG (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Sarah Kuriakose (Pomona College), Melanie Jira (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: Over the course of 20 years, data have been collected in order to analyze treatment efficacy of a treatment program designed for children with autism and their families. The treatment facility provided direct one-on-one and small group behavioral services as well as incidental teaching procedures. Parent training was a part of the program. The treatment evaluation began while the families were on the waiting list for the program. The target child was video taped in various conditions with various family members and clinic personnel every sex months during the waiting list pretreatment time, during treatment, and after termination of treatment until the child was around 25 years old. Independent measures and dependent measures will be presented in this part of the symposium. Operational definitions of our measures will be explained. Reliability observer training will be discussed and reliability coefficients will be presented.
Some Longitudinal Treatment Outcomes: A Preliminary Report on the Progression of Speech and Play in Children with Autism over 15 Years.
SARAH KURIAKOSE (Pomona College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Melanie Jira (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: Ten children who participated in an ABA treatment program beginning at the age of 5 or 6 for approximately 3 years had follow-up data collected for up to 15 years post-treatment. During this time, the children were videotaped in several conditions every 6 months to determine the course their treatment had on their behaviors. During the no treatment waiting list, the children had low frequencies of both play and speech. During treatment, gains in both speech and play were made. Of interest, is the course of the treatment gains of speech and play. Initially, the majority of the 10 children made the most progress in play, with more subtle progress in speech. However, when speech was acquired, it began to take the place of play, and as the child aged, the child demonstrated higher frequencies of speech and lower frequencies of play. We believe this crossover of speech and play demonstrates an age appropriate phenomonon. The results are discussed in terms of covariation of behaviors over time.
Additional Longitudinal Treatment Outcomes: A Preliminary Look at the Occurrence of Four Appropriate and Four Inappropriate Behaviors of Ten Children with Autism over 15 Years.
DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (Claremont Graduate University), Sarah Kuriakose (Pomona College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Melanie Jira (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: This symposium was designed to present the rationale, the method, and some early findings of our 20 program evaluation of our treatment program or children with autism and their families. We are presenting initial results obtained from scoring video tapes of the first 10 children who participated in treatment center. This specific presentation will present an overview of some early findings. Specifically, four appropriate and four inappropriate behaviors will be tracked for 10 children with autism before, during, and after their treatment. These results will be helpful for us to learn about the long term effects of treatment as well as some of the implications. Discussion of the limitations of the method used will also be provided.
Symposium #163
CE Offered: BACB
Using Self-Monitoring to Improve Safety and Health-Related Behaviors
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Emma AB
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nicole E. Gravina (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Eric J. Fox (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: John Austin, Ph.D.

Three data-based research studies examining the use of self monitoring for improving health and safety related behaviors will be presented. The first two studies will each present data examining the parameters of self-monitoring as an intervention for improving postural safety. The last study will demonstrate the use of a self-monitoring program in an actual organization to improve the health and safety-related behaviors of long haul truck drivers. Finally, our discussant will discuss the potential behavioral mechanisms underlying self-monitoring from a relational frame theory perspective.

Improving Postural Safety Using Intensive Accuracy Training and Self-Monitoring.
SHANNON M. LOEWY (Western Michigan University), Nicole E. Gravina (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The proposed presentation will discuss the data and results from a study that was a follow-up to the study completed by Gravina in 2006. Gravina obtained mixed results for the efficacy of self-monitoring of postural safety. The follow-up study sought to examine the effects of adding an intensive accuracy-training component to self-monitoring. A multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate the safety performance of three college undergraduate participants performing a typing and assembly task. Stronger and more consistent results were observed for all three participants compared to previous research. The findings, implications of these findings, and needs for further research will be discussed.
The Effects of Extending the Self-Monitoring Schedule to a More Reasonable Rate.
NICOLE E. GRAVINA (Western Michigan University), Yueng-hsiang (Emily) Huang (Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety), Michelle Robertson (Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety), Michael Blair (Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to extend the findings of the first study in the symposium to determine if self-monitoring would maintain improvements in postural safety when the self-monitoring schedule was extended to a more reasonable rate. This study took place in an analogue office setting and participants completed typing tasks for 30-minute blocks. Self-monitoring was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Results indicated that, for postures who improved during the initial 2 min self-monitoring schedule, improvements maintained when the schedule was extended to 15 min. Most participants reported that self-monitoring on a 15 min schedule was reasonable. Results, implications, and future research will be discussed.
Commercial Truck Drivers Increase Physical Activity Levels through Self-Management Activities.
RYAN B. OLSON (Oregon Health and Science University), Aubrey Buckert (Portland State University)
Abstract: Line-haul commercial truck drivers (n=9) participated in a self-management intervention to increase physical activity. Intervention components included health feedback, goal setting, self-monitoring steps, and self-reinforcement. Changes in physical activity were measured with omni-directional accelerometers (Actical by Minimitter) within a repeated measures AB design. Five of the nine drivers showed average improvements in dependent measures with group average increases of 89 kcals and 1525 steps per day (d gain = 0.6 and 1.1 respectively). Drivers’ reported perceived increases in physical activity and changes to non-targeted dietary behaviors, such as quitting soda consumption. The results are impressive due to drivers’ long work hours and limited physical activity options, and highlight the value of self-management activities and accelerometer methods within health promotion studies.
Symposium #164
CE Offered: BACB
Verbal Behavior: Experimental Evaluations and Conceptual Analyses
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Elizabeth B
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Barbara E. Esch (Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Barbara E. Esch, None

This symposium presents two empirical studies and two conceptual papers on issues related to Skinners analysis of verbal behavior. Results are presented for (1) an investigation of procedural modifications of the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure and the role of automatic reinforcement in establishing speech as a conditioned reinforcer and (2) a study on generalization of mands for information across establishing operations. A third paper presents a behavioral interpretation of the etiology and intervention for aphasia by providing a taxonomy of the disorder based upon observed deficit relations. The final paper discusses transfer of stimulus control across verbal operants, reviews variables that increase procedural efficiency, and concludes with a discussion of stimulus blocking and multiple control.

The Role of Automatic Reinforcement in Early Speech Acquisition.
BARBARA E. ESCH (Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children who emit few speech vocalizations and whose echoic repertoires are weak are at an instructional disadvantage for speech acquisition. Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) has been shown to produce temporary increases, possibly attributable to automatic reinforcement, in post-pairing vocalizations (e.g., Yoon & Bennett, 2000), thus allowing subsequent direct reinforcement of these responses as verbal operants. Although the behavioral principles supporting an automatic reinforcement role in SSP are well established, empirical support for SSP is not robust (e.g., Esch, Carr, & Michael, 2005; Miguel, Carr, & Michael, 2002), calling into question the ability of SSP to establish speech as a conditioned reinforcer. This study presents empirical results of SSP procedural modifications that produced increases in within-session vocalizations that were subsequently directly reinforced as mands. The separate and combined contributions of these modifications are discussed in the context of the role of automatic reinforcement of speech responses.
Generalization of Mands for Information across Establishing Operations.
SARAH A. LECHAGO (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University), Jessa R. Love (Western Michigan University), Season Almason (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism display significant impairments in communication, which can range from the total absence of vocal behavior to nonfunctional vocal behavior (e.g., echolalia). Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior articulates a number of operants, each under the control of a specific array of stimuli. The mand is verbal behavior under the control of the relevant establishing operation and which specifies its own reinforcer. For example, water deprivation serves as a relevant establishing operation for the mand for water. The state of water deprivation specifies water as the reinforcer. The ability to mand is important to an individual’s development for learning the names of stimuli and individuals, more effective interaction with the environment, and appropriate social interactions with others. This study seeks to extend the developing literature on teaching mands by systematically assessing whether they will generalize across different establishing operations. Each participant was taught to perform three behavior chains which all included a common response form (“Where is the cup?”) used for different purposes. An interrupted behavior chain procedure was used to contrive a different establishing operation for each. After a mand was taught during one interrupted chain, the remaining chains were interrupted to determine whether the mand generalized across different establishing operations. Data will be presented for mands for objects, as well as mands for information.
Conceptualizing Aphasia Using a Behavior Analytic Model.
JONATHAN C. BAKER (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University), Paige Raetz (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 2 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of the etiology and intervention for aphasia is also possible. Skinner’s (1957) book, Verbal Behavior, proposes a framework of verbal operants that we combine with Sidman’s work on stimulus equivalence in aphasia research to describe the language difficulties individuals with aphasia experience. Using this combination of models, we propose a new taxonomy of aphasia based on the observed deficit relations (i.e., stimulus/stimulus, stimulus/response, and response/response). Treatment implications based on this new taxonomy are discussed.
Transfer of Stimulus Control and Verbal Behavior.
TRACI M. CIHON (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Transfer of stimulus control can be used to establish a response under new stimulus control after it has been brought under discriminative control. This has been used as a mechanism for establishing verbal behavior under new sources of stimulus control. This paper reviews the basic research on transfer of stimulus control, noting the variables that increase the efficiency of the procedures. Articles that focus on transfer of stimulus control across verbal operants are emphasized. The review concludes with a discussion of stimulus blocking, multiple control, and suggestions for future research.
Panel #165
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analyst Certification Board: New Developments and Requirements
Sunday, May 27, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Randle D
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Gerald L. Shook, Ph.D.
Chair: Gerald L. Shook (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
JAMES M. JOHNSTON (Auburn University)
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University)
GERALD L. SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
CHRISTINE L. RATCLIFF (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)

Behavior Analyst Certification Board: New Developments & Requirements The meeting will address important developments within the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) relating to growth and changes in the BACB including: new continuing education and recertification requirements, new professional experience and supervisor requirements, university coursework approval and new university practica approval, new examination administration procedures, new ethics requirements for certificants, new specialty credentials, and disciplinary standards. The presentation also will focus on development of the BACB in the future, particularly as it relates to International development, and will explore the possible role of BACB certifications and certificants in the US and abroad.

Symposium #174
CE Offered: BACB
Contributions of the Basic, Applied, and Conceptual Analysis of Behavior to Headsprout Program Design
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
Chair: T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
CE Instructor: T. V. Joe Layng, Ph.D.

This symposium will address how all aspects of the scientific study of behavior are utilized to build effective instructional programs. Though often thought of as applied work, designing effective instruction requires the application of experimentally derived principles from the laboratory, the application of useful techniques from applied settings, the direct experimental controlanalysis of behavior, and the interpretation and analysis of complex behavioral relations. Symposium participants will address a fundamental area important to Headsprout's success, and discuss the contribution of basic, applied, and conceptual analysis in each of the areas described.

Basic, Applied, and Conceptual Behavior Analysis Contributions to Instructional Content Analysis.
MARTA LEON (Headsprout), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: The conceptual treatment of language and other aspects of behavior, as provided by Skinner, Wittgenstein, & Goldiamond, are crucial to Headsprout’s discovery of what is needed to be taught and how one might approach teaching it: a content analysis. The process by which we analyze the repertoires, contingencies, etc. involved in programming the acquisition/development of an intellectual or affective repertoire will be described and the ramifications for a more thorough contingency analytic approach to instructional design discussed.
Basic, Applied, and Conceptual Behavior Analysis Contributions to Instructional Design and Development.
MELINDA SOTA (Florida State University and Headsprout), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: Instructional design at Headsprout draws directly from the literature of instructional design, with special emphasis on the contributions of Susan M. Markle and Philip W. Tiemann. Both their approaches to content analysis and instructional design inform the work done at Headsprout. Their foundation is in turn supplemented by a direct application of the laboratory investigation of errorless programing and transfer, selective attention, the analysis of alternative stimulus control topographies, psychophysics, instructional & abstractional control as described by Goldiamond (1966), and concept analysis, among others. How these coalesce to produce instructional strategies will be described and the implications for a comprehensive analysis of behavioral instruction discussed.
Basic, Applied, and Conceptual Behavior Analysis Contributions to User Testing.
APRIL HEIMLICH (Headsprout), Hirofumi Shimizu (Headsprout), Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
Abstract: User testing, also known as formative evaluation, at Headsprout occurs with one student at a time for extended periods of time. The similarities to the conditions often found in the operant laboratory are not coincidental. The goal of user testing is to provide experimental control–analysis data as a basis for program revision in order to provide the targeted guidance of learner behavior. Not only are program elements tested, but also the results may provide insights in the relationship of behavior to its environment. This of course overlaps the laboratory. Where it diverges from the laboratory is in its goal of providing procedures that as rapidly and effectively as possible build a repertoire to a target. These similarities and differences provide the topic of discussion for this presentation.
Basic, Applied, and Conceptual Behavior Analysis Contributions to Program Implementation.
JENNIFER D. CLAYTON (Headsprout), Brian Walton (Headsprout), Deborah Anne Haas (Headsprout), Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
Abstract: Careful program implementation is critical to the success of any instructional program. In the case of Headsprout's programs this includes the learner's behavior, the teacher (or parent's) behavior, and the behavior of those who may have an impact on the success of the program, including principals, reading coordinators, lab mangers, technical support staff, etc. No matter how well designed a program is, the role of these individuals cannot be overlooked if the the program is to be successful. This presentation will describe Headsprout's approach to encouraging the behaviors required to ensure a good implementation. This approach includes, a commitment to a simple easy-to-use program, carefully constructed job aids and user guides, proactive customer support, training & just-in-time professional development, and an ongoing contingency analysis that assumes that all stake-holder behaviors are sensible operants that are a function of the current alternative sets of contingencies operating to select those behaviors. Implementation strategies designed in accord with this approach will be discussed.
Symposium #175
CE Offered: BACB
Enhancing Quality of Life among People with Severe Disabilities and Their Support Staff
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center, Ltd.)
CE Instructor: Dennis H. Reid, Ph.D.

This symposium will present three studies on behavioral applications for enhancing quality of life among people with severe disabilities and their support staff. The first study will describe a systematic procedure for using verbal reports of support staff to identify indices of happiness and unhappiness among nonvocal adults with autism, and then observational and choice procedures to validate the reports. Results indicated the procedures reliably identified happiness/unhappiness indicators among adults with autism who lacked conventional means of expressing their emotions. The second study will describe a means of assessing nonpreferred work tasks among support staff, and then altering the tasks by pairing them with preferred activities to make the tasks more desirable. Results indicated the behavioral pairing procedures enhanced the preferred nature of disliked tasks among all four participating staff. The third study will describe a means of maintaining desired work behavior among staff by focusing on enhancing the self-reinforcing nature of the staffs appropriate work performance. Overall, results of three studies indicate how behavioral procedures can be applied in socially important areas such as quality of life that are often considered to be outside of the realm of applied behavior analysis.

Identifying and Validating Indices of Happiness and Unhappiness among Nonvocal Adults with Autism.
LINDSEY P. LATTIMORE (J. Iverson Riddle Center), Marsha B. Parsons (J. Iverson Riddle Center), Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center, Ltd.)
Abstract: An area of recent interest in behavior analysis is identifying indices of happiness among people with severe disabilities who cannot readily express the private states of happiness and unhappiness. This investigation evaluated use of behavioral indices of happiness developed in research with people with severe cognitive disabilities as a means of identifying happiness indices among people with severe autism in addition to cognitive disabilities. Following results showing the measures to inconsistently reflect the private state of happiness, a behavioral assessment procedure was evaluated specifically for adults with autism who have unique challenges with displaying emotional or affective behavior. The procedure, relying on opinions of familiar support staff, was validated by observing reported happiness and unhappiness indices during situations reported to promote the two types of indices respectively, and then providing choices of activities that occasioned happiness and unhappiness indices. Results indicated that participants consistently chose activities that were accompanied by happiness indices over activities accompanied by indices of unhappiness. These results suggest the behavioral assessment strategy reliably identified valid indicators of happiness and unhappiness, which in turn could be used to promote more happiness among adults with autism.
Enhancing Quality of Staff Work Life: Making Disliked Job Tasks More Preferred.
CAROLYN W. GREEN (J. Iverson Riddle Center), Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center, Ltd.)
Abstract: A procedure for making disliked work tasks more preferred for direct support staff was evaluated with four staff in a residential facility. Initially, staff preferences for specific work tasks that constituted their primary job duties were assessed through systematic preference assessments involving ratings and rankings of the tasks. Subsequently, the most nonpreferred task for each staff person was altered by pairing the task with preferred activities of each staff person. Results of a multiple probe design involving repeated preference assessments (staff ratings and rankings of work tasks) indicated the pairing procedure was accompanied by increased preferences for previously disliked work tasks for each of the participating staff persons. For two of the staff persons, the two most nonpreferred tasks became highly preferred following the pairing procedure. Results are discussed regarding means of enhancing one aspect of quality of work life among direct support staff, and the implications of improved work life on staff retention and overall service provision.
Living Quality Lives: A Methodology for Maintenance.
MARTIN THOMAS IVANCIC (J. Iverson Riddle Center)
Abstract: Direct contingencies used in training work skills to support staff may include a stimulus control that is inappropriate for maintaining acquired behavior outside of the presence of the staff supervisor. This presentation will describe research showing how indirect contingencies, that involve staff contact with appropriate work behavior outside the moment of its occurrence, can function to maintain newly trained work skills. Such contingencies (e.g., privately written comments, publicly posted comments, modeling, and talking about the behavior out loud) can increase staff contact with information about appropriate responding outside the presence of the supervisor. Supplementing training with indirect contingencies may not only promote maintenance of behavior change but also self-reinforcement through what is commonly referred to as personal or shared pride about work performance. Results of a multiple baseline design support such an interpretation by showing maintained staff performance using indirect contingencies. Results are discussed in regard to using indirect contingencies to impact desirable work performance and enhance staff quality of work life overall.
Symposium #176
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing Capacity for an RTI Model in the Inland Empire through Graduate Student Research
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Gretchen Jefferson (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
Discussant: Mack D. Burke (Texas A&M University)
CE Instructor: Gretchen Jefferson, Ph.D.

School psychology trainers rely on collaboration with community schools to provide authentic field experiences to promote meaningful outcomes for candidates. As education administrators consider the assessment practice alternatives offered in IDEA 2004, school psychology candidates also serve as a resource for training educators, developing and managing student assessment data, and providing micro and macro level evaluations of student achievement outcomes. The findings from student research collaborations between the Eastern Washington University School Psychology Masters Program and area schools are presented in this symposium. The three studies presented support the utility of CBM in educational decisions in a rural elementary and middle school and an assessment of the degree to which educators utilize these data in daily practice. Replication studies of CBM Reading, Math Computation, and Written Expression quarterly performance as predictors of statewide achievement test performance in Washington State were conducted for elementary and middle schools in the same rural district. Results indicate that CBM was a significant predictor of performance on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), with CBM Reading the most significant determinant of WASL success. The final study indicates that educators utilize CBM data regularly in screening and inclusion decisions and progress reporting situations.

CBM as a Predictor of WASL Performance for Rural Fourth Grade Students.
MICHELLE MACE (Eastern Washington University), Gretchen Jefferson (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Greg Swartz (Deer Park School District)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) performance predicted Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) performance for Grade 4 students in a rural Inland Northwest elementary school. Participants included 673 Grade 4 students who were administered CBM Reading, Math Computation, Written Expression, and Spelling measures in Fall, Winter, and Spring of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 school years and who were administered the WASL in the Spring of those same years. Linear regression analyses indicated that CBM Reading, Math Computation, and Written Expression measures predicted performance on the corresponding WASL subtests. Chi-square analyses determined CBM cut scores for passing status on each WASL subtest. Findings are discussed in the context of current federal legislation mandating adequate academic progress for all students.
CBM as a Predictor of WASL Performance for Rural Middle School Students.
SARAH REIBER (Eastern Washington University/Sunnyside School District), Gretchen Jefferson (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Greg Swartz (Deer Park School District)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess whether Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) performance predicted student performance on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) for 360 seventh-grade students attending a rural middle school in the Inland Northwest. Linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that CBM Reading (WRC), Math Computation (CD), and Written Expression (CWS) measures were significant predictors of WASL Reading, Math, and Written Expression performance, respectively, during fall, winter, and spring quarters of the academic year. The predictive relation between CBM Written Expression (CWS) and WASL Writing was the strongest during each quarter.
Educator Perceptions of the Utility of CBM Normative Data.
JAMIE PETERSON (Mead School District), Gretchen Jefferson (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Anna Fritts (Spokane Public Schools ), Greg Swartz (Deer Park School District)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which general and special education teachers from three inland northwest schools understand Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) applications, use CBM norm data, and desire further training about the application of CBM data to make educational decisions for general and special education students. A cross-sectional survey design, yielding the frequency distributions and corresponding percentages of each answer, indicated that a significant percentage of teachers across these schools understand CBM applications and are regularly utilizing CBM normative data in classroom decision-making. In addition, the majority of teachers would be interested in receiving further training to learn how to use CBM in various ways to benefit their students.
Symposium #178
CE Offered: BACB
Extensions of Functional Analysis Methodology
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Betsy A
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Brian A. Iwata, Ph.D.

Research presented in this symposium will illustrate methodological extensions of functional analysis procedures, including naturalistic (classroom) application and assessment of high-intensity and low-frequency problem behavior, as well as clinical extension to self-injurious behavior in a specific genetic disorder (Prader-Willi Syndrome).

Evaluation of a Trial-Based Approach to Functional Analysis in Classroom Settings.
SARAH ELIZABETH BLOOM (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Florida), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Abbey Carreau (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Results of a previous study (Sigafoos & Saggers, 1995) suggested that a trial-based approach to functional analysis, which could be conducted in the classroom, might be a viable way to identify reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. However, due to the small N, the limited assessment conditions that were included, and the absence of a comparison with an acceptable standard, the generality of findings remains unclear. We evaluated a modified, trial based functional analysis (TBFA) by comparing its results with those of a more typical functional analysis in assessing problem behaviors exhibited by 10 students. Results indicated a 40%-70% correspondence rate (depending on how much data were taken during the TBFA) and suggest that the TBFA may be a viable assessment method when resources to conduct a standard functional analysis are unavailable.
An Empirical Approach for Identifying Precursors to Problem Behavior.
JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Sarah Elizabeth Bloom (University of Florida), Jennifer Lynn Hammond (University of Florida), Carrie M. Dempsey (University of Florida)
Abstract: Results of several studies have shown that some individuals engage in multiple problem behavior and that some topographies reliably precede the occurrence of others (i.e., the responses are hierarchically ordered members of a response class). The initial identification of “precursor” behaviors, however, has been based on caregiver verbal report or informal observations, which may be prone to errors due to poor reliability, inadequate sampling, etc. We evaluated an empirical method for identifying precursors to problem behavior based on the use of descriptive analysis, whose strength is the identification of correlational relations. We developed a standard set of definitions for 7 clusters of potential precursors that accommodated a wide range of response topographies (approximately 20) in addition to the participant’s target behavior and collected data on the occurrence of all topographies under varied naturalistic conditions. Based on results of conditional probability analyses, functional analyses were conducted on selected “precursor” topographies and subsequently on the target problem behavior. Results indicated that problem behaviors were, in fact, typically preceded by specific response topographies, which shared the same function as the problem behavior.
Functional Analysis of Low-Rate Problem Behavior.
NATALIE ROLIDER (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Erin Camp (University of Florida), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Florida)
Abstract: Problem behavior that occurs rarely presents a special challenge for both assessment and treatment. We evaluated a model for altering standard functional analysis conditions after initial results yielded undifferentiated, low-rate responding. Variables that may increase low-rate behavior were identified and systematically manipulated during social-reinforcement sessions. (a) Noncontingent attention and tangible items were delivered to peer confederates during sessions while the participant was ignored (combined establishing operations). (b) Consequences were delivered for longer durations (enhanced reinforcer characteristics). (c) Participants were given access to attention and preferred tangibles during the escape interval of demand conditions (combined contingencies). (d) An additional manipulation involved conducting longer sessions (increased exposure to contingencies). Functional analysis sessions were conducted until differentiated rates of responding were observed in one or more of the modified conditions. In some cases, a further analysis of the idiosyncratic variables influencing participants’ responding was conducted. Results are discussed in terms of implications for the treatment of problem behavior that occurs at low rates.
Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behavior in the Prader-Willi Syndrome.
PAMELA L. NEIDERT (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Claudia L. Dozier (University of Florida), Jessica L. Thomason (University of Florida)
Abstract: It has been noted that individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) often engage in self-injurious behavior. The most commonly reported form of SIB is skin picking (Dykens & Shah, 2003). In the current study, we established the prevalence, frequency, and severity of SIB in individuals with PWS by way of a structured questionnaire sent to all providers registered with the National Prader-Willi Syndrome Association of the USA. Second, we conducted experimental analyses to identify the functional characteristics of SIB in a sample of PWS individuals. Results are discussed in terms of form and function of SIB in individuals with PWS, as well as the implications these findings have for treatment development.
Symposium #180
CE Offered: BACB
Instructional Design in Behavior Analysis: What's New?
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Ford AB
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.

This symposium provides an update, including demonstrations and data, on 18 of the most recent and exciting instructional design projects occurring in our field. Many areas of interest will be represented including higher education, staff development, instructional design for children, design methodology, and dissemination of good instructional design.

Instructional Design Methodology.
BRADLEY G. FRIESWYK (BGF Performance Systems, LLC.), Matthew L. Porritt (Western Michigan University), Carl V. Binder (Binder Riha Associates), Guy S. Bruce (Appealing Solutions, LLC.)
Abstract: Topics will include instructional designer as content expert, incorporating active responding in screencasts, measuring interactivity with opportunity multipliers, and measuring learning efficiency.
Instructional Design in Staff Development.
JOHN W. ESHLEMAN (Optimal Instructional Systems), Jessica M. Ray (University of Central Florida), Vicci Tucci (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Abstract: 3 computer-based teaching systems will be demonstrated, with supporting data.
Instructional Design Dissemination, Instructional Design for Children.
RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.), Richard K. Fleming (University of Massachusetts Medical School), John E. Humphrey (Cedar Rapids Schools)
Abstract: Topics will include analyzing the contingencies of dissemination, influence, acceptance, and sustainability; an online course for parents of children with autism, and the effects of Headsprout Early Reading on kindergartners' reading performance.
Symposium #183
CE Offered: BACB
New Developments and Data from STARS and Behavior Analysts, Inc.
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth B
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Discussant: James W. Partington (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Pamela G. Osnes, Ph.D.

Behavior Analysts, Inc. (BAI) provides behavior analysis services to families and school districts in the San Francisco Bay areas. BAI uniquely utilizes B.F. Skinner's verbal behavior conceptualization to assist in the development of the verbal repertoires of individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. This symposium will describe the new procedural implementations and tracking systems at BAI and its STARS School, with exemplary data presented.

STARS School: Acquisition and Generalization Programming in Sessions and Beyond.
JOEL VIDOVIC (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Kanako Yamamoto (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Gwen Dwiggins (The Ohio State University), Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will describe the services provided at the Strategic Teaching and Reinforcement Systems (STARS) classroom of Behavior Analysts, Inc., a non-public school that serves children with autism. Included will be processes by which the Assessment of Basic Language and Learner Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R) is administered within the context of a dynamic classroom environment, is used to develop IEP goals, and the data collection system which is used to track student progress. A description of STARS' increased emphasis on instruction in the natural environment will be provided, with examples provided regarding the process by which instruction is integrated between 1:2 teaching sessions and instruction in more naturalistic settings to include generalization programming within the context of initial skill instruction.
Parents: Start Teaching and Reinforcing Today (START)!
JULIA H. FIEBIG (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: Start Teaching and Reinforcing Today (START) is the parent education division of Behavior Analysts, Inc. START is designed to facilitate parent participation through session observations, structured teaching exercises, and homework strategies. Parents receive initial instruction to use applied behavior analysis methods to address their children’s verbal and behavioral needs. In addition, they receive instruction in foundations of behavior analysis and basic verbal operants in a 16-session, 32-hr sequence that provides individualized instruction to meet their children’s and family’s needs. Homework strategies are outlined in QuickTips, the written curriculum accompanying the 16-session sequence. Data are collected on parent implementation of procedures and on the child’s verbal skills.
School Consultation via STARS Model Classrooms.
KATHLEEN MULCAHY (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Carmen Claire Martin (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Julia H. Fiebig (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), James W. Partington (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will describe the services provided by the Integrated Sites (IS) component of Behavior Analysts, Inc. IS oversees STARS model classrooms in the San Francisco Bay area by providing consultation on the use of the ABLLS-R and IEP development, behavior management, staff training, and other related services. This presentation will discuss the need for the strategic development of a sequence of classrooms in the public school setting designed to meet the multiple needs of children ranging in ages from pre-school to upper elementary school diagnosed with autism. The programs’ focus ranges from intensive programs emphasizing a verbal behavior model of instruction to teaching in small group settings and generalizing acquired skills to the natural environment.
Symposium #185
CE Offered: BACB
Outcome Data from a Variety of Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Douglas A
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Paul Coyne Coyne (Coyne & Associates, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Paul Coyne Coyne, Ph.D.

Outcome data from a several Early Intervention Programs for children with autism are presented: 1) Coyne et. al., discusses their ABA based in-home program serving children younger than three years old. Participants gained significantly more than controls; program duration (age when enrolled) was a better predictor of success than total service hours; 2) Weatherly and Mallot present their use of Organizational Behavior Management methods to analyze the effects of a pre-school ABA based autism program. They examined treatment at various levels affecting the children, the families, the staff at the autism school and the people involved with behavioral treatment. Areas of focus included: discrete trial teaching, maintenance of previously acquired skills, and family life; 3) Jonaitis presents 10 years of data from the Croyden Ave School Autistic Impaired Preschool serving children 2-6 years old. One goal was to prepare children for general education kindergarten using students from Western Michigan University; and 4) Youngbauer presents data from the North LA County Regional Center ABA intervention program. The program included an integrated process of parent information, parent education, use of several competent behavioral agencies, and monitoring of services.

Outcome Data from an In-Home Early Intervention Program for Children with Autism Younger than Three Years Old.
PAUL COYNE COYNE (Coyne & Associates, Inc.), Katherine Calarco (Coyne & Associates, Inc.), Len Levin (Coyne & Associates, Inc.), M. Alice Coyne (Coyne & Associates, Inc.)
Abstract: Analysis of outcome variables (Bayley and Brigance) indicated that children receiving 12 hours per week of intervention scored significantly higher than control children at 35 months mean age. A multiple regression analysis was employed to answer the question of which better predicted performance at 35 months of age: program duration or total number of hours of intervention received. Regression results demonstrated that program duration is a better predictor of performance than total number of hours of intervention received, suggesting that early intervention is better.
A Systematic Evaluation of a Preschool Autism Intervention: Child Performance, Staff Performance, and Family Life.
NICHOLAS L. WEATHERLY (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The area of Organizational Behavior Management offers ways to analyze all levels of performance in a system to ensure continuous performance improvement. This presentation will apply this systematic evaluation method to a behavioral treatment program for preschool-aged children with autism. The evaluation systematically examines the treatment at various levels that involve the children, the families, the personnel at the autism school, and all people that are involved with the behavioral treatment. Areas of focus include the maintenance of previously acquired skills by preschool-aged children with autism, an analysis of a discrete trial training system, and the impact of skills acquired in the classroom on family life.
An Evaluation of Overall Student Progress from Discrete Trial to Kindergarten in an Autism Preschool Program.
CARMEN MAY JONAITIS (Croyden Avenue School/Kalamazoo Regional Educational Service Agency)
Abstract: The Croyden Avenue School Autistic Impaired Preschool Program consists of 4 classrooms that serve children from 2-6 years of age. This is an early intervention program for children that have been diagnosed with Autism or Early Childhood Developmental Delay. The goal of the program is to educate young children with disabilities to the best of their ability through intensive early intervention in partnership with psychology students from Western Michigan University, and when possible, prepare children to participate in a kindergarten classroom with typically developing peers. Objective data collected over the 10 years that the program has been in operation was analyzed. Surveys were used to gather parent perceptions of the value of the AI Preschool Program. This outcome study will be used to evaluate the overall effect of the program on the success of the children who have participated.
Outcome Data from the North Los Angeles County Regional Center ABA Intervention Program for Children with Autism.
JOHN YOUNGBAUER (North Los Angeles County Regional Center)
Abstract: In 2003, the North Los Angeles County Regional Center initiated an intensive ABA intervention program for children with autism. The program included an integrated process of parent information, parent education, competent behavioral agencies, and consistent monitoring of the services. The outcomes of the program are binary, that is, placement in a regular education classroom or special education class. About thirty-five percent of the children are now in regular education classrooms, however, educational placement was found to be a confounded variable often reflecting school district policies, politics, and advocacy efforts.
Symposium #189
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Organizational Behavior Management
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Emma AB
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, None

Four papers on recent research in Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) will be presented. First, the effects of a process change, feedback, and a tiered incentive system on warehouse quality were examined. The next study examined the effects of individual daily feedback and the withdrawal of disincentives on delivery errors among transit drivers (n = 45) in a national furniture distribution company. The third study examined telephone customer service behaviors in a medical clinic setting. The fourth paper used a descriptive assessment to examine the variables responsible for poor employee performance in a restaurant.

The Effects of Process Change, Feedback, and Incentive System on Quality.
KRISTIN BERGLUND (Appalachian State University), Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
Abstract: It is a well known fact that errors result in wasted time and resources (both human and capital). This study examined the effects of a process change, feedback, and a tiered incentive system on warehouse quality. Subjects were employees at a national retail furniture distribution warehouse located in the South Eastern United States. Archival records of attributed error codes were analyzed and aggregated as the measure of quality. The first intervention constituted a process change during which employees were formed into teams of between 5-9 employees and received daily and weekly performance feedback. A second intervention implemented a tiered pay for performance system in addition to the feedback from the previous phase. Results indicated a reduction in errors during the intervention phases.
The Use of Feedback and Disincentive Reversal to Decrease Delivery Errors.
MARIA MIHALIC (Appalachian State University), Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
Abstract: Delivery errors result in a negative impact on customer service and often incur rework and redelivery costs. This study examined the effects of individual daily feedback and the withdrawal of disincentives on delivery errors. The participants in this study were transit drivers (n = 45) in a national furniture distribution company. Data was collected using archival data of the error codes which were compiled and analyzed by driver for each trip over a 6 month period segmented by the interventions. The first intervention implemented was individual feedback delivered daily to each driver on their error codes for the trips completed the previous day. Driver delivery errors decreased substantially over the intervention phases.
Improving Telephone Customer Service Behaviors in a Medical Clinic Setting: A Follow-Up Study.
JULIE M. SLOWIAK (Western Michigan University), Gregory J. Madden (University of Kansas)
Abstract: As competition among health care providers increases, so does the importance of customer service. The quality of customer service affects the probability that customers will return to an organization. Appointment coordinators at a medical clinic were to provide exceptional telephone customer service. On an individual level, this included using a standard greeting and speaking in the appropriate tone of voice during the conversation. As a group, they were expected to answer every call received by their department. During a pilot study, an analysis suggested performance deficiencies resulted from weak antecedents, poor knowledge and skills, and weak performance contingencies. An intervention consisting of task clarification, goal setting, feedback, and performance contingent consequences was designed to improve these customer service behaviors. Results of the pilot study showed an increase in overall performance of four appointment coordinators. As an extension of the pilot study, similar procedures were carried out for all twenty full-time appointment coordinators at the clinic. The study employed an ABA reversal design with maintenance observations. Overall performance of all participants improved for greeting and voice tone; variable results were obtained for answering phone calls. Future research should examine whether improvements in customer service behaviors impact customer satisfaction and customer behavior.
Antecedent-Based Descriptive Analysis and Improvement of Employee Performance.
KIMBERLEY L. M. ZONNEVELD (Florida Institute of Technology), James L. Squires (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Amanda A. M. Fixsen (Florida Institute of Technology), Erica Hess (Florida Institute of Technology), Kristen Rost (Florida Institute of Technology), Ryan Curran (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: An antecedent-based descriptive analysis was used to identify the variables correlated with customer greeting and upselling by employees in a restaurant. The probability of greeting and upselling was calculated in the presence and absence of various antecedent events such as the sound of a door chime, the presence of more than 3 customers in line, the presence of a manager, more than two employees working, and more than one employee working on the production line. Greeting and upselling were as rare in the presence of the antecedent events as in their absence, suggesting that systematic manipulation of these variables would have little direct effect on the target performances. An intervention examining the separate effects of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was then evaluated using a combination multiple baseline and reversal design. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic feedback was most effective for both greeting and upselling.
Symposium #191
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Behavior Analysis: Bringing the Corporate University to Human Services
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Mohsen AB
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Chris Hakala (Western New England College)
CE Instructor: Daniel Gould, Ph.D.

The corporate university, a contemporary educational model designed to maintain an expert workforce, brings higher education opportunities into the workplace. In this model, on-site credit-bearing courses allow employees to acquire additional academic degrees and certifications. Increasingly, agencies offering behavioral services are developing programs of research and professional development that allow them to assume scholarly functions beyond housing courses. The three papers included in this symposium illustrate human service agency contributions to higher education. Topics addressed include (a) establishment of a laboratory to increase graduate students verbal fluency with behavioral principles and procedures, (b) development of a model for providing supervision required for certification that integrates classroom learning and work experiences, and (c) establishment and integration of a Ph.D. program in ABA in a human service agency.

Establishing Verbal Fluency with Basic Principles of Behavior.
MAEVE G. MEANY-DABOUL (New England Center for Children), Karen E. Gould (The May Institute, Northeastern)
Abstract: The Verbal Fluency Laboratory (VFL) was developed to assist students in a graduate program for applied behavior analysis to acquire conversational fluency with behavioral principles and procedures. The goals of the VFL are to increase verbal fluency among prospective behavior analysts using a definition of fluency based on reasoning and generalization rather than speed, and to develop an effective teaching method based on learning through dialogue. Throughout their first two terms in the graduate program, students meet individually with teaching assistants. During these meetings, they engage in a 10-15 minute structured discussion based on assigned readings. Occasional probe questions require the students to either perform certain logical operations such as answer an either/or question or to generalize information. Following each discussion, the student and teaching assistant complete a questionnaire in which they rate the student’s fluency-related behaviors. A brief 3-item oral quiz based on the assigned material follows. Videotapes of the discussion allow study of both the methods for creating dialogue and the student’s fluency.
A Supervision Model to Meet BACB® Certification Requirements.
MYRNA E. LIBBY (New England Center for Children), Pamela M. Olsen (New England Center for Children), Jennifer Long (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This paper presents a model for integrating Supervised Independent Fieldwork into a human-services agency, following The Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s new Experience Standards. The model includes two components: (a) six semester-length modules covering a variety of applied topics derived from the Task List, and (b) three Applied Research Placements. The modules, which are designed to give all students common experiences, include readings and additional activities that are completed in the clinical setting. Modules are structured to allow group supervision by a BCBA. A second component, Research Placement, allows students to implement applied research projects under the one-to-one supervision of a Board Certified Behavior Analyst® and to explore individual interests.
Doctoral Training in ABA: Western New England College and New England Center for Children Collaboration.
DENNIS J. KOLODZIEJSKI (Western New England College), Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The New England Center for Children (NECC) and Western New England College (WNEC) have collaborated to offer a post-master’s degree Ph.D. program in Applied Behavior Analysis beginning in Fall 2007. The 3-year program will be offered on site at NECC. Courses will be taught by a combination of NECC and WNEC faculty. Research will be conducted at NECC under the supervision of senior clinical staff and WNEC faculty. In this presentation, we discuss the mechanisms for establishing an advanced degree program on-site at a human services agency, as well as some advantages and disadvantages of a service-agency based doctoral program.
Panel #192
CE Offered: BACB
The Development of a Behavioral Treatment Team within a Large Special Educational Organization: Lessons Learned
Sunday, May 27, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Richard M. Foxx, Ph.D.
Chair: Richard M. Foxx (Pennsylvania State University)
JEFFREY S. GARITO (Lancaster-Lebanon Intermediate Unit 13)
JONATHAN W. IVY (Lancaster-Lebanon Intermediate Unit 13)
JAMES NICHOLSON MEINDL (Lancaster-Lebanon Intermediate Unit 13)
RICHARD M. FOXX (Pennsylvania State University)

This presentation will discuss the development of a team of Masters level behavior analysts within a large public special educational service agency. The behavioral team was designed to: 1) treat individuals with severe problem behaviors across a number of diagnostic categories; 2) build behavioral capacity within the agency by providing staff and parent training in behavior analysis; 3) work with the various school districts who had contracts with the agency; and 4) ensure that treatment gains were maintained once responsibility was transferred from the behavior analysts to the classroom personnel. This discussion will specifically focus on describing the behavior treatment team model and methods of effectively incorporating behavior analysis into a public educational agency. Several successful treatment cases also will be discussed.

Symposium #215
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Community Psychology: Making a Difference in Your Hometown
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Gregory AB
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: H. Allen Murphy (Florida State University, Panama City)
CE Instructor: H. Allen Murphy, Ph.D.

Four papers will be presented to demonstrate the types of socially significant changes what may be made in a relatively brief peiod of time, 15 weeks, in community settings.

An Evaluation of Antecedent Prompting on Proper Disposal of Smoking Items.
LINDSEY OSBORN (Florida State University), Rosalind B. Bradley (Florida State University), Cassondra Gayman (Florida State University), Miste Miller (Florida State University), Akiko Yokoyama (Florida State University)
Abstract: By implementing a positive sign contingency and evaluating treatment effects using an ABAB design, we were able to increase the disposal of smoking items in designated receptacles on a college campus. Therefore, this study served as a systematic replication of the findings of Mueller, Moore, Doggett & Tingstrom, 2000.
Using Visual Prompts to Increase Consumer Compliance.
CASEY BURGESS (Florida State University, Panama City), Christine Lamas (Florida State University, Panama City), Sally Denise Lee (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Two different visual prompts were used to evaluate consumer compliance of returning shopping carts to the designated locations in the parking lot of a supermarket. Previous research had attempted to increase consumer compliance by using verbal prompts and having researchers interact with customers, which creates a false environment. The visual prompts were intended to increase compliance by enhancing the existing environment as approved by the store manager. The results indicate that the use of visual prompts was not sufficient to increase consumer compliance.
Behavioral Community Psychology Project: Percentage of Identification Checks Completed at a Local Store.
MEGAN DELEON (Florida State University, Panama City), Dianne E. Hughes (Florida State University/Brilliant Minds), Amanda L. Williams (Florida State University, Panama City), Alina Yurchenko (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Identity theft is currently a major problem in the United States. Many believe that businesses should do their part to decrease this problem. One way to do this is to require employees to check identification for all purchases paid for via credit card. Using an ABAC design, we evaluated the effects of two different posted signed on identification checking behavior. Baseline consisted of near zero levels of ID checks. The results of the study showed that posted signs did slightly increase ID checking behavior; however, the presence of several other variables may have contributed to any actual behavior change.
Bringing Behavior Analysis to Volunteerism: Improving the World through Blood Donation.
TARYN M. MANDERS (Florida State University), Jessica M. Ludwig (Florida State University), Emily Alexandra Winebrenner (Florida State University), Ed Littleton (Florida State University), Sandra Rodgers (Florida State University)
Abstract: There is a constant demand for blood donation. We conducted a behavioral analysis in this socially important area of volunteering. We analyzed the effects of posting signs on the number of donors at a local blood center. We then used donor satisfaction feedback and observational data to design interventions to improve interactions between donors and blood center staff.
Symposium #216
CE Offered: BACB
Behaviorally-Based Coaching
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Emma C
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Manuel A. Rodriguez (Continuous Learning Group)
Discussant: Manuel A. Rodriguez (Continuous Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Manuel A. Rodriguez, M.S.

CLG, a Behavioral Based Consulting firm, supports corporate wide initiatives towards achiving desired business results through behavior change. The methodology is grounded in the Applied Behavioral Sciences, working with leaders to effectively manage and maintain high levels of performance. The symposium will present three different client experiences on three different types of coaching (executive coaching and two different performance coaching designs).

Rest in Peace: Coaching Support for Leaders of a Death Care Enterprise.
FRANCISCO MANUEL GOMEZ (Continuous Learning Group), Manuel A. Rodriguez (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: In early 2005, A US based organization comprised of business in death care (e.g., Funeral Homes, Cemeteries, and Crematoriums) engaged with CLG to deploy 3 strategic initiatives: Develop Satisfied Employees, Improve Customer Satisfaction, and Increase Revenue. Through CLG’s coaching support, the execution of these 3 strategic iniatives took CLG to several US states, including South Carolina, Texas, and Puerto Rico. What will be presented is the process, tools, and results from the engagement with this client.
Coaching Coaches: Supporting a Corporate-Wide Initiative for Enabling Performance-Based Management.
MANUEL A. RODRIGUEZ (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: A retail organization in the Eastern United stated designed a strategic imperative to become a Organization Focused on Performance Management. There model for deploying and meeting this strategic objective was through integrating as a leadership practice the behavioral science through CLG’s Performance Based Leadership approach. To equip managers with this skill set, CLG was engaged to train internal capabilities to manage the transfer of knowledge of core ABA concepts and principles, and follow-up the training with coaching support for all levels of leaders. What will be presented is the methodology, deployment roadmap, and results of the engagement.
Behaviorally-Based Executive Coaching at Bechtel Group, Inc.
LAURA L. METHOT (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: CLG’s behavior-based approach to executive coaching paid off for a global engineering-construction firm where our coaching tools worked hand-in-glove with 360 surveys to measurably improve executive feedback scores and to impact employee performance, organizational performance, and the bottom line. The good news is that our client was not in trouble. The firm understood behavioral science and the critical relationship of strategy-process-behavior to their bottom line. Our client’s 360s were performed by a personnel management firm that conducted high-quality web-based surveys which generated individual feedback reports. Missing was the robust follow-through that is essential to measur¬ably improving leadership skills. We applied CLG’s behavioral based coaching to establish these behaviors into reliable daily habits. Because of CLG’s policy of knowing our client’s people well—their strengths, weaknesses, specific jobs—we were able to provide a complete “performance coaching package.” Increases of 20-50% in 360 feedback scores were found for leaders participating in coaching compared to no increases observed for those not participating in follow-up coaching. Increases is leadership scores correlated with substantial improvements in the client’s bottom line measures (safety and cost effective performance) shown in a reliable trend across four consecutive years.
Symposium #218
CE Offered: BACB
Empirical Validation of Internet-Based Curriculum
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Philip N. Chase (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University, Japan)
CE Instructor: Philip N. Chase, Ph.D.

The current crisis in education recognized by a variety of reports, studies, and commentators could have serious long-term effects on children world wide. In response to this crisis a number of behavior analysts have targeted the empirical validation of curriculum for their research agenda. In particular, with recent advances in computer technology, there has been a strong interest in developing and evaluating internet curricula. Three examples are Headsprout, a program that teaches beginning reading, iLearn a middle school mathematics curriculum, and TeachTown, a program for autistic children. This symposium will present the current data and methods used to evaluate these programs. Emphasis will be given to descriptions of the how these programs have integrated single-subject methods with program evaluation methods, methods for evaluating teacher and other professional implementation, and more traditional random controlled studies to create a thorough method of empirical validation.

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of iLearn Math in Improving Math Achievement in Middle School.
ROBERT L. COLLINS (iLearn, Inc.)
Abstract: The effectiveness of iLearn Math in improving math achievement was evaluated in the sixth grade of a Title I middle school in a rural area of Georgia using a quasi-experimental design. The Experimental Group used iLearn Math as their only math instruction for the school year. The Control Group received their regularly-scheduled traditional classroom instruction. At the start of the year, there was no difference between the two groups on an experimenter-developed pretest. At the end of the school year, differences were assessed using scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) administered annually to all six-grade students in Georgia. For the iLearn Group, 87% of the students met or exceeded the standard on the CRCT vs. 65% for the Control Group. The state average was 74%. In addition, 28% of the iLearn Group exceeded the standard vs. 10% for the Control Group.
Education and Treatment of Children with Autism Using Computer-Assisted Programs from TeachTown.
Abstract: Because of the numerous education options available for children with autism, many of which are not supported by research, the use of evidence-based practices is particularly important for this population. With recent advances in computer technology, there has been a strong interest in the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Due to the unique characteristics and learning styles of children with autism, the interest and need for CAI is especially strong. TeachTown: Basics utilizes not only computer instruction and data tracking, but provides off-computer generalization activities and a communication system for the child’s team. Several research studies have been or are being conducted to assess the efficacy and expand this product. In addition, research is underway for the design of future products. Data from these studies will be presented along with a discussion of the importance of developing evidence-based technology for children with autism and the implications for designers and researchers.
Headsprout Early Reading: Multi-Year, Multi-Site Measures of Effectiveness.
DEBORAH ANNE HAAS (Headsprout), Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: This presentation will first review the teaching routines used, the critical reading repertoires taught, and the formative evaluation data which shaped Headsprout Early ReadingR, a scientifically-based, empirically validated online early reading program. The presentation will then focus on data from the growing body of summative, or large scale, evaluations of the program. Data will be presented from empirically-based case studies, outcome measures from field use, multi-year evaluations, and perhaps of greatest importance, controlled research featuring unbiased group assignment.
Symposium #220
CE Offered: BACB
Morningside Academy: What's New?
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Joanne K. Robbins, Ph.D.

Morningside Academy teachers will present descriptions and data on a variety of development projects in our laboratory school. We will discuss assessment strategies for reading comprehension, oral reading fluency, and vocabulary; behavioral approaches to counseling; study skills; prompting question-generating; and improving number-writing fluency.

Assessment: Reading Comprehension, Oral Reading Fluency, and Vocabulary.
HEATHER GRADA DURBECK (Morningside Academy), Marianne Delgado (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy), Julian Gire (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Correlations between Robert Dixon et al’s reading comprehension program, “Reading Success: Effective Strategies for Reading Comprehension,” and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills test scores of Morningside students prior to and following a year of instruction will be discussed. Strategies of the reading program and other Morningside methods of reading instruction will be briefly reviewed. Data will be shared using the Standard Celeration Chart to analyze class-wide results for different levels of the program. This presentation will also discuss an evaluation of the effectiveness of video training for oral reading fluency inter-scorer agreement. Morningside Academy conducts weekly checks of Oral Reading Fluency using the DIBELS curriculum. In order to ensure inter-scorer reliability and accurate assessment information, a video training procedure, combined with written materials and immediate feedback was evaluated. Included participants were members of the assessment team; their results will be presented as will a brief demonstration of the video training procedure. Finally, our assessment presentation will discuss two methods of vocabulary instruction in a 7th grade reading curriculum: SAFMEDS flashcards and student-directed activities, using a weekly CBA to track application of vocabulary words in a 5-minute student free write. SAFMEDS instruction consisted of a 15-minute fluency session of teacher generated short definitions, tracked on a standard celeration chart. Student-directed methods consisted of giving students access to full dictionary definitions and the word in context and have them determine a correct definition, study of the denotation and connotation of words and informal and formal registers, exploration of different grammatical forms and related words, and having students create contextual examples. The CBA was a weekly free/write with a word bank of the instructed vocabulary words, scored across three dimensions: total words written, correct writing sequences, and number of vocabulary words used correctly. Growth on the curriculum-based assessment was tracked using a standard celeration chart. Data from a full school year of vocabulary instruction in a 7th grade literature curriculum will be presented and future curriculum decisions based on the data will be discussed.
Adding a Clinical Component to a Middle School Curriculum: Problem Solving Planning System (PSPS).
ADAM G. STRETZ (Morningside Academy), Marianne Delgado (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: One of the goals of Morningside Academy is to equip their students with a problem-solving model through behavioral analysis. This will be shown using data gathered through a PSP form and student generated tracking plans. Transactional Analysis is introduced to the students as a Psychology class and this instruction teaches the students the language and background they will need to take part in PSPS sessions. The sessions focus on student participation and planning in solving their own problems. These ‘problems’ are varied and can include: issues at home, issues at school, interpersonal issues, repeated areas of difficulty, etc. Students explore what is going well and what their concerns are. Eventually, a particular concern is isolated and a goal to change or improve that concern is stated. The advocate helps the student consolidate and summarize until a specific plan of action is in affect that both the student and the advocate believe will potentially accomplish the student’s stated goal.
Fluent Thinking Skills: Becoming an Active and Engaged Reader in a Content Course.
MEGAN KNIGHT (Morningside Academy), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Fluent Thinking Skills refers to a composite-level performance that teaches learners to actively become responsible for obtaining important information from text in any content area. Students are taught how use titles, headings, and graphics to focus their attention on predicting and extracting relevant information before reading unfamiliar text. They also tap into their own prior knowledge to connect their experiences to the upcoming lesson. A system of sophisticated note-taking is used to organize questions, predictions, and answers. This approach to learning in a content class at Morningside has proven to be extremely powerful and rewarding, as it gives more responsibility to the learners themselves.
Prompting Question-Generating Behaviors; Promoting Number Writing Fluency with Discrimination Training.
JENNIFER REILLY (Morningside Academy), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy), Julian Gire (Morningside Academy), Erin Mitchell (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Learned helplessness seems to be a pitfall for many children with mild to moderate learning and developmental disabilities. As responsible educators we tend to accept sole responsibility for students failing to make significant academic gains, “If the student hasn’t learned, the teacher hasn’t taught.” While this statement may be true, we often underestimate the students’ role and responsibilities to problem solve and interact with instruction within the classroom. Transferring the responsibility from adult to child is one of Mark Ozer’s main premises when he defines Degrees of Responsibility. Ozer defines responsibility as continuing a dialogue between adult and child. This dialogue is further defined as the exchange of questions and answers between individuals. Skills in maintaining this dialogue are placed on a continuum and include the degree or level a child answers questions to the child generating questions independently. Ozer’s principle of Degrees of Responsibilities is the underlying concept used to operationally define target behaviors expected of students at Morningside Academy. By identifying and shaping the skills necessary to actively interact with instruction, these once failing students soon learn to become active participants in their learning and show dramatic improvement in their academic performance. This presentation will also discuss handwriting difficulty, which can seriously impede a learner's ability to succeed in mathematics. Fluent writing enables the learner to focus on the conceptual or computation demands. Typical daily exercises at Morningside Academy include timed writing practice of the digits from 0-9. Those students who have high error rates were identified and offered a new intervention that required discrimination of well-formed from poorly-formed digits. A shaping process followed if digit production occurred in an inefficient manner. Once these behaviors were established, rate building in 0-9's continued. Data will be presented on the effects of this discrimination intervention.
Symposium #222
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - New Methods in the Experimental Analysis of Relational Responding: New Tricks for Old Dogs!
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Del Mar AB
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway)
CE Instructor: Denis P. O'Hora, Ph.D.

The experimental analysis of relational responding is one the oldest areas in psychological science. The examination of relational responding grew out of philosophical debates in the late nineteenth century to become a hot topic in the early twentieth century. More recently, relational responding, in particular derived and arbitrary relational responding, has attracted much interest among behavior analytic researchers interested in complex cognitive phenomena. The four papers in this symposium present new methods for the experimental analysis of relational responding. The first paper summarizes the literature on responding in accordance with temporal relations and presents a novel empirical approach to investigating such performances. The second paper examines the role of derived relational responding in the enjoyment of computer games by using a game constructed to provide different levels of such responding at different levels of the game. The third paper employs a novel procedure to isolate different sources of contextual control in derived relational responding. Finally, the fourth paper exploits the phonological and orthographic properties of natural language words to elucidate sources of control in tests for stimulus equivalence.

A Review of the Literature on Temporal Relational Responding: Isn’t it about Time?
JOHN HYLAND (University of Ulster), Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: Previous research in the area of temporal relational responding has uncovered much about how patterns of human behaviour are controlled through relations between verbal and environmental stimuli. However, there has yet to be a detailed investigation into the nature of temporal relations and how they are implicated in the underlying processes of human cognitive behaviour. The current paper will assess the cognitive and behavioural literature on temporal relational responding in order to provide a detailed analysis of such responding. A novel experimental technique will then be outlined that will enable us to conduct this rigorous investigation and to identify possible methods of improving relational responding in adults and children. A detailed analysis of this kind will provide the explanatory tools to address a range of complex human behaviours, including grammatical control, relational reasoning, and temporal perception.
What's in a Game? The Relational Properties of Computer Gaming Behaviour.
CONOR LINEHAN (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Seamus McLoone (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Tomás Ward (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: The current research applied a derived relations approach to understanding the role of complexity on enjoyment in on-line computer game-playing. Participants were exposed to nonarbitrary stimulus discrimination training designed to establish the functions of SAME and OPPOSITE for two arbitrary contextual cues. All participants then received training in the following four arbitrary relations: SAME/A1-B1, SAME/A1-C1, OPPOSITE/A1-B2, and OPPOSITE/A1-C2. A testing phase was then presented in which the relations SAME/B1-C1, SAME/B2-C2, OPPOSITE/B1-B2, and OPPOSITE/C1-C2 were tested. Level 1 of the game consisted of training to establish a clicking (save) response towards one stimulus (B1) and an avoidance (destroy) response towards another stimulus (B2) in the presence of the SAME contextual cue. Level 2 required participants to transfer the responses learned in Level 1, to the C1 and C2 stimuli in the presence of the SAME contextual cue, and in the absence of feedback. Level 3 was similar to Level 2, with the exception that responses were made in the presence of the OPPOSITE contextual cue. Level 4 required participants to respond to C1 and C2 stimuli in the presence of randomly alternating SAME and OPPOSITE contextual cues. Preliminary results suggest that enjoyment in online gaming can be understood at least partly in terms of derived relational responding.
Contextual Control over Non-Arbitrary Relational Responding: Further Empirical Investigations.
IAN T. STEWART (National University of Ireland, Galway), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Louise A. Mchugh (National University of Ireland, Swansea), Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: This study replicates and extends a previous empirical model of the Relational Frame Theory phenomenon of Crel and Cfunc based contextual control. In Experiment 1, participants were trained to respond in accordance with relations of sameness and difference in the presence of two arbitrary shapes which were thus established as Crel cues for SAME and DIFFERENT relational responding respectively. Training using additional contextual cues was then provided in order to induce transformations of function along particular stimulus dimensions (e.g., size), thus establishing Cfunc control. Following this training, participants were then successfully tested for generalization of Cfunc control in which a novel Cfunc stimulus cue came to control transformation of function along a novel stimulus dimension. Experiment 2 demonstrated the generalization of Cfunc control to MORE / LESS relational responding. Participants were first trained and tested for MORE / LESS responding. They then successfully completed tests for Cfunc control over the transformation of function in accordance with MORE / LESS. The first phases of Experiment 3 were similar to those of the previous experiments except that nonsense syllables were employed as contextual cues. Participants were then provided with training for the derivation of equivalence relations between those cues and novel nonsense syllable stimuli. They were then exposed to MORE / LESS training and testing followed by a test for generalization of contextual control, as in Experiment 2; however, the contextual cues used in the final test phases were the stimuli in derived relations with the original contextual cues. The latter demonstration may represent an initial model of pragmatic verbal analysis, the process which RFT sees as central to human problem solving.
The Effect of Sample-Comparison Interference and Comparison-Comparison Interference on Stimulus Equivalence Relations.
DENIS P. O'HORA (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ian Thomas Tyndall (American College Dublin/National University of Ireland, Galway), Molly Loesche (University of Ulster)
Abstract: The current study reports three experiments that examine the effect of incorrect comparisons in the disruption of equivalence relations. Each experiment in the current study included twenty undergraduate students as participants. Previous research has shown that sample-comparison similarity disrupts equivalence relations. Experiment 1 replicated this effect using phonological and orthographic similarity. Experiment 2 employed incorrect comparisons that were phonological and orthographic similar to correct comparison. Unlike Experiment 1, equivalence relations were not disrupted by such interference. Although lower rates of correct responding were observed in the presence of the similar comparisons, the relations were observed when interference was removed. Experiment 3 employed sample-comparison interference at different levels for specific equivalence relations (e.g., orthographic interference for C1-A1, phonological for C2-A2 and no interference for C3-A3) and preliminary results suggest that sample-comparison similarity disrupted only those relations exposed to interference. These results suggest that Sample-Comparison Interference and Comparison-Comparison Interference disrupt different behaviors, both of which are required to demonstrate equivalence relations.
Symposium #228
CE Offered: BACB
Some Macro and Micro Issues in Instructional Methodology for Children with Autism
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Douglas A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Alan E. Harchik (The May Institute)
Discussant: Sigrid S. Glenn (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Alan E. Harchik, Ph.D.

Teachers, instructors, and parents of children with autism seek to find the most effective instructional methodologies. This involves examining the smallest intricacies of the instructional session (e.g., prompting, reinforcement, pacing) as well as the many of the larger, broader issues, such as those involved in choosing the content of the instruction (e.g., language, social skills, play, community). In this symposium, the authors present examples of research that look at both of these aspects of educational programming for this population. The first two papers compare different prompting protocols within one-to-one instructional discrete trial training sessions. Weinkauf et al. built upon their past research to develop, and now examine, a prompting procedure that combines beneficial features from both a simultaneous and delayed prompting protocol. Leaf et al. compared the effects of a simultaneous prompt with another type of delayed prompt called a no-no-prompt. Finally, Alai-Rosales describes a methodology to help us determine what to teach during these instructional sessions. By identifying, and then incorporating, behavioral cusps into our choice of skills to teach to children, we may be more likely to maximize the benefit for children with autism. Sigrid Glenn will comment on the papers.

The Use of Prompting Strategies to Teach Skills to Children Diagnosed with Autism.
KEVIN P. KLATT (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Sara M. Weinkauf (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Julie A. Ackerlund (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Corey S Stocco (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Jennifer Lynn Bechtold (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Claire Anderson (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Nicholas Vanselow (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Carrie Haessly (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire)
Abstract: Recent research has shown that both the simultaneous prompting and the constant prompt delay procedures can be used to teach skills to children with autism. The simultaneous prompting procedure involves the teacher providing an immediate prompt on all teaching trials, whereas the constant prompt procedure requires the teacher to give the child an instruction, followed by a prompt to help the child respond correctly, and then the prompt is faded across trials until the child responds independently. Data presented last year showed children with autism learned skills in less trials with the constant prompt delay, but made less errors with the simultaneous prompt procedure. The purpose of the current research is to investigate whether a procedure that combines features from both the simultaneous prompt and constant delay can be used to teach new skills, and whether the new procedure will result in learning in fewer trials and with fewer errors than either the simultaneous prompt or constant prompt delay procedures.
An Evaluation of Prompting Systems in Determining Effectiveness with Children with Autism.
JUSTIN B. LEAF (University of Kansas), Amanda Tyrell (University of Kansas), Brandon McFadden (University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This study compared two different methods of prompting that have been reported to be effective in two-choice discrimination learning tasks. One method, simultaneously prompting, involves prompting the child, immediately following an instruction, to the correct choice for an entire teaching session. A second method, no-no-prompting, gives the child opportunities to respond without any prompts, but, if the child makes two errors in a row, the teacher prompts the correct response. Daily probes assessed if the participant could respond without any prompts. Three young children with autism were taught receptive language skills and rote math skills. Both types of prompting procedures were used with each child using different sets of words or addition problems comparable in difficulty within a multi-probe experimental design. The two methods were compared in effectiveness as indicated by the number of teaching trials and the durations of teaching sessions required for children to reach a mastery criterion.
The Study of Behavioral Cusps in Programs for Children with Autism and Their Families.
SHAHLA S. ALA'I-ROSALES (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In this presentation we will describe the concept of a "Behavioral Cusp" (any behavior change that brings the organism’s behavior into contact with new contingencies that have even more far-reaching consequences), discuss its importance for young children with autism, and provide a brief review of methodologies that have been suggested to study Behavioral Cusps. We will then present a description of our family intervention program, The Family Connections Project (FCP). The mission of FCP is to produce meaningful and generative behavior changes in young children with autism and their family members. The measurement systems we will describe are our first attempts to identify Behavioral Cusps, if and when they occur, during the course of our intervention. Data will be presented and discussed in the context of logistical issues, technological supports, experimental design, and social validity.
Symposium #229
CE Offered: BACB
Strategies that Fit: Identifying Efficient Interventions to Support Children with Autism, Families, and Staff
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Nanette L. Perrin (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Discussant: Shannon Kay (The May Institute)
CE Instructor: Nanette L. Perrin, M.A.

When working with children, we should always be looking for empirically supported strategies to enhance our effectiveness. Improving the accessibility of effective strategies is often the first hurdle. In the first two presentations, we will provide information on sharing the technology of functional behavior assessment found in the empirical literature, first to teachers and then to families. The third presentation will present information about empowering parents in effective intervention strategies to help . The first presentation will be a multiple baseline design across teachers at varying grade levels. This data-based presentation will address the effects of knowledge dissemination on effectiveness of behavior plans. The second data-based presentation will assess the effects of a curriculum to teach parents to develop intervention plans. The third presentation will present a review of parent education literature and summarize the parent education strategies utilized as part of an intervention program for young children with autism and its effects on their families.

Empowering Teachers across the Grades to Complete Functional Behavior Assessment.
STEPHANIE THORNE (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Amanda Tyrell (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Nanette L. Perrin (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Diane Bannerman Juracek (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas), Jamie D. Price (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests functional behavior assessment (FBA) is a necessary component in the creation of effective behavioral interventions. IDEA 2004 requires the use of FBA for behaviors that impede the learning of students (IDEA, 2004). Concurrently, it appears that some educators in the public school system continue to have limited knowledge of FBA procedures. The primary goal of this study is to consider a more cost effective and time efficient alternative to training public educators in behavior analysis. This presentation will describe a study examining the effectiveness of teaching FBA through school in-services, community-based trainings, independently accessed on-line modules, and self-administered quizzes. Through a multiple-baseline across participants design, pre- and post-tests of knowledge of FBA components, accuracy in the completion of competing behavior diagram will be assessed(O’Neill et al., 1997), testing scores from on-line modules will be tracked, as well as fidelity measures throughout their sessions on the implementation of FBA data will be collected. The participants will include special education staff at the elementary and high-school level as well as undergraduate students completing a practicum at the preschool level. The implications of these findings will be discussed and follow-up data will be reported as well.
Increasing Family Self-Sufficiency to Assess the Functions of Child Problem Behavior and Develop the Fix.
DIANNE BANNERMAN JURICEK (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Amy McCart (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Enabling family members to assess the functions of challenging behavior and develop and implement successful intervention is an important, but difficult endeavor. Families don’t always have access or funding for professional services and having behavior analysts in the home is burdensome. This study assesses the effectiveness of basic training package to teach parents to use applied behavior analysis to develop effective behavior support plans for their children. The curriculum includes sections on how behavior works, a simplified functional behavior assessment, and a simple behavior support plan format with data collection procedures. A scenario test is used to assess acquisition and an interview and observation tool was developed to assess parents’ ability to use the information to develop and implement a successful behavior support plan. A case study with outcome and social validity data will be presented. Though not all families are inclined to gain an understanding of their child’s behavior and develop and implement effective intervention, some families are motivated to do so and should be able to access support towards self-sufficiency.
Toddlers with Autism: Effective Parent Training.
KATE LAINO (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas), Amanda C. Besner (University of North Texas), Nicole Zeug (University of North Texas), Andrea Newcomer (University of North Texas), Nicole Suchomel (University of North Texas), Allison Jones (University of North Texas)
Abstract: With the advent of more refined screening instruments, the detection of autism is occurring at younger and younger ages. Early detection frequently leads to early intervention. Because parents are the primary change agents in the lives of infants and toddlers, early intervention programs should involve parent training and support. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a review of the literature on parent training programs for families with infants and toddlers with autism. A description of intervention training goals, measures, training procedures, evaluation methods, outcomes and social validity will be provided. Finally, a data based description of one training program, The Family Connections Project (FCP), for parents of infants and toddlers with autism will be presented. The mission of FCP is to enhance the quality of relationships between toddlers with autism and their families. The FCP description will include an overview of family assessment strategies, IFSP development, teaching procedures, training procedures, data-based decision making strategies and social validity approaches. Outcome data from several families will be presented.
Symposium #234
CE Offered: BACB
Transitioning Children with Autism from a Specialized Behavior Analytic Setting to a Less Restrictive Environment
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Meredith L. Garrity, Ph.D.

Children with pervasive developmental disorders are often provided services in a specialized setting outside of a typical school district placement. This referral is most often related to significant behavioral concerns that cannot be treated appropriately in self-contained classrooms within the district. However, with the goal of a least restrictive environment, an out-of-district placement strives to reduce the inappropriate behavior to a stable level and when possible, provide a user-friendly behavior support plan that can be implemented by public school teachers. Three clinical cases will be presented illustrating various issues associated with a return to district. The first presentation will highlight the initial stage of stabilization of a myriad of highly disruptive behavior such as aggression, noncompliance, dropping to the ground, and screaming for a high functioning 11-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. The second presentation will focus on the next step of selecting and teaching specific skills required for a student with ADHD and PDD-NOS to function effectively in middle school. Finally, the third presentation will address coordination with a school district regarding selecting goals to address the unique needs of a four-year-old boy diagnosed with PDD who exhibits high rates of vocal stereotypy in an integrated preschool classroom.

Reduction of Disruptive Behavior.
MEREDITH L. GARRITY (The May Institute)
Abstract: Inappropriate behaviors such as screaming, noncompliance, aggression, and dropping to the ground serve as an obstacle for maintaining a child in a less restrictive setting within the public school system. The available resources in a within district placement such as a self-contained classroom or collaborative school may be insufficient to provide the level of expertise or intensity of clinical services appropriate to address significant behavioral concerns. Additionally, such behaviors are often disruptive to the learning of other students. A high functioning 11-year-old girl diagnosed with autism was referred for disruptive behaviors exhibited both in the home and school setting. Functional assessments indicated behaviors with multiple functions, primarily that of gaining attention and escaping from demand. A token economy consisting of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and a response cost was designed according to student preferences, and the contingencies conveyed to the student via a social story. Targeted behaviors were then introduced into the token program sequentially. Discussion will focus on home and school coordination as well as the creation of parent- and teacher-friendly behavior support plans with the final goal of transition to a less restrictive setting taken into account from the initial referral.
The Impact of Skill Deficits on a Successful Transition to a Public School Setting.
JAIMIE L. HOOVER (The May Institute)
Abstract: A ten-year-old boy dually diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified was referred from his public school system following a failure to improve with the implementation of a physical restraint plan, multiple medication changes, and finally several psychiatric hospitalizations. He was admitted into an intensive behavior analytic program for children ages five to 14 with pervasive developmental disabilities after he had been withdrawn from all psychotropic medication. Initially evaluated with 1:1 staffing, this level of support was quickly faded. Inappropriate behaviors observed included noncompliance, aggression, and drops to the ground. During baseline, these behaviors averaged in occurrence between three and five times per day. A token program was introduced which included differential reinforcement of other behavior in concert with response cost and resulted in a rapid reduction of these inappropriate behaviors to near zero rates. This reduction allowed for further analysis of skill deficits regarding potential obstacles to transitioning back to a less restrictive setting. Discussion will focus on how to select and then prioritize skills for a child with multiple diagnoses in order for the student functioning effectively in a public school setting.
Reduction of Stigmatizing Behavior before a Transition to District.
Abstract: Children with disabilities who are placed in an out-of-district classroom often exhibit a myriad of problem behaviors. When these behaviors are prioritized for reduction, stereotypy often falls to the bottom of the list because it is rarely a dangerous behavior. However, in a general education environment, vocal stereotypy can be a behavior of high priority for teachers because of its potential disruption to the classroom environment. Students with disabilities who would otherwise be able to participate in general education classes may be served out of district due to their stereotypic behavior. This study addresses vocal stereotypy in a four-year-old boy with a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Although the initial referral indicated only a failure to exhibit progress, further consultation with the district revealed a concern about the rates of vocal stereotypy and the student’s ability to participate in general education classes. In order for the student to successfully return to the within-district placement, rates of vocal stereotypy would need to be reduced and the treatment procedure able to be implemented by those without training in behavior analysis. Results and strategies for implementation in a regular education classroom will be discussed.
Invited Panel #235
CE Offered: BACB
Verbal Behavior at Fifty: Past, Present, and Future
Sunday, May 27, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Douglas C
Area: VRB/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Mark L. Sundberg (Sundberg and Associates)
CE Instructor: Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D.
Panelists: JOHN L. MICHAEL (Western Michigan University), A. CHARLES CATANIA (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), TERRY J. KNAPP (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

Fifty years ago B. F. Skinner published the book Verbal Behavior. The book contains behavioral analyses of the most complex aspects of human behavior such as language, private events, thinking, epistemology, memory, and logical and scientific verbal behavior. In many respects, the core of Skinners radical behaviorism is presented in this book. The members of this panel will discuss the significance of Verbal Behavior in terms of past contributions and controversies, its current usage, and its potential for the field of behavior analysis.

JOHN L. MICHAEL (Western Michigan University)
Dr. Jack Michael was born in 1926 in Los Angeles. He entered the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1943 as a chemistry major, served two years in the army, and returned to UCLA in 1946. He obtained a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. at UCLA, finishing in 1955. As a graduate student, his main interests were statistical methodology, physiological psychology, and learning theory. During his first teaching job (in the Psychology Department at Kansas University), he was much influenced by reading B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior, and since then has been primarily involved in teaching behavioral psychology; at Kansas University, the University of Houston, Arizona State University, and Western Michigan University. At Houston in 1957, as a result of influence by the rehabilitation psychologist, Lee Meyerson, Dr. Michael began to apply Skinner's behavior analysis in the areas of mental retardation, mental illness, and physical disability. During the next several years, as behavior modification went through a period of rapid expansion, Dr. Michael contributed with his teaching, writing, and public presentations. At Arizona State as a result of contact with Fred S. Keller, he became interested in college instructional technology from a behavioral perspective. Most recently, he has been concerned with the technical terminology of behavior analysis, basic theory regarding motivation, and verbal behavior. He contributed to the founding of the Association for Behavior Analysis in 1974 and served as president of that organization in 1979. In 2002 he received the ABA Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis, and the American Psychological Association Division 25 Don Hake Award for research that bridges the gap between experimental and applied behavior analysis. He is author of a laboratory manual and a number of articles and chapters dealing with basic and applied behavior analysis. He retired from Western Michigan University in 2003.
A. CHARLES CATANIA (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Dr. A. Charles Catania began his career in behavior analysis in fall 1954, when he enrolled in Fred Keller’s course in introductory psychology at Columbia. That course included a weekly laboratory on the behavior of rats, and Catania continued working with rats and pigeons and other nonhuman organisms over subsequent decades. In Spring 2004, having closed down his pigeon laboratory the previous summer, he celebrated his half century of animal lab activity with a classroom rat demonstration in a learning course. He regards the study of nonhuman behavior as essential to our understanding of verbal behavior, because verbal behavior is necessarily supported by a nonverbal scaffolding. That lesson too came from Columbia, where, as a senior, Catania took a seminar on verbal behavior jointly taught by Fred Keller, Nat Schoenfeld, and Ralph Hefferline. Ever since, Catania has been addicted to the field of verbal behavior, teaching courses in it whenever possible. One function of his text, Learning, is to integrate the topics of nonverbal and verbal behavior, which have too often been given separate treatments.
TERRY J. KNAPP (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Dr. Terry J. Knapp is Professor of Psychology at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His interest in B. F. Skinner’s book, Verbal Behavior, stems from the 1960s, when he was in speech-communication and completed a Master’s thesis on “Communication and Privacy: A Critical Explication of B. F. Skinner’s Analysis.” After Knapp stopped being critical, he took up Skinner’s analysis and sought his doctoral degree under the late Willard Day because of Day’s contributions on the topics of privacy, verbal behavior, and behaviorism.
Invited Paper Session #411
CE Offered: BACB

Evolutionary Theory is the Proper Framework for Behavior Analysis.

Sunday, May 27, 2007
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Douglas C
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: William M. Baum, Ph.D.
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
WILLIAM M. BAUM (University of California, Davis)
Dr. William M. Baum received his B.A. in psychology from Harvard College in 1961. Originally a biology major, he switched into psychology after taking courses from B. F. Skinner and R. J. Herrnstein in his freshman and sophomore years. He returned to Harvard University for graduate study in 1962, where he was supervised by Herrnstein and received his Ph.D. in 1966. He spent the 1965-66 academic year at Cambridge University, studying ethology at the Sub-Department of Animal Behavior. From 1966 to 1975, he held appointments as post-doctoral fellow, research associate, and assistant professor at Harvard University. He spent two years at the National Institutes of Health Laboratory for Brain, Evolution, and Behavior. Dr. Baum accepted an appointment in psychology at University of New Hampshire in 1977 and retired from there in 1999. He currently has an appointment as Associate Researcher at University of California, Davis and lives in San Francisco. His research concerns choice, molar relations in reinforcement, foraging, and behaviorism. He is the author of a book, Understanding Behaviorism: Behavior, Culture, and Evolution.

Like contemporary psychology, behavior analysis developed with the framework of nineteenth-century associationism, which ignored evolution. With minor exceptions, behavior analysis has failed to re-orient itself in the light of modern evolutionary theory. Instead, behavior analysts have adopted an oversimplified view of the dependence of behavior on evolution in which some behavior is set aside as given and other behavior is regarded as modifiable. The result has been a paucity of concepts and over-reliance on conditioning and reinforcement. To grasp the true significance of evolution, one must understand that all behavior depends on genetic inheritance. The reason is that, whether we are talking about cockroaches or humans, behavior exists to promote fitness. It is modifiable by environmental factors only in ways and by means that genes permit or encourage. The explanation and modification of behavioral phenotypes depends on illuminating the effects of natural selection and the effects of environmental factors in development. Genes that promote and constrain development often allow phenotypic flexibility, but within limits imposed by the mechanisms resulting from natural selection. This point may be illustrated by a series of examples. One conclusion is that the events called reinforcers may be understood in the light of natural selection, as phylogenetically important events that do much more than reinforce.

Symposium #247
CE Offered: BACB
Applying the Competent Learner Model in Preschool Settings
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Daniel E. Hursh (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Daniel E. Hursh (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Daniel E. Hursh, Ph.D.

Settings for normally developing preschool children often serve some children who are not prepared to participate in all learning activities. The Competent Learner Model can prepare educators in these settings to arrange their environments to engage these naive learners. The CLM Course of Study integrates the best practices of Applied Behavior Analysis, Direct Instruction, and Precision Teaching. It coaches educators to mastery of applying these practices with their naive learners. Formative evaluation data from two such settings will be presented and discussed. These data will include Competent Learner Repertoire Assessments, Developmental Work Samples, and teacher decision making.

The Relationship of Competent Learner Repertoire and Developmental Assessments.
DANIEL E. HURSH (West Virginia University), Liyu Chen (West Virginia University), Reagan P. Curtis (West Virginia University), Bobbie Warash (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The Competent Learner Repertoire Assessments determine the strength of Competent Learner Repertoires. These repertoires include observer, listener, talker, reader, writer, problem solver, and participator skill sets. As young children develop normally these skill sets grow stronger and more generally applied. Over the course of two years the repertoire assessments and Developmental Work Sample assessments have been completed with three and four year olds at a University Nursery School. These data show a moderate correlation between these two assessments indicating a relationship between the behavioral indicators and the developmental milestones.
The Competent Learner Model's Impact on Teacher Decision Making.
BOBBIE WARASH (West Virginia University), Liyu Chen (West Virginia University), Reagan P. Curtis (West Virgina University)
Abstract: An assessment of nursery school teachers' decisions regarding managing student behavior was conducted over the course of a number of months during which the two teachers completed the Competent Learner Course of Study. The teachers enter their decisions and rationale for those decisions into a log. These entries were then used as the basis for interviews of the teachers that inquired into their reason for those decisions. These data were then analyzed into categories to determine any impact the course of study may have had on their decisions and the reasoning behind those decisions.
An Implementation of the Competent Learner Model in a Preschool and Day Care Setting.
JAWANTEY K. MORRIS (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.), Suzanne H. Holman (Heritage Health Foundation, Inc.), Daniel E. Hursh (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The Competent Learner Model has an Implementation Accountability Process that cuts across four phases and identifies each of the action steps needed to assure for the implementation of the model as it is designed. A preschool, head start, day care setting in a low income region of a major metropolitan area completed the implementation of the Competent Learner Model across more than two years. The formative evaluation data, action planning process, and descriptions of changes in the behavior of both children and educators will be presented and discussed in terms of how the Competent Learner Model Course of Study influenced the operation of the setting.
Invited Panel #248
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior and Social Issues: Behavior Analysis, Biological Psychiatry, and the Treatment of Severe Behavior Disorders
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Douglas C
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Richard F. Rakos (Cleveland State University)
CE Instructor: Richard W. Malott, M.A.
Panelists: RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University), MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago), KURT SALZINGER (Hofstra University), STEPHEN E. WONG (Florida International University)

Behavior analysis, once a promising and widely used approach in the understanding and treatment of severe behavior disorders, has been obscured by the rise of biological psychiatry and its biomedical model of mental illness that prioritizes psychotropic drugs as the treatment of choice. The current hegemony of biological psychiatry stems less from reliable empirical data and much more from ideological, political, economic, and disciplinary sources of social and fiscal control. The panelists will discuss this thesis, analyze the ramifications of it, and offer suggestions for increasing the visibility and impact of behavior analysis in the social response to severe behavior disorders. The panelists are drawn from the contributors to a forthcoming issue of Behavior and Social Issues devoted to a discussion of the relative obscurity of behavior analysis in the treatment of severe behavior disorders.

RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Dr. Richard W. Malott received his B.A. in Psychology at Indiana University in 1958 where he was privileged to study with James Dinsmoor. He received his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1963 where he had the additional privilege of studying with William Cumming, W. N. Schoenfeld, and Fred S. Keller. And, like many before and after him, he frittered away a few years of his life doing research on schedules of reinforcement. He taught with the Kantorians at Denison University from 1963 to 1966. In 1966, he helped start the behavior-analysis program at Western Michigan University, where he continues to teach. At WMU, he also helped start an intro psych course that taught behavior analysis to 1,000 students per semester, with the aid of 500 lab rats and 100 Skinner boxes (1,000 lever-pressing rats per year). Now, his students only condition 230 rats per year, but they also do 130 self-management projects and provide 13,500 hours of training to autistic children each year. Malott and his students have packaged their teaching/learning efforts in educational systems known as the Student-Centered Education Project (aka The First Fly-by-night Underground College of Kalamazoo), the Behavioral Social Action Program, and the Behavior Analysis Training System. Currently, every summer, he teaches the Behavioral Boot Camp, an intense 18-hour-per-week, 7.5 week, graduate-level, behavior-analysis seminar. He has been actively involved in teaching African-American students and international students behavior analysis and behavior systems analysis at the graduate level. He and his students developed and run the Behavioral Research Supervisory System, a performance-management system to help 30 B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. students per year complete their projects, theses, and dissertations with high quality and in a timely manner. In addition, he and his students developed and run the Behavioral Academic and Career Counseling service, a behavioral-systems approach to helping 100 students per year get into behavior-analytic graduate programs and get behavior-analytic jobs. Malott helped start Behaviordelia (a publisher of behavioral comic books, etc,), the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA), ABA’s Teaching Behavior Analysis Special Interest Group, ABA’s Education Board, ABA’s Behavioral Follies (previously known as the Behavioral Performing Arts), the ABA Social (previously known as the Behavioral Boogie), the Behavioral Bulletin Board on CompuServe, and the Notes from a Radical Behaviorist bulletin board in the Cambridge Center’s Behavioral Virtual Community ( He wrote the newsletter and column Notes from a Radical Behaviorist and coauthored Principles of Behavior (the book previously known as Elementary Principles of Behavior.) He is now (and has been for many years) working on I’ll Stop Procrastinating when I Get around to It and Applied Behavioral Cognitive Analysis. He has presented in 13 countries and has received two Fulbright Senior Scholar Awards. Over the years, he has also worked extensively with multi-media presentations, from seven-projector slide shows to contemporary PowerPoint presentations, but always with jazz and rock and roll lurking in the background and art and behavior analysis sharing the foreground.
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago)
Dr. Mark A. Mattaini (M.S.W., University of Utah; D.S.W., Columbia University) is Associate Professor, Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago, where he chairs the Community Health and Urban Development concentration and the human behavior division. He has also been on faculty at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Dr. Mattaini is Editor of Behavior and Social Issues; author or co-editor of 10 books, including Finding Solutions to Social Problems: Behavioral Strategies for Change (with Bruce Thyer), Clinical Practice with Individuals, Clinical Intervention with Families, and Peace Power for Adolescents: Strategies for a Culture of Nonviolence; and author of over 75 other publications. He trained with Richard Stuart at the University of Utah in the 1970s, and earlier in his career worked in residential treatment, youth development, substance abuse, autism, and mental health settings. Dr. Mattaini was previously Director of Mental Health Programs for Tanana Chiefs Conference in Interior Alaska, and has particular expertise in the area of mental health treatment and community-level prevention work with indigenous populations. Currently, his research focuses primarily on violence prevention (in particular, the cultural analytic PEACE POWER strategy:, and elaborating the cultural analytic science underlying nonviolent social action.
KURT SALZINGER (Hofstra University)
Dr. Kurt Salzinger has been Senior Scholar in Residence at Hofstra University in Hempstead, NY. since January 2003. He was Executive Director for Science at the American Psychological Association from 2001 to 2003. He has been President of the New York Academy of Sciences, has served on the Board of Directors of the APA, and has been president of Divisions 1 (General Psychology) and 25 (Behavior Analysis) and of the American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology. He also served on the Board of the Cambridge Center as the first Chairman of the Board from 1986 to 1988 and as a Board member from 1988 to 1991, then from 2004 to the present. He is author or editor of 12 books and over 120 articles and book chapters. The most recent book was edited by Rieber, R. W., and Salzinger in 1998: Psychology: Theoretical-Historical Perspectives. He has varied research interests, including behavior analysis applied to human beings, dogs, rats, and goldfish; schizophrenia; verbal behavior of children and adults; and history of psychology. He has both given grants (when a program officer at the National Science Foundation) and received them (when professor of psychology at Hofstra University and Polytechnic University of New York and Principal Research Scientist at the New York State Psychiatric Institute) for his own research. He received the Sustained Superior Performance Award from the National Science Foundation, the Stratton Award from the American Psychopathological Association, and the Most Meritorious Article Award from the Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. In 2002, he was Presidential Scholar for the Association for Behavior Analysis. Kurt probably has contributed tremendously by bringing behavior analysis to national and international attention as well as to that of the broader scientific community.
STEPHEN E. WONG (Florida International University)
Dr. Stephen E. Wong Dr. Stephen E. Wong received his Ph.D. in psychology (Applied Behavior Analysis) from Western Michigan University. His early professional experience included positions as Research Associate with the Department of Psychiatry, University of California at Los Angeles, and program director and researcher in psychiatric hospitals and residential treatment centers in New Mexico, Florida, and Texas. In 1994, Dr. Wong returned to academia and took an appointment as Assistant Professor in the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago. He is currently employed as Associate Professor in the School of Social Work at Florida International University in Miami, Florida. Dr. Wong has conducted numerous studies in applied behavior analysis teaching interpersonal and independent living skills to persons with severe and persistent mental disorders. He has served on many editorial boards including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Research on Social Work Practice, Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, and Behavior and Social Issues, and he is currently on the governing board of Behavior Analyst Online. Dr. Wong has published widely in psychology, psychiatry, and social work journals and books. Some recent works are: Wong, S. E. (2006). Behavior analysis of psychotic disorders: Scientific dead end or casualty of the mental health political economy? Behavior and Social Issues, 15(2), 152-177.; Wilder, D. A., & Wong, S. E. (in press). Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The handbook of functional analysis and clinical psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.; Wong, S. E. (in press). Operant learning., and Pelaez, M., Gewitz, J. L., & Wong, S. E. (in press). A critique of stage theories of human development : A pragmatic approach in social work. The last two chapters both in B. A. Thyer (Ed.), Comprehensive handbook of social work and social welfare, volume 2: Human behavior in the social environment. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Symposium #250
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing and Assessing Preferences for Social Interactions, Auditory Stimulation, and Community-Based Activities
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Thomas S. Higbee, Ph.D.

Stimulus preference assessments have been demonstrated to effectively predict reinforcers for individuals with and without disabilities. Most of the research in this area, however, has focussed on the assessment of edible and tangible (e.g., toys, leisure materials) stimuli. Papers in this symposium will address the use of this technology to assess preferences for various types of social interactions, auditory stimulation, and community-based activities.

Assessing Preferences for Community-Based Activities.
TRACEY TORAN (New England Center for Children), Rebecca Maxfield (New England Center for Children), Elisse M. Battle (New England Center for Children), Richard B. Graff (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Although pictorial paired-stimulus (PPS) preference assessments have been used to successfully identify edible and sensory reinforcers, their utility in accurately identifying preferences for community activities has not been explored. In this study, 2 individuals with developmental disabilities, ages 34-36, participated. Both participants had token reinforcement programs that allowed them access to additional community activities contingent on the absence of challenging behavior. Seven sets of PPS assessments were conducted with 6 community activities. During the PPS assessment, pictures of two community activities were randomly selected and placed in front of the participant, who was asked, “Where do you want to go?” No consequence was provided for pointing to one of the pictures. The percentage of opportunities each picture was touched was calculated, and preference hierarchies were developed. Interobserver agreement (IOA) data were recorded in 75% of sessions across participants and assessments; mean IOA was 100%. Immediately after completing the PPS assessment, the participants traded in their tokens, and went to the community location of their choice. On 5 of 7 occasions, the participant traded in their tokens to access the item that ranked first on the PPS assessment, suggesting that PPS assessments may accurately identify preferences for community-based activities.
An Evaluation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment of Auditory Stimuli for Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.
ERIN HORROCKS (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: Previous researchers have used Stimulus Preference Assessment (SPA) methods to identify salient reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities including tangible, leisure, edible, and olfactory stimuli. In the present study, SPA procedures were used to identify potential auditory reinforcers and determine the reinforcement value of preferred and non-preferred auditory stimuli. The results from this study suggest that the paired stimulus procedure utilized was effective in identifying preferred and non-preferred auditory stimuli, as the contingent application of the identified auditory stimuli produced higher rates of correct responding than did non-preferred auditory stimuli for all participants.
Assessment Protocol for the Identification of Preferred Socially Mediated Consequences.
KRISTA SMABY (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often present with insensitivity to the naturally occurring socially mediated consequences that effectively strengthen and maintain behavior in typically developing children. This paper describes as assessment protocol designed specifically to identify relative preference for social consequences in children with ASD. Three preschool age children diagnosed with ASD participated. Different colored chips were used for each of four experimental conditions: Red for extinction, and blue, green, and yellow for social consequence conditions that evaluated tickles, head rubs, and praise, respectively. The rate of passing a chip to the examiner was the dependent variable. Relative preference for three socially mediated consequences was assessed: tickle, head rub, and praise. Each session consisted of an Extinction condition immediately followed by a Social Consequence condition. IOA ranged from 95 to 100% across conditions and subjects. The assessment procedure identified a preferred socially mediated consequence for each child and showed that the preferred consequence functioned as a reinforcer by the increase in response rate relative to the rate in the previous Extinction condition. Determining sensitivity to social consequences may allow the clinician to augment the acquisition of typical social behavior.
Efficacy of and Preference for Schedules of Social Interaction.
KEVIN C. LUCZYNSKI (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The present study systematically replicates and extends previous research (Hanley, Piazza, Fisher, Contrucci, and Maglieri, 1997) on the efficacy and preference for two different schedules of reinforcement, differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), by evaluating their effects with typically developing children. Efficacy and preference were assessed using a concurrent-chains arrangement within a multielement design. Next, the effects of introducing a signaled delay into the DRA condition and yoking the frequency, amount, and temporal distribution of reinforcement to the NCR condition on efficacy and preference was evaluated. Interobserver agreement was collected on 76% of all sessions and averaged 97%. The results replicated the findings from Hanley et al. (1997) with participants preferring the DRA schedule in comparison to the NCR schedule. Preference shifts were also not observed when the delays to reinforcement were introduced. Implications for the use of reinforcement schedules with typically developing children are discussed.
Symposium #251
CE Offered: BACB
Examination of Variables that Affect the Development of Interventions for Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Edward D
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
CE Instructor: Michael E. Kelley, Ph.D.

A pediatric feeding disorder is diagnosed when a child consumes an insufficient volume or variety of foods to grow. In the treatment of these disorders, a number of procedures have been shown to be effective (e.g., escape extinction). However, like other behavior disorders, the emergence and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders are often affected by idiosyncratic variables. This symposium will present data that exemplifies variables that influence the assessment and treatment of feeding disorders. The first investigation involves the application of functional analysis methods to the assessment of inappropriate mealtime behavior. In many cases, different outcomes were obtained depending on who conducted the assessment (i.e., primary caregivers or clinical staff). In the second investigation, a shaping procedure was evaluated to increase food consumption. Results showed that shaping was not effective at increasing oral intake in the absence of a negative reinforcement-based treatment. Study 3 evaluated the extent to which the response effort associated with either self feeding or non-self feeding influenced response allocation across concurrently available treatments. As predicted, response allocation varied according to manipulations in response effort. These studies will be discussed in terms of variables that influence the development of empirically derived treatments for pediatric feeding disorders.

Differential Effects of Staff Conducted Functional Analysis versus Caregiver Functional Analysis.
HEATHER KADEY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Gregory K. Reed (Howard University), Melanie H. Bachmeyer (University of Iowa), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kristi D. Murphy (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Ringdahl and Sellers (2000) showed that the results of functional analyses of the destructive behavior of children with developmental disabilities identified different functions based on whether caregivers or clinical staff conducted the assessment. The results of Ringdahl and Sellers raises the question of whether (a) functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior also would produce differential results based on whether caregivers or staff conducted the analyses and (b) whether treatments based on the results of the different functional analyses would be effective. The current study sought to address these questions by evaluating the differential effects of caregivers and staff members as therapists during functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior. The results of the study suggested that the outcomes of the two functional analyses were identical for approximately 60% of the participants. However, functional analyses outcomes were different (i.e., identified different functions) for approximately 40% of participants. We then applied treatments that matched the different functions identified during staff and caregiver-conducted analyses and found that the treatment that was matched to the results of the caregiver functional analysis was more effective than the treatment that was matched to the results of the staff-conducted functional analysis.
The Effectiveness of Shaping plus Avoidance as an Alternative to Escape Extinction to Treat Pediatric Feeding Disorders.
VALERIE M. VOLKERT (The Marcus Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University), Heather Kadey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kristi D. Murphy (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Crystal N. Bowen (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that negative reinforcement-based procedures (e.g., escape extinction) have been effective in the treatment of a variety of behavior problems displayed by children with feeding disorders (e.g., inappropriate mealtime behavior, expulsion). However, extinction is sometimes associated with negative side effects (e.g., extinction burst; Lerman, Iwata, & Wallace, 1999). Thus, research on alternatives to escape extinction seems warranted. In the current investigation we assessed the effects of a shaping plus avoidance procedure in which we differentially reinforced successive approximations to consuming a bite of food. For example, we initially reinforced licking the presented food, then touching the presented food and so on until swallowing the presented food was the only response that was reinforced. When the shaping procedure was evaluated in a combined reversal and multiple baseline design, results showed that the shaping procedure alone did not produce increases in consumption of food. However, when a negative reinforcement-based procedure was added to the shaping procedure, increases in consumption were observed. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of shaping procedures and other interventions to treat food refusal displayed by children with feeding disorders.
An Examination of a Choice Paradigm to Increase Self-Feeding in Children Diagnosed with Feeding Disorders.
KRISTI D. MURPHY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Heather Kadey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children with feeding disorders display a number of deficits related to eating including a lack of the skills necessary to feed themselves. Previous research has shown that prompting and reinforcement procedures are effective to teach self-feeding skills to children with feeding disorders. However, most procedures utilized in this research involved a physical prompt, which may be counter-therapeutic for some children if escaping self-feeding is reinforcing. The purpose of the current study was to examine an alternative method to increase self feeding in children with feeding disorders by examining the utility of a choice paradigm. Specifically, a choice paradigm was developed to manipulate the effort associated with self feeding versus non-self feeding. Results indicated that the use of a choice paradigm was an effective treatment for increasing self feeding in all participants although the disparity in effort between the two choices that affected a change varied across participants. Interobserver agreement was obtained for over 25% of sessions and averaged over 80%.
Symposium #253
CE Offered: BACB
Illuminating the Present in Light of the Past
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Randle B
Area: TPC/TBA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Gail B. Peterson (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Gail B. Peterson (University of Minnesota)
CE Instructor: Edward K. Morris, Ph.D.

The theme of this symposium is that our appreciation of even the most well-established and widely-known facts and doctrines of a science is often meaningfully enhanced and enriched when obscure historical details are placed in modern context. Three presentations giving specific examples of this for behavior analysis are followed by a discussion that expands upon that general theme. John Malone provides a biographical portrait of E. B. Delabarre, who contributed substantively to James' Principles of Psychology, worked with Munsterberg and Thorndike, supplied a son to assist Skinner, and founded the psychological laboratory at Brown. Ed Morris describes the origin and fate of third variables, a notion Skinner developed in his earliest writings, but subsequently dropped, that relates to the modern concept of establishing operations and has implications for how Skinner's systematic position has been perceived and understood by psychology at large. Gail Peterson analyzes rarely seen photos from a 1952 story in LOOK magazine featuring B. F. Skinner and Charles Ferster responding to a challenge to demonstrate the power of shaping, the first such public demonstration. Details of the photos are relevant to later empirical and conceptual developments.

In Good Company, when Psychology was Fun.
JOHN C. MALONE (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: E. B. Delabarre was a student of William James at Harvard in the 1880s and wrote a substantial part of James' Chapter 17 (“Sensation”) of the Principles of Psychology (1890). Later he worked with Edward Thorndike on Thorndike's ill-fated attempt to study “mind reading” by children. He received a PhD under Hugo Munsterberg at Freiburg and James later sent him to fetch Munsterberg to direct the Harvard Psychological Laboratories. Decades later, his son assisted B. F. Skinner in Skinner's unsuccessful attempt to modify blood pressure (vasoconstriction and dilation). E. B. Delabarre Sr. carried on his own research on volition and motor consciousness and devised a (painful) method for recording eye movements. He served as the main subject in that endeavor and in a lengthy study of what he found to be the many beneficial effects of hashish. He spent much time on the study of The Dighton Rock and other rocks of New England that carried ancient markings. Perhaps his most enduring achievement was the founding of the psychological laboratory at Brown University.
Back to the Future: B. F. Skinner, Third Variables, and the Concept of Context.
EDWARD K. MORRIS (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Until the advent of establishing operations, behavior analysis lacked a systematic concept of context. In Skinner's earliest work, though, he offered just that - a systematic concept of context he called “third variables.” Third variables were central to his system (e.g., in defining the unit of analysis) and his science (e.g., his research on deprivation), and were more inclusive than establishing operations. Almost as quickly, though, he dropped the concept. This presentation describes its natural history (e.g., its genesis), what it included (e.g., conditioning, drive, biology), and its role in Skinner's system (e.g., it explained variability) and science (e.g., a subject matter in its own right). The presentation also considers why Skinner dropped the concept (e.g., to avoid reification, address particulars) and the consequences of doing so, among them, that it constrained the field's search for a fuller range of factors affecting behavior and misled its critics (e.g., to think it was an S-R psychology). In later addressing the consequences, Skinner sometimes referred back to the role third variables played in his system and science. Had he not dropped the concept, however, these consequences might not have occurred to the extent that they did in the first place.
The World's First LOOK at Shaping.
GAIL B. PETERSON (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The practical, by-hand shaping of behavior is now such a well-known concept and widespread practice that it is hard to imagine a time, not long ago, when it was essentially unknown, yet that was clearly once the case. This presentation includes rarely seen photographs of the first large-scale demonstration of shaping by B. F. Skinner and C. B. Ferster, and illustrates how the bold generalization of a basic principle Skinner had uncovered in his laboratory was subjected to a rigorous, open, totally novel, and somewhat risky validation test, virtually right before the public's eyes. Photographic details suggest that, beyond being an important demonstration, the occasion may well have prompted Skinner to return to the laboratory to investigate the possibility of “a second type of 'superstition'.” The behavioral observations documented that day also appear relevant to more recently described phenomena, such as sign tracking and target training. An awareness of this history is important for behavior analysts because it brings into focus the under-appreciated fact that this powerful method for changing behavior was a genuine scientific discovery of great theoretical and practical significance, and not the intuitively-obvious, long-known, common-sense process it is often assumed to be.
Symposium #254
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Imitation and Observational Learning: Analysis, Methodological Issues, and Applications
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Betsy A
Area: DEV/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
Discussant: Maricel Cigales (Advance Behavior Consulting)
CE Instructor: Maricel Cigales, Ph.D.

The aim of this symposium is to present further analysis, discuss current methodological developments and applications in the area of imitation and observational learning. A paper by Goyos analyzes the behavior of the observer during a matching-to-sample task taking into account the necessary simple and conditional discriminations, antecedent stimuli, motivational operations, observing and touching responses, and consequences. Brown and Poulson will review the concept of observational learning and the operant research on generalized imitation with the goal of identifying procedures to teach learners with autism to imitate in ordinary environments. A stimulus-control account of imitation in ordinary environments is included in this paper with the goal of the development of effective teaching procedures. As the stimulus equivalence technology develops and becomes more powerful, the need to teach a larger number of learners increases, and learning by imitation or observation may be a powerful tool to accomplish this. The objectives of the paper by Goyos & Dias are to develop a control procedure for the observing responses during a matching-to-sample (MTS) task. Secondly, the study investigated whether a model could function as a conditioned reinforcer for the observing response, and third, whether learning a first conditional relation via observational learning would transfer to new conditional relations.

Observational Learning: A Contingency Analysis.
A. CELSO GOYOS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a contingency analysis of observational learning (OL). The provenance of OL has been suggested to be philogenetically determined as a fixed pattern of behavior, but it has also been understood as operant behavior. Furthermore, it has been treated differently from imitation. OL still bears important practical implications, and is considered an effective teaching strategy, mainly to quickly install simple social and linguistic repertoire. In OL, the child behavior may formally resemble the behavior of the model, but not necessarily, or may generate the same results, or still, may or may not be reinforced for that particular behavior. Learning a conditional discrimination task via OL is quite complex. The context in which learning takes place usually involves the presence of an adult and maybe of other children. The task itself may allow the child to respond directly, or to emit an observing response. The analysis put forward describes evocative and reinforcer-establishing effects of antecedent events, people or stimuli, discriminative and conditioned reinforcing functions of stimuli generated by model behavior, and generalized or conditioned reinforcers that may maintain OL behavior. OL may involve many operant classes. Practical applications of the present analysis are discussed.
Discriminating which Fork to Use: Teaching Selective Imitation to People with Autism.
ANN K. BROWN (Queens College, City University of New York and REED Academy), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: There is a literature on operant conditioning procedures to teach imitative repertoires to learners with autism. Yet, very little empirical research has focused on the teaching of imitation to learners with autism in ordinary environments. Typically developing individuals imitate the behavior of others in ordinary social environments. One possible reason that learners with autism do not imitate in ordinary environments is they are not observing the relevant discriminative stimuli that set the occasion for imitative responding. Another possible reason that learners with autism fail to imitate in ordinary environments is they are not observing the unprogrammed reinforcement contingencies that serve to maintain imitative responding for typically developing individuals in ordinary environments. This paper will review the concept of observational learning and the operant research on generalized imitation with the goal of identifying procedures to teach learners with autism to imitate in ordinary environments. A stimulus-control account of imitation in ordinary environments is included in this paper with the goal of the development of effective teaching procedures. Imitation in ordinary environments is discussed in relation to the discriminative stimuli that occasion imitative responding and the unprogrammed reinforcement contingencies that maintain imitative behavior.
Analysis of the Observing Response during Matching-to-Sample Tasks and the Formation of Equivalence Classes.
A. CELSO GOYOS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Aline Favaro Dias (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: This study attempted to develop a control procedure for the observing responses during a matching-to-sample (MTS) task. As a second objective, the study investigated whether a model could function as a conditioned reinforcer in those tasks, and third, whether learning a first conditional relation via observational learning would transfer to new conditional relations. Seven children with normal development ranging in age from 8 to 9 years participated in the study. The participants were experimentally naïve, five of which were attending second grade and two were attending third grade in a brazilian elementary school. A pre-test with the conditional relations to be taught was applied and they all did not reach performance above 50% of correct selections. In a MTS task, a sample stimulus was presented, followed by a clic with the mouse on it and the presentation of three comparison stimuli and a ‘help key’ identified on the screen by the “?” sign. Selections of the “?” button was followed by the presentation of an animation on the computer screen which replicates exactly the same trial, but with a different spatial distribution of the comparison stimuli, and an arrow pointing to the correct selection, and followed by a social consequence (“well done”, “excellent”, and so forth). Next, the computer presents the trial in the same position as it was before the participant pressed the “?” button, but without the button. The computer program registered the frequency of “?” pressings. Selections of a comparison were followed by a 2 s intertrial interval and by the beginning of the next trial. The experimental stimuli were familiar pictures, presented on the screen within a small white square measuring 4.5cm by 4.5 cm. Identity training with familiar stimuli was introduced first to teach the experimental task; all correct trials were followed by a reinforcer, and it was followed by a pre-test of the BA, CA, AB, AC, CB, and BC relations. Next, BA relations were trained followed by BA tests. The difference between BA training and BA tests was the presence of the “?” button during the former. After criterion of 100% correct selections on BA tests was met CA training was introduced, followed by CA tests. After 100% correct selections was met on CA, BA and CA trials were randomly mixed together, with 0% probability of reinforcement. During this session, the participants didn’t have access to the “?” button. After criterion of above 90% correct selections was met, tests f
Symposium #255
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Implicit Sexual Behavior: Developing and Using Implicit Behavior Tests to Identify Sexual History
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Gregory AB
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
CE Instructor: Maria R. Ruiz, Ph.D.

Behavior-analytic research into derived stimulus relations has laid the foundation for powerful and easily administered tests for implicit behavioral histories. These tests allow the behavioral researcher to gather information about an individuals behavioral history without the individuals awareness. While popular implicit tests such as the Implicit Association Test (I.A.T) claim to do precisely this, the processes involved in these tests are poorly understood. This symposium outlines a behavioral research program into the development of implicit behavioral tests, and in particular tests for sexual history and attitudes. The first paper provides an overview of behavior-analytic research into derived stimulus relations that has laid the foundation for the development of behavior-analytic implicit tests. The second paper reports on an experiment designed to assess the utility of a derived relations-based implicit test in detecting a history of inappropriate internet use. The third paper outlines a study that employed a derived relations-based implicit test to assess differences in the attitudes of men and women towards children and sexuality. This issue is also pursued in the fourth paper, which reports on a study employing an I.A.T-type test to examine gender differences in the categorization of children and sexual terms. Together these papers constitute a behavioral research program into the development of behavioral implicit tests that may have a wide variety of uses in research, clinical and forensic settings.

Developing Implicit Behavior Tests Based on the Concept of Derived Relational Responding.
BRYAN T. ROCHE (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Amanda Gavin (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: The Implicit Association Test (I.A.T.) provides a powerful methodology for the analysis of attitudes and behavior in a non-invasive and subtle manner. However, the test assumes to measure implicit or unconscious cognitions and to this extent poses a problem for the behavioral researcher. Moreover, the I.A.T technique bears a striking similarity to behavioral methods of attitude and behavior assessment that rely on the concept of stimulus equivalence and derived relations more generally. The current paper provides an overview of behavior-analytic research that has already laid the foundation for behavioral implicit tests. A behavioral model of the I.A.T in terms of derived stimulus relations will be outlined. This model suggests that the I.A.T measures a history of relational responding, rather than attitudes per se. A program of research designed to establish a behavior-analytically grounded implicit test, not unlike the I.A.T, will also be presented.
A Stimulus Equivalence-Based Implicit Test to Identify Inappropriate Internet Use.
AMANDA GAVIN (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Sarah McGuire (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Conor Linehan (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: Subjects were exposed to a simulated internet experience consisting of a word-picture association training phase in which each of two nonsense syllables (A1 and A2) were paired with sexual and disgusting images (C1 and C2), respectively. In effect, conditioning established the relations A1-C1 and A2-C2. A control group were exposed to a similar but non-contingent conditioning procedure in which all possible combinations of the A-C relations were established. Using a linear training protocol all subjects were trained to form the equivalence relations A1-B1-C2 and A2-B2-C1. Subjects were then exposed to a modified equivalence test in which C stimuli were presented as samples and one of the A stimuli was presented as a comparison on every trial. Responding was recorded using a yes/no procedure in which subjects were required to confirm if the sample and comparison “went together”. Experimental subjects showed lower rates of stimulus equivalence acquisition than control subjects. The effect is interpreted in terms of the competing histories of respondent conditioning and equivalence training. This effect may form the basis of an implicit test for history of internet use or other relational histories.
Using a Behavioral Precursor to the Implicit Association Test to Measure Differences in the Sexual Categorisation of Children and Adults by Men and Women.
AMANDA GAVIN (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Louise Levins (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Conor Linehan (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: The current study was designed to assess male and female participants' relative fluency in matching sexual words with child-related words compared with adult-related words. Adult males and female participants were taught a series of conditional discriminations designed to establish two three-member equivalence relations according to a linear training protocol. Specifically, participants were trained to relate each of the terms Child and Adult (i.e., A stimuli) to one of two nonsense syllables (i.e., B stimuli), which in turn were related to a sexual and a nonsexual term, respectively (i.e., C stimuli). Participants were then exposed to an equivalence-type test in which only one comparison was presented per trial. A Yes/No procedure was employed to record responses on each trial. Interesting patterns of gender differences in the acquisition of stimulus equivalence were observed using these terms as stimuli. The findings raise interesting questions regarding differences in the verbal practices of men and women and contribute to our functional-analytic understanding of implicit test procedures.
Using an Implicit Association Test to Assess Differences in the Sexual Categorisation of Children and Adults by Men and Women.
MARIA R. RUIZ (Rollins College), Jaslin Goicoechea (Rollins College), Brittany Johnson (Rollins College), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Amanda Gavin (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: Previous research by the current authors involved using a behavioral variation of the Implicit Association Test to examine differences in relational responding towards children between incarcerated pedophiles and other non-offender groups. The procedure was designed to assess participants' fluency in associating terms related to sexuality with images of children. The results suggested that pedophiles make significantly more correct responses when child images and sexual terms require the same operant response. Of a range of other groups tested, including non offender males, only non-offender female subjects showed significantly more errors relating sexual terms to children rather than adults. The current study further explored this effect by administering a specifically-designed IAT-type test to assess differences the sexual categorization of children and adults by a random selection of normal men and women. The results point to possible differences in the ways in which men and women categorize children and have implications for a behavioral understanding of the Implicit Association Test.
Panel #256
CE Offered: BACB
Incorporating Research from Other Disciplines into the Behavioral Treatment of Learners with Autism
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Douglas A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Frank R. Cicero, M.S.
Chair: Joanne Gerenser (Eden II Programs)
DANA BATTAGLIA (Eden II Programs/Genesis School)
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)
REBECCA L. NULL (Burlington County Special Services School District)

Autism is a complex disorder that affects an individuals language and communication, social skills as well as other aspects of learning. Applied behavior analysis has been widely documented as being the most effective treatment methodology to address the behavioral excesses and deficits associated with autism. Unfortunately, even with excellent behavioral treatment, many individuals with autism continue to demonstrate significant deficits in language, communication, and social skills. It appears that existing interventions are insufficient to address the complex learning deficits of all learners with autism. One strategy to address this problem is to broaden the scope of treatment outside of the behavior analysis field to other disciplines and areas of research. This panel will present a set of case studies that demonstrate the integration of other disciplines with applied behavior analysis in the treatment of learners with autism. Specifically, programs derived from the research in speech-language pathology, psycholinguistics, and cognitive psychology will be discussed.

Symposium #257
CE Offered: BACB
Language for Learning, Children with Autism, and Relational Frame Theory
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Cathy L. Watkins (California State University, Stanislaus)
Discussant: Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Katie Endicott, None

Language for Learning is a Direct Instruction program designed to teach pre-academic skills as well as skills in areas such as problem solving, classification, description of objects, and actions. . The curriculum is comprised of presentation books and workbooks that cover a variety of domains essential for language development and academic success. Information will be presented on what programs are currently using Language for Learning, how Language for Learning can be incorporated into a discrete trial teaching program with children with autism and data on skills mastered as well as an error analysis. In addition, a paper will be presented linking the concepts of relational frame theory to effective instructional practices in language development. Information will be included as to how Language for Learning addresses the teaching of relational frames throughout the content. In this program, relational frames are taught for the purpose of increasing communication skills to transmit and receive information, solve problems, and engage in higher order thinking tasks, all of which are skills necessary for academic success.

Program Overviews of Language for Learning for Children with Autism.
TRINA D. SPENCER (Utah State University)
Abstract: Information will be provided as to what programs nationwide are currently using Language for Learning with children with autism. A brief overview of the actual content of the curriculum will be provided, as well as a review of previous research.
Clinical Applications of Language for Learning with Preschoolers with Autism.
KATIE ENDICOTT (Utah State University), Nicole C. Groskreutz (Utah State University)
Abstract: Language for Learning is a unique Direct Instruction curriculum that can easily be incorporated into any discrete trial program. It can be used to teach preacademic skills and important problem solving skills in language development. Data will be presented from a study involving four preschoolers with autism who have participated in Language for Learning, as well as an error analysis for supplementary instruction purposes.
Language for Learning: A Relational Frame Theory Perspective.
GINGER KELSO (Utah State University)
Abstract: Information will be presented linking the concepts of relational frame theory to effective instructional practices in language development. Information will be included as to how Language for Learning addresses the teaching of relational frames throughout the content. In this program, relational frames are taught for the purpose of increasing communication skills to transmit and receive information, solve problems, and engage in higher order thinking tasks, all of which are skills necessary for academic success.
Panel #265
CE Offered: BACB
Training Entry Level Behavior Analysts: Managing the BCABA Experience Requirement in an Undergraduate Setting
Sunday, May 27, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Mohsen AB
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Chair: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University)
DENNIS B. MOZINGO (University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong)
JAMES KOPP (University of Texas, Arlington)
MENIKA S. SCHULTE (Eastern Connecticut State University)

There have been recent revisions to the requirements for completing supervised fieldwork that will fulfill the national standards of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). There are an ever-growing number of BACB approved training programs at both the graduate and undergraduate levels that offer the coursework component but do not offer the supervised experience component. Undergraduate programs at universities that do not have an approved graduate program face unique challenges in locating, contacting, and supervising these placements. A sample of undergraduate programs that offer the supervised undergraduate experience in preparation for certification in behavior analysis at the associate level will answer questions about how they meet these challenges to open discussion about possible solutions for other programs.

Symposium #269
CE Offered: BACB
Applied Research on Schedules of Reinforcement
Sunday, May 27, 2007
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Annie AB
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Brian A. Iwata, None

Research presented in this symposium illustrates a range of applications in which varied reinforcement schedules (progressive ratio, concurrent, conjugate, momentary DRO) played a prominent role in the context of either assessment or treatment.

Preference for Reinforcers under Progressive- and Fixed-Ratio Schedules in Single- and Concurrent-Operant Arrangements.
ASHLEY C. GLOVER (The Marcus Institute), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Heather Kadey (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Progressive ratio (PR) schedules have been used to establish how much an individual will respond under increasing schedule requirements (i.e., the break point) for different reinforcers and have been conducted in both single and concurrent arrangements. Although both methods allow for the establishment of a break point, it is unknown how these break points predict responding under single and concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules. We used PR schedules to identify the break point for two reinforcers (e.g., attention and TV) under single- and concurrent-operant conditions, using educational tasks as the target response. Sunsequently, we presented the same reinforcers concurrently at fixed-ratio schedules that were yoked to the respective break points obtained under PR schedules (i.e., conc FR 16 FR 3). Results suggested that in both assessments the participant responded more for one reinforcer regardless of whether it was presented on a single or concurrent PR schedule. Furthermore, this pattern of responding maintained when the reinforcers were presented in concurrent FR schedules. These results suggest that PR schedules are effective for identifying differential reinforcer value when developing educational training programs for individuals with developmental disabilities.
Reinforcing Effects of Preference-Assessment vs. Token-Store Selections under Single and Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules.
JORGE RAFAEL REYES (University of Florida), Kimberly Sloman (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: We evaluated the reinforcing efficacy of items identified as preferred through a preference assessment to the reinforcing efficacy of items that were selected at a token store. The items for each participant were selected by taking one item that was ranked low on the preference assessment but ranked high in the token store and another item that was ranked high on the preference assessment but ranked low in the token store. Both items were available concurrently and access to each item was made contingent on completing a word copying task. Results showed that under low, but equal schedule requirements (i.e., FR3/FR3), both items functioned equally well as reinforcers. Furthermore, when presented alone, each item was also highly effective in maintaining responding on the word copying task. These results suggest that items shown to be “low preference” can serve as reinforcers when presented either in a concurrent arrangement or when presented in isolation. Future manipulations will involve investigating the reinforcing efficacy of these items under progressive ratio schedules.
Effects of Fixed, Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements.
JENNIFER LYNN HAMMOND (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Carrie M. Dempsey (University of Florida), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Florida)
Abstract: Results of previous research have shown that the fixed-momentary schedule of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM-DRO) is generally ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM-DRO used signals to indicate the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the reported ineffectiveness of FM-DRO is due to (a) discrimination of the contingency that was facilitated by the signals, or (b) the momentary response requirement of the schedule per se. To address this issue, we compared the effects of signaled vs. unsignaled FM-DRO with three individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities whose problem behaviors were maintained by social-positive reinforcement (based on results of a functional analysis). During signaled DRO, the experimenter delivered a visual or auditory signal 3 s prior to the end of the DRO interval, and reinforcement was delivered contingent upon the absence of problem behavior at the end of the interval. Similar procedures were used during unsignaled DRO; however, interval termination was not signaled. Results indicated that unsignaled FM-DRO was effective in decreasing problem behavior, whereas signaled FM-DRO was not, suggesting that the response requirement per se of FM-DRO may not be problematic unless it is easily discriminated.
Evaluation of a Conjugate Reinforcement Schedule for Exercise Behavior in Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome.
CLAUDIA L. DOZIER (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jessica L. Thomason (University of Florida), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Florida)
Abstract: Physical exercise is an important therapeutic intervention in the management of life-threatening obesity, a prominent clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). We compared the effects of access to preferred activities (music, television, attention) on exercise behavior, which were delivered via conjugate versus more traditional ratio schedules. Results indicated that the conjugate schedule was more effective in maintaining exercise for 3 of 4 participants and that all 4 participants showed preference for the conjugate schedule during a subsequent choice condition. Results are discussed with respect to the use of non-food interventions to increase exercise by individuals diagnosed with PWS and the potential use of conjugate schedules with other types of performance.
Symposium #271
CE Offered: BACB
Development and Clinical Implications of Performance Standards in Young Children with Autism
Sunday, May 27, 2007
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John D. McElwee (Hazleton Area School District)
Discussant: Carl V. Binder (Binder Riha Associates)
CE Instructor: Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D.

This symposium will focus on the importance of determining performance standards (aims) for instructional programs. Specifically, panelists will discuss methods for determining aims for learners on the autism spectrum, generic speaking rate as a tool for predicting speaking aims, and the clinical relevance of issues related to rate, particilarly in the realm of progress on educational programs.

Developing Performance Aims for Learners on the Autism Spectrum.
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Many learners with ASD's have difficulty progressing through curricular sequences. Accuracy may not predict their ability to functionally use skills. It is important to develop standards for how quickly an individual can demonstrate a skill. This presentation will focus on methods for establishing aims and on assessing the outcomes of rate-building. Specifically, the presentation will highlight how the achievement of fluency is manifested in improved retention, application, stability, and endurance.
Estimating Performance Standards for Instructional Programs in EIBI for ASD Students.
JOHN D. MCELWEE (Hazleton Area School District)
Abstract: EIBI is characterized by the utilization of basic principles of behavior to change performance and a detailed sequence of instructional programs. A fundamental premise is the delineation of a criterion for performance indicating a student can progress within the curriculum sequence. EIBI main target is verbal behavior with the ultimate being conversation like skills for ASD students. This paper will propose that utilizing generic “speaking rate” provides a valuable tool that can be used to predict the estimated performance standard for a variety of verbal behavior skills. The talk will include data and discussion of the variety of implications from social skills to school inclusion.
Clinical Implications of Non-Fluent Behaviors.
MARY JANE WEISS (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Many learners with autism are able to achieve accuracy on curricular targets, but fail to functionally and effectively demonstrate their skills in natural environments. These failures lead to missed social opportunitiesand missed opportunities for group participation. Furthermore, these problems lead to and a variety of difficulties in less restrictive settings, including difficulty keeping pace with the group. Methods for assessing and targeting problems in the functional demonstration of skills will be reviewed.
Invited Symposium #275
CE Offered: BACB
Improving Homeland Security Using Behavior Analysis: Basic and Applied Research Examples
Sunday, May 27, 2007
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Douglas B
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jon S. Bailey (Florida State University/Florida Association for Behavior Analysis)
CE Instructor: Jon S. Bailey, Ph.D.



Human Vigilance during Luggage Screening Tasks: Signals Function as Reinforcement for Observing Responses

RYAN B. OLSON (Oregon Health & Science University), Matthew C. Bell (Santa Clara University), Lindsey Hogan (Santa Clara University)

A 2x2 factorial design tested the effects of signal schedule (extinction or VI 6-min) and visual field and signal context (DIAL with needle deflections or BAGGAGE with knives) on the rate of observing responses in a visual screening task. During 30-minute sessions, participants (n=24) pressed the spacebar to briefly view a BAGGAGE or DIAL image (two seconds) and pressed a hit key when a signal was present. Cumulative records of spacebar presses were approximately 30% steeper during VI 6-min conditions. Statistical analyses showed a main effect for target schedule [F (1,20)=12.4, p<.05], no main effect for visual context (F<1), and no interaction (F<1). The results highlight the importance of signal schedules in maintaining vigilant performance during visual screening tasks.

Dr. Ryan B. Olson completed undergraduate studies at Utah State University and earned his M.A. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and his Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis at Western Michigan University. Dr. Olson has published papers on the topics of occupational health and safety, performance improvement, work motivation, and aviation psychology and has served as a guest reviewer for the International Journal of Stress Management, the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. He has consulted with aviation, auto parts and paper products manufacturing, higher education, and pharmaceutical organizations on safety, training, psychological assessment, and performance improvement issues. Dr. Olson’s co-authored paper on work motivation became the feature article in a special issue of the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (Olson, Laraway, & Austin, 2001). His work in transportation settings has opened new areas of occupational health and safety research, including the first experimental evidence that self-monitoring (SM) procedures can improve the safe driving of bus operators (Olson & Austin, 2001). He also developed a descriptive measurement system for beginning flight student landings, which resulted in the first published profile of landing errors for a cohort of novice pilots (Olson & Austin, in press).

Improving Human Performance in an Advanced Security System Environment: Vigilance Data from an Airport Communications Center

JON S. BAILEY (Florida State University/Florida Association for B), Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University), Sara M. Olsen (Florida State University), Kimberly Erin Clark (Florida State University)

In a post-9/11 world, airport security has become a national priority. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Securitys (DHS) budget set aside $5.2 billion for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and $851 million to improve aviation security. The current study was carried out within the operations division of a regional airport. The operations division is responsible for the airports communication center, safety, security, oversight of general aviation, ground transportation, compliance with FAA regulations, and coordination with police and fire services. We defined and measured vigilance behaviors in the communications center and evaluated the effects of naturally-occurring and specially designed behavioral intervention.

Dr. Jon S. Bailey is Professor of Psychology at Florida State University where he has been on the graduate faculty for 37 years and serves as Director of the Applied Behavior Analysis doctoral program and the undergraduate Performance Management Track and is Co-Director of the Master’s Program in Applied Behavior Analysis. Dr. Bailey is President of Behavior Management Consultants, Inc., is a licensed psychologist and a Board Certified Behavior Analyst in the State of Florida, has served on the Florida Behavior Management Peer Review Committee, and has been an Expert Witness for the U.S. Department of Justice. He is a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International and the American Psychological Association (APA), as well as the American Psychological Society. He has served on the Executive Councils of the Association for Behavior Analysis International and Division 25 of APA. He is currently the Secretary/Treasurer of the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis, which he founded in 1980. Dr. Bailey is the past-Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is co-author of four recent books, all co-authored with Dr. Mary Burch: Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis, How Dogs Learn, Ethics for Behavior Analysts, and, in 2006, How to Think Like a Behavior Analyst.
Towards a Program of Behavioral Research for Domestic Preparedness
MARK P. ALAVOSIUS (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Analyses of the events of 9/11 and hurricane Katrina reveal many behavioral, organizational, and system variables that thwart effective prevention and containment of such catastrophic events. This paper proposes areas for behavioral research and application in an effort to promote an integrated contribution by behavior analysts to homeland security.
Dr. Mark P. Alavosius, Ph.D. received his B.A. in psychology from Clark University in 1976 and earned his M.S. (1985) and Ph.D. (1987) in Psychology from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He is an Assistant Professor of Psychology in the Behavior Analysis Program at the University of Nevada, Reno. He held faculty appointments in the Behavior Analysis and Industrial/Organizational Program at Western Michigan University and the Behavior Analysis Program at West Virginia University. As President of MPA & Associates, Inc., Dr. Alavosius works with specialists in instructional design, multi-media interactive systems, software development, business strategy, and performance management to develop and provide behavioral systems to improve performance in business and industry. His interests are in developing behavioral and instructional systems to improve work performance, particularly in the areas of health and safety. Dr. Alavosius has a proven track record with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a recipient of Small Business Innovations Research Grants to develop and test behavioral safety technologies. With over twenty years of experience in behavioral approaches to work performance and occupational health and safety, Dr. Alavosius has over 100 publications and conference presentations to his credit.
Challenges to Security and Human Factors Research Efforts at the Department of Homeland Security
JOSHUA RUBINSTEIN (Transportation Security Laboratory, Department of Homeland Security)
Abstract: Dr. Rubinstein is a member of the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The TSL is the key government laboratory resource in the United States, responsible for research, development, engineering, and test and evaluation activities related to explosives and weapons detection for all modes of transportation security. Dr. Rubinstein will discuss the role of research and development within the DHS and emerging priorities for the human factors research program at the TSL. He will also report results from selected human factors studies related to transportation security.
Dr. Joshua Rubinstein received a B.A. in Psychology from Swarthmore College in 1984, an M.A. in Cognitive Psychology from the University of Illinois in 1989, and a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1993. He was post-doctoral research fellow at the Center for Neuroscience at the University of California, Davis, where he conducted research on several aspects of attention, including human executive control processes. Dr. Rubinstein joined the FAA’s Aviation Security Human Factors Program in May 2000 as an Engineering Research Psychologist. He developed the X-ray Screener Selection Test currently used by TSA as the X-ray aptitude test for screener hiring. One of his current responsibilities is long-term research of a technical monitor of human factors. Starting in 2001, Dr. Rubinstein developed a program for funding academic scientists in the areas of attention, target detection, object recognition, training, learning, and fatigue as they relate to the X-ray screener task. Currently, he is acting lead of the Human Factors Program at the Transportation Security Laboratory. He is also responsible for usability analyses and designing and conducting the qualification tests for human in-the-loop security systems.
Symposium #279
CE Offered: BACB
The Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project: Infusing ABA within Public School Autism Classrooms
Sunday, May 27, 2007
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Elizabeth C
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Mary Lynch Barbera (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Discussant: Michael Miklos (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Net)
CE Instructor: Mary Lynch Barbera, Other

This presentation will give participants an overview of the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project and will highlight research initiatives completed and in progress. During the first presentation, an overview of the PA Verbal Behavior Project will be given and a summary of outcomes over the past 4 years will be presented. Following the overview, Behavior Analysts will share two controlled studies done through the Project which evaluated different transfer procedures to teach tacts to children with autism. The final presentation within this symposium will highlight selected case studies completed through the PA Verbal Behavior Project.

The Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project: An Overview and Summary of Outcomes.
DEBRA NAMEY (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project), Kelly R. Gansarski (Tuscara Intermediate Unit 11)
Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of the PA Verbal Behavior Project, a unique program funded by the PA Department of Education which provides training, materials, and on-site consultation to 65 public school autism classrooms across the State. A summary of outcomes for the past four years will be presented.
Transfer Procedure Research Done through the PA Verbal Behavior Project.
MARY LYNCH BARBERA (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project), Amiris Dipuglia (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of a single subject design published study entitled: Using Transfer Procedures to Teach Tacts to a Child with Autism (Barbera, & Kubina, Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005) and an unpublished replication/expansion of that study entitled A Comparison of Transfer Procedures to Teach Tacts to Four Children with Autism.
PA Verbal Behavior Project Selected Case Studies.
AMIRIS DIPUGLIA (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project), Mary Lynch Barbera (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: This presentation will highlight selected case studies from the PA Verbal Behavior Project.
Panel #291
CE Offered: BACB
Why Is Behavior Analysis Used Selectively in Treating Severe Behavior Disorders
Sunday, May 27, 2007
4:30 PM–5:20 PM
Gregory AB
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: W. Joseph Wyatt, Ph.D.
Chair: W. Joseph Wyatt (Marshall University)
DWIGHT HARSHBARGER (Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies)
ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
W. JOSEPH WYATT (Marshall University)

This session is a continuation of the earlier Invited Panel Discussion entitled "Behavior and Social Issues: Behavior Analysis, Biological Psychiatry, and the Treatment of Severe Behavior Disorders" and includes additional contributors to the special issue of Behavior and Social Issues that was recently devoted to a discussion of the modest impact that behavior analysis has made in the treatment of severe behavior disorders. The panelists will focus of the economic, industrial, and institutional factors that supersede scientific data to limit the use of behavior analysis and favor psychotropic medication in the treatment of severe behavior disorders.




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