Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


33rd Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2007

Program by Continuing Education Events: Monday, May 28, 2007

Manage My Personal Schedule


Symposium #331
CE Offered: BACB
Improving Staff Performance in Residential Schools: The Use of Innovative Training Models
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Emma C
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Daniel Almeida, M.A.

This symposium will present 4 studies demonstrating innovative models to improve staff performance in a residential setting. The first paper will discuss the effectiveness of a training program incorporating a video model of correct skill performance, but no feedback provided on performance. The second paper assessed the level of protocol compliance in new staff following a training package comprised of didactic training and structured performance-based training with a competency component. In addition, ongoing system-wide data of performance and competency-based staff training using feedback tools will be presented. The third paper assesses and compares the accuracy of the descriptive data collected by direct-care staff under the two conditions: on-shift with students or independent observer. The fourth paper employs the same procedures as Parsons and Reid (1995) to train 5 supervisors in a residential facility and 5 supervisors in a school facility to provide effective feedback to direct service staff in both the group home and school setting.

Video-Modeling to Teach Staff to Conduct Discrete Trial Instruction: Maintenance and Generalization of Performance.
CYNTHIA N. CATANIA (Melmark New England), Daniel Almeida (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Developing effective and efficient training methods to teach human service and educational staff to conduct discrete trial instruction is of critical importance to the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. In this study, 5 direct service staff, with varying levels of experience and training in Applied Behavior Analysis, participated in a training program incorporating a video model of correct skill performance, but no feedback provided on performance. Staff’s percentage of accuracy of discrete trial competencies was assessed during baseline and training conditions using a multiple probe across participants design. Results showed an immediate and substantial increase in accuracy to 95-100% following training. For 3 of the 4 staff remaining in the study, maintenance data collected 4 months after the initial training showed continued levels of high accuracy. Generalization data will be collected on staff performance across different, non-training instructional curricula and students. How the findings relate to the efficiency and effectiveness of staff training will be discussed.
Comparing the Effectiveness of Performance-Based Training to Didactic Training on Staff Teaching Skills.
Abstract: Behavior analysts must learn to be effective change agents with students as well as those who will carry out the interventions. Ensuring protocol compliance across direct care staff in a large residential educational facility is a challenge. While didactic training is enticing due to time efficiency, empirical research does not offer strong support of effectiveness in changing staff behavior (Dyer, Schwartz, & Luce, 1984; Sterling-Turner, et al., 2001). Effective staff training should be performance and competency based (Reid & Parsons, 2002). Data will be presented depicting the level of protocol compliance exhibited by recently hired staff following a training package comprised of didactic training and unstructured performance based training without a competency component. Data show low levels of compliance. Specifically, scores on a teaching skills feedback instrument ranged from 29.4% to 77.8% correct implementation (inter-observer agreement averaged 85%). These data will be compared to the level of protocol compliance in new staff following a training package comprised of didactic training and structured performance-based training with a competency component (data to be collected). In addition, ongoing system-wide data of performance and competency-based staff training using feedback tools will be presented. The impact of improved staff training on student outcomes will also be discussed.
Utilizing Video as a Self-Monitoring Tool to Increase Staff Interaction Skills.
TIFFANEY M. ESPOSITO (Melmark New England/Northeastern University)
Abstract: The effects of a self-directed monitoring and feedback system on the interaction skills of direct-care staff in a residential group home setting were investigated. Four direct-care staff working with students with developmental delays were exposed to a training system which utilized video as a self-monitoring tool to improve desired interaction skills in the absence of supervisory feedback. The effects of the training system were assessed utilizing a multiple-baseline design across subjects. The performance across all four participants improved and was generalized over time. The need for the development of more efficient staff training and management systems that ensure the quality of care to individuals who reside in human service settings is discussed.
Training Supervisors to Provide Feedback for Maintaining Staff Teaching Skills.
HELENA L. MAGUIRE (Melmark New England), Patricia A. Finney (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Training supervisors to provide effective feedback that both enhances and maintains staff’s skills when teaching consumers is an integral component to an effective organization. Consumers benefit from staff members who utilize effective teaching skills and are consistent with the delivery of effective teaching strategies. Previous research conducted by Parsons and Reid (1995) found that maintenance of teaching skills was far greater for direct service staff whose supervisors had received training in providing feedback relative to staff whose supervisors had not received such training. In this study, the same procedures as Parsons and Reid (1995) were employed to train 5 supervisors in a residential facility and 5 supervisors in a school facility to provide effective feedback to direct service staff in both the group home and school setting. The training package included classroom based instruction, on the job observation, and on the job feedback. After supervisors demonstrated mastery in providing direct services to consumers, these same supervisors were then trained to deliver effective feedback. Following this training in providing feedback, all supervisors were observed in their provision of feedback to their staff. Supervisors were observed and data was collected on the correct or incorrect presentation of the eight feedback components. Data to be collected.
Symposium #334
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing Autism Interventions in Public Schools: Which Strategies, for Which Children, with What Resources?
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Douglas A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Philip N. Hineline (Temple University)
Discussant: Gina Green (San Diego State University)
CE Instructor: Philip N. Hineline, Ph.D.

Lovaas et al. (1987) convincingly demonstrated that early intensive applied behavioral interventions can dramatically improve the lifetime prospects for children with autism, and there have been several additional comparative studies validating that specific approach along with the more general term applied behavior analysis as an intervention strategy. But the array of behaviorally based strategies has expanded and evolved over the past two decades. Distinctive labels have been given to innovations, some of which are advocated upon on the basis of conceptual rationales rather than supporting research. Furthermore, services for children with autism have moved beyond the research setting and into public schools and homes, with the interventions implemented by teaching staff, paraprofessionals and parents. There is clearly a need for researchers to step beyond traditional within-subject research designs and begin the process of delineating the similarities and differences between alternative approaches while also evaluating intervention effectiveness. A multi-systemic approach will be presented for evaluating early, intensive ABA-based interventions within public school settings. The methodology for this multi-site study extends beyond the single-subject design to address which techniques and strategies are most effective for which children within the autism spectrum and with what resources of staffing and expertise.

Which Strategies? The Role of Curriculum Sequencing within Autism Interventions.
JOHN C. BARNARD (Educational Services Unit, Burlington County Special Services School District), Christina M. Peters (Temple University), Betsy Wurstner (Temple University)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been recognized as an effective intervention strategy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and it provides the conceptual foundation for effective early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Not the same as the more general term "early intervention," EIBI is a specialized instructional approach that includes an individualized and comprehensive curriculum protocol that is specifically designed and sequenced to build a complex repertoire of skills. This presentation will review selected general principles of behavior analytic curriculum development and discuss certain implications towards effective intervention within public school settings. Some similarities and differences between familiar approaches will be discussed along with the potential implications of these similarities and differences for attempts to compare curriculum packages. A proposed method of tracking curriculum sequencing will be presented along with a graphic representation of data for a sample of students demonstrating the similarities and differences between certain common approaches towards curriculum development. The important role of this type of data within a comprehensive research protocol will be discussed.
For Which Children? Direct vs. Indirect Measures for Predicting Child Outcomes.
BETSY WURSTNER (Temple University), Kelly McElrath (Bucks County Intermediate Unit #22), Lisa Marie Angello (Rider College)
Abstract: Selecting the most effective early intervention strategies for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become increasingly challenging with the expansion of behaviorally based options that have become available. Direct, repeated assessment and evaluation of the child’s progress often is the single, best predictor of child outcome. However, there may be alternative measures conducted at the outset of intervention that can assist in predicting child outcomes. These assessment techniques include both direct and indirect measures of child performance and potential. As part of a multi-site study examining the factors contributing to positive child outcomes with early intervention, we will examine the relative utility of various assessment methods in predicting child outcomes with intensive early intervention for children with autism. Implications for improving the selection of appropriate intervention strategies will be discussed.
With What Resources? Repeated Assessments of Staff Expertise.
JENNIFER A. WADE (Temple University), Nina C. Wilde (Bucks County Intermediate Unit #22), Saul Axelrod (Temple University)
Abstract: Data from both direct observation and from a written probe will be presented, evaluating the expertise (practical and conceptual) of staff persons who are implementing the alternative behavioral approaches that are under consideration here. The staff expertise probe was developed in the course of staff training prior to this project. During the project, these assessments occur at the start of the school semester, or before and after staff training when that occurs earlier. The staff observation tool was designed specifically for this project, and enables assessments twice per semester to track changes in expertise during a person’s work experience. Although the data will be aggregated in ways that preserve anonymity, results for each individual staff person will be assessed in relation to the progress of individual children with whom that person worked. The two staff assessment techniques were designed to encompass the full range of behavioral techniques so as not to favor any particular approach, thus allowing for meaningful comparison of staff expertise both within and across sites.
Symposium #339
CE Offered: BACB
Current Behavioral Research and Practice in Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Elizabeth H
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Adel C. Najdowski, Ph.D.

Treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been scientifically demonstrated to be the most effective option for young children with autism. However, more research is needed in order to identify the most effective procedures, both for the assessment and reduction of challenging behavior, as well as teaching adaptive behavior. This symposium includes three presentations on empirical research on a variety of topics in the assessment and treatment of the behavior of individuals with autism, covering topics such as toilet training, data collection of aquisition skills, and functional assessment. The symposium will be concluded with a discussion of the presentations.

Wearing a Diaper During Toilet Training: An Evaluation of the Effects on Children Diagnosed with Autism.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Melody Nabizadeh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), James Summers (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Urinary incontinence has been shown to be a pervasive problem in children with autism. Incontinence can affect a child both socially and in terms of risk of infectious diseases transmitted through bodily waste (Berk & Friman, 1990). Surveys have reported that anywhere from 50 -70% of all children with autism have difficulties with toileting (Whitely, 2004; Horvath, Papadimitriou, Rabsztyn, Drachenberg & Tildon, 1999). Recent research conducted with an adult with developmental disabilities demonstrated that wearing diapers may occasion urinary accidents (Tarbox, Williams & Friman, 2004). In the current investigation a reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of wearing a diaper during toilet training for two children diagnosed with autism. Results suggest that wearing a diaper may increase the likelihood of urinary incontinence. Moreover, successful voids increased during the course of evaluation. Treatment, follow-up, reliability and integrity data will be presented.
Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments in Children with Autism.
ARTHUR E. WILKE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures. Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research on behavioral intervention, indirect and descriptive functional assessment procedures may be more commonly used in clinical and educational practice. Little research has systematically compared indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, let alone with participants within the autism population. The current study compares indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, across several children with autism, representing a range of ages and topographies of challenging behavior.
Electronic Data Collection for Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: An Analysis and Comparison of mTrial to Traditional Pen and Paper Methods of Data Collection.
SIENNA GREENER-WOOTEN (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: There is considerable empirical evidence that demonstrates that early intensive behavior analytic intervention (also referred to as ABA) produces substantial improvements in young children with autism across a number of skill domains (cognitive functioning, language skills, academic performance, etc.). A central feature of this treatment approach is the reliance on continuous measurement of child performance during all treatment hours (20-40 hours per week) to ensure an objective and quantitative analysis of behavior. Data collection ensures that appropriate treatment decisions are being recommended for each individual child and that an evidence-based practice model is being followed at all times. Pen and paper data collection is the standard practice in service delivery agencies, however this format can be time consuming and costly. An alternative is to collect data via an electronic format, however little research has been done on electronic data collection in these settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mTrial, a program that allows therapists to record, store, and report discrete trial and other behavior data for students on a Palm handheld, is effective in collecting and maintaining client data during intensive early intervention and to compare this system to traditional pen and paper data.
Panel #341
CE Offered: BACB
Ethics in Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review of Some Critical Issues
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Gregory AB
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael F. Dorsey, Ph.D.
Chair: Michael F. Dorsey (The Vinfen Corporation)
MICHAEL F. DORSEY (The Vinfen Corporation)
GERALD A SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
THOMAS L. ZANE (The Evergreen Center)
JAMES M. JOHNSTON (Auburn University)

As the field of Applied Behavior Analysis expands, critical issues relative to the protection of those we serve become more important to both the consumers as well as the longevity of the profession. The presenters will discuss a number of these issues, providing recommendations that will address both needs. Among these very critical issues is the current lack of direct oversight of individuals who are either members of ABA and/or certified by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board. The goal of this symposium will be to develop potential solutions to this issue and work to advocate for changes in the systems necessary to promote such needs.

Symposium #343
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Advanced Interpersonal and Community Skills in Children with Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Early behavioral intervention has well demonstrated the ability to instill or increase basic social and interpersonal skills in children with autism. However, there remain many areas where programming is less well developed. This symposium presents data-based procedures for addressing problems in pedestrian safety, non-food ingestion, and joint attention skills. These areas are often more challenging to treat than basic language, academic, and self-help deficits. As behavioral interventions become more widespread and effective, increased numbers of children need assistance with the more subtle skills. The first presentation reports on a program designed to improve childrens ability to be safe in high risk situations in the community. Automobile awareness and safety while walking are important safety skills for all children to have. The second presentation describes an ABA intervention to help a child with severe Pica. Many children with autism have additional diagnoses, and Pica not only constitutes a serious threat to the childs well-being, but is notoriously difficult to treat in a natural environment. The third presentation describes a 3-phase behavioral intervention to increase joint attention in children with autism, thus allowing the shared awareness and experience that makes social interaction so rewarding.

Teaching Pedestrian Safety Skills to Children with Autism.
KRISTEN MCCLINTOCK (Texas Young Autism Project), Maureen Childs (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Little research exists on teaching community safety skills to children with autism. One study by Childs, McClintock, and Harris (2005) demonstrated behavioral methods to teach children with autism pedestrian skills. The present study extends those findings and also examines long-term maintenance of the skills by previously trained children (> 1 year post-test). The dependent variable for this study was safe pedestrian skills, defined as mastery of nine skills outlined in the task analysis. The sample included two typically developing children and five children with autism enrolled in a discrete trial ABA program. Participants were taught pedestrian skills first with use of a 3D model and then through training at familiar intersections in each child’s neighborhood. Results of a multiple-baseline design indicate that post-intervention, most participants demonstrated a significant increase in pedestrian skills compared to baseline, although the typically developing children made greater increases. Inter-observer agreement was above 90% for all phases. Long-term maintenance of pedestrian skills for previously trained children was found to be very good. These findings demonstrate the ability of a specific behavioral approach to teach children basic skills for crossing the street while having awareness of moving vehicles, and that these skills can be well maintained.
Joint Attention Skills: A Three-Phase Intervention.
TREA DRAKE (Texas Young Autism Project), Jennifer Shen (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Joint attention has been identified as an essential element of a functional social repertoire. Deficits in joint attention often serve as discriminative behavioral markers in children with autism. This study evaluates a treatment protocol developed by the Texas Young Autism Project designed to improve joint attention skills of children with autism. Seven children receiving ABA treatment participated in the study. In Phase 1, each child’s ability to respond to the joint attention bids of others and to initiate joint attention exchanges was addressed. All participants reached mastery criteria in both responding to the joint attention bids of others and initiating joint attention. Phase 2 treatment protocol emphasized generalization of the skills to the child’s home environment. Assessment of joint attention skills in the home environment revealed that the skills did generalize. Phase 3 of the intervention taught and demonstrated generalization of joint attention skills to a wider range of settings. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated for 30% of the sessions revealing an average agreement of 95%.
ABA Treatment for Pica in a Natural Environment.
TREA DRAKE (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: A number of children with autism are also co-diagnosed with Pica, a difficult to treat disorder with significant risks for the child’s physical well-being. Existing research literature on ABA interventions for Pica only describe treatment in a controlled setting, such as an institution. While this is important the real question for many behaviorists is how to intervene in a child’s natural environment. The present case study describes the design and implementation of a behavioral intervention for a young male, diagnosed with both autism and Pica, that occurs in the child’s home environment. Careful attention to single subject research methodology, in addition to the clinical issues, provided good baseline, reversal, outcome and follow-up data. Specific techniques and answers to logistical problems encountered are discussed. Time sampling procedures resulted in good interobserver agreement (> .90).
Symposium #346
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Operant Analysis and the Establishment of Joint Attention Skills in Children with Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Molly AB
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald, Ph.D.

Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. In particular, it appears that children diagnosed with autism may display a syndrome-specific deficit in joint attention skills. Over the last few years, phenomena treated under the heading of joint attention have also come into focus of behavior-analytic research and theory. The purposes of the present symposium are to present (1) an operant perspective on joint attention phenomena and (2) empirical results which show that joint attention skills can be established in children with autism through specific, step-wise operant procedures.

Joint Attention in an Operant Perspective.
PER HOLTH (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Phenomena typically considered under the heading of joint attention include gaze following, monitoring, social referencing, and protoimperative and protodeclarative gestures. In an operant analysis of these phenomena, a number of behavior processes are relevant. These include reinforcement, discrimination, conditioned reinforcement and chaining, conditional discriminations, joint control, conjugate reinforcement, continuous repertoires, and observing responses. From an operant perspective, specific teaching protocols aimed at the establishment of such skills appear to be a rather straightforward matter.
Joint Attention Intervention Based on Applied Behavior Analysis for Young Children with Autism.
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (Glenne Autism Center and Akershus University College), Per Holth (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Based upon an operant analysis of joint attention skills, a teaching protocol was developed and implemented to facilitate such skills in four children with autism. All children were between three and four years of age and received early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) at least 25 hours per week. The teaching protocol specified nine different procedures, aimed at each of the following composite skills: (1) Social referencing/conditioning of normal social stimuli as reinforcers, (2) proximal gaze and point following, (3) distal gaze and point following (4) social monitoring, (5) responding to joint attention bids during structured play (6) initiating joint attention to novel stimuli (7) manding with joint attention (8) commenting on novel behavior, (9) tacting. The procedures were successively implemented according to an interrupted time series design with repeated tests of joint attention skills, using a modified version of Early Social Communication Scales, (ESCS). Although the results showed limited improvement on the modified ESCS, all children learned to master the skills that were targeted by the intervention, and reports from parents and teachers indicate significant improvement of joint attention skills in the natural environment in at least two of the four children.
Can ABA-Based Interventions Produce Joint Attention Skills in Preschool Children with Autism?
JÖRN ISAKSEN (Oppland Habilitation Services, Norway), Per Holth (Akershus University College)
Abstract: A lack of joint attention skills may represent the core impairment in autism. In the present study, a training protocol was developed, based on the literature on joint attention and on behavioral interventions. The training was organized into a sequence of three main parts respectively aimed at establishing each of the following skills: (1) responding to attention bids, (2) engaging in turn-taking activities based on joint attention skills, and (3) initiating joint attention. The study was conducted according to a single-subject experimental design, in which joint attention skills were measured before and after intervention, using the ”Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention”. Four 2.5- to 4-year-old children diagnosed with autism participated in the study. All four children completed the training successfully and made significant progress in engaging in joint attention and in initiating joint attention skills. Following the completion of training and at 1-month follow up, parents reported that their children used their skills in different settings. Moreover, at follow up, all four children were reported to engage in joint attention behaviors and showing degrees of enjoyment when doing so.
Symposium #347
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Issues in Choice and Preference
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Annie AB
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stephanie A. Contrucci Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: William L. Holcomb (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Stephanie A. Contrucci Kuhn, Ph.D.

Preference Assessments have become an essential tool in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Over the past 20 years, the effectiveness and utility of multiple methods has been evaluated. Included in these studies are investigations into the validity of the various assessments. However, important questions remain. The three studies presented in this symposium address questions pertaining to the validity of different types of preference assessments, consistency of choices across assessments, and the accuracy of choice making behavior. In the first study, the efficacy of discrimination training to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to make auditory discriminations during symbolic preference assessments was evaluated. Results indicated that choice making improved for all three participants following discrimination training. In the second study, high preference items from full- and partial-array preference assessments were compared in a reinforcer assessment in order to assess the relative reinforcement value. Results indicated that although both full- and partial-array items initially functioned as reinforcers, the participants allocated more responding the full-array items when presented concurrently. In the final study, reinforcer assessments were used to validate the outcome of several preference assessment methods (single-stimulus, paired stimulus, and multiple stimulus without replacement). Results indicated discrepancies in rankings across the three methods and reinforcer assessments validated the results of only one or two of the preference assessment methods for 2 of the 3 participants. The results of these studies suggest that although preference assessments are vital tools in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior particular attention should be given to issues related to the validity of these procedures.

The Effects of Discrimination Training on Choice-Making Accuracy during Symbolic Preference Assessment Formats.
CHRISTINA M. VORNDRAN (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: Research on choice-making among individuals with developmental disabilities has primarily focused on the identification and incorporation of preferred items and activities into the home and community environments of these individuals. Because of cognitive and communication limitations, some individuals with developmental disabilities require training to make choices that accurately reflect their preferences. Verbal choice methods are commonly used in everyday clinical practice; however, the accuracy of these methods for identifying actual preferences depends on the individual’s ability to make auditory discriminations. Discrimination training is a strategy commonly used to teach a variety of discriminations to individuals with developmental disabilities. However, no studies to date have evaluated the efficacy of discrimination training for teaching individuals with developmental disabilities to make auditory discriminations for the purpose of improving choice-making accuracy during symbolic preference assessments. The present study evaluated the direct and generalized effects of discrimination training on the choice-making abilities of three individuals with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that training was successful for improving choice-making accuracy for all three participants when a limited number of choices was presented. A generalization strategy of training multiple, choice exemplars was moderately successful in transferring the effects of training to choices in the context of a larger assessment.
Evaluation of High- and Low-Ranked Stimuli in a Choice Preference Assessment.
APHRODITE FOUNDAS MANGUM (The Marcus Institute), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Robert-Ryan S. Pabico (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Tarvella et al. (2000) found that stimuli that were ranked low (i.e., below 60% of trials) in a choice preference assessment functioned as effective reinforcers for adaptive behavior. However, a large body of literature suggests that, in general, high preference stimuli are more effective reinforcers than low preference stimuli. In the current study we conducted two choice preference assessments (based on Fisher et al., 1992). The first assessment (full array) consisted of ten stimuli. The second assessment (partial array) consisted of a subset of stimuli (i.e., those selected on fewer than 50% of trials). We then compared the reinforcing effectiveness of the top two stimuli from full-array assessment to the top two stimuli from the partial-array assessment. Following these two preference assessments, the least-preferred item, most-preferred item and control were compared as reinforcers using in-square or in-seat behavior as the target response. Both the full-array and partial-array stimuli functioned as reinforcers initially; however, when full- and partial-array items were presented concurrently the participants allocated more responding toward the full-array items relative to the partial-array items. Reliability data were collected on over 30% of all sessions and averaged over 90% for all dependent measures. These findings suggest that, although the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimuli may be masked by the inclusion of higher preference stimuli, high preference stimuli may be more effective reinforcers.
Validating Preference and Choice through Reinforcer Assessment.
ELIZABETH J. KELSEY (Northeastern University), Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities often lack the skills or the opportunities to make choices. When opportunities for choice are provided, it is important to ensure that the choices made are valid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of choices made during preference assessments for three adults with developmental disabilities. Standard single-stimulus, paired-stimulus and multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessments were conducted for all participants using a variety of edible and activity items. Reinforcer assessments were then used to compare the validity of choices made across the different preference assessments. Preference hierarchies differed across preference assessment types for all participants. Results of the reinforcer assessment showed that for 2 of the 3 participants one or two of the preference assessments yielded valid results. Assessments for the third participant resulted in false negatives, that is, stimuli that functioned as reinforcers were not identified as preferred. Results were then used to prescribe a valid preference assessment method for future clinical application with each participant. This study suggests that careful selection of preference assessment methods is required to ensure that valid choices are made.
Symposium #348
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research on Methods of Increasing Compliance
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.

Four papers on the assessment and / or treatment of noncompliance will be presented. In the first paper, two case examples that demonstrate the effectiveness of nontraditional treatment strategies for increasing compliance will be presented. In the second paper, an extension of an EO analysis of compliance was done by applying the procedures to a classroom setting serving typically developing children with behavioral disorders. In the third paper, three antecedent and two consequent strategies for improving compliance were examined in young children. In the fourth paper, previous research on child compliance is extended by describing compliance levels of 16 preschool-aged children, and then elucidating the importance of antecedent and consequence-based strategies via parametric analyses.

Individualized Treatment of Task Completion for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
KELLY J. BOUXSEIN (Georgia State University, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Common teaching strategies used to increase children’s task completion may include providing instructions, using 3-step guided compliance, and providing differential reinforcement. Children with autism spectrum disorders however, may present with various idiosyncrasies (e.g., problem behavior, ritualistic behavior) that may impede or alter the success of commonly implemented strategies. Therefore, common interventions may need to be modified to reach desirable outcomes for these children. We present two case examples that demonstrate the effectiveness of alternative treatment strategies for increasing compliance. In Case Study 1, a mother of a child with autism spectrum disorder used a choice paradigm within a 3-step guided compliance procedure to treat noncompliance and tantrums evoked by both the presentation of demands and removal of preferred items. In Case Study 2, we demonstrated that providing instructions specifying a task-completion goal resulted in increased engagement and completion of three tasks, even when no differential-reinforcement contingencies were arranged for a young man diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Interobserver agreement data were collected for 23 to 42% of all sessions and mean agreement scores for dependent measures were above 90%. Findings from both cases demonstrated effective methodological variations on common treatment procedures for increasing compliance and task completion.
Classroom-Based Analysis of Establishing Operations and Matched Treatment.
BRENDA J. ENGEBRETSON (University of Iowa), Jennifer E. Copeland (Grant Wood Area Education Agency), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Specific establishing events have been shown to occasion noncompliance maintained by escape from tasks. For example, Call and colleagues (2004) demonstrated that level of task difficulty, amount of work, and adult attention functions as motivating operations for children’s noncompliance during outpatient evaluations. We extended this analysis by applying the procedures to a classroom setting serving typically developing children with behavioral disorders. One case example, Linus, will be presented. Linus was a seven-year-old and his problem behaviors consisted of noncompliant and disruptive behaviors (e.g., crying, throwing materials, pretend sleeping). Inter-observer agreement data were collected on 58% of the sessions with agreement for target behaviors ranging from 94% and 98%. An initial assessment of establishing operations for noncompliance was conducted within a multi-element design. Variables assessed were duration of the work task, presence of adult attention during the task, presession attention, and the presence of a visual example for the work task. Functional communication training was implemented and was matched to the results of assessment. Treatment was evaluated within a multi-element design. Improvement in both time on-task and number of tasks completed was observed. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
Detailed Evaluation of Antecedent and Consequence-Based Interventions to Increase Compliance among Young Children.
KIMBERLEY L. M. ZONNEVELD (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Alonna Marcus (Florida Institute of Technology), Renee Saulnier (Florida Institute of Technology), Gracie Allen Beavers (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Noncompliance by young children is the most common childhood behavior problem listed by parents and teachers and is correlated with other, more serious behavior problems later in life. In the first experiment, following a functional analysis of some of the variables maintaining noncompliance, three antecedent-based interventions (i.e., noncontingent access to a preferred item, a warning condition, and the high-probability instructional sequence) were assessed for three children. In the second experiment, two additional interventions, delivery of high-preference stimuli contingent upon compliance and a guided compliance or three-step prompting procedure, were compared in three children. Results of the first experiment showed that the antecedent-based interventions were ineffective for two participants and that the high-probability instructional sequence was effective for one child. Results of the second experiment showed that the delivery of high-preference stimuli contingent upon compliance was more effective than the guided compliance procedure. Interobserver agreement data were collected on at least 50% of all sessions and agreement averaged above 90%. Overall, these results suggest that antecedent-based interventions may be of limited value and contingent delivery of preferred stimuli may be effective in the treatment of noncompliance.
Preschoolers' Compliance with Simple Instructions: A Description and Experimental Evaluation.
KASEY STEPHENSON (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The present study extends previous research on child compliance by describing compliance levels of 16 preschool-aged children, and then elucidating the importance of antecedent and consequence-based strategies via parametric analyses. The impact of six antecedent variables (proximity, position, physical contact, eye contact, vocal attention, and play interruption) was assessed on compliance by four children. The effects of three-step (vocal, model, physical) prompting were then assessed alone, in combination with the antecedent variables, and at different integrity levels for two children. Interobserver agreement was collected on 37% of all sessions and averaged 96%. The descriptive study showed that compliance was relatively stable for individual children, variable across children, and increased with age. Results of the experimental analyses showed that compliance gradually increased with the addition of each antecedent variable for two of the four children. Three-step prompting in combination with the six antecedent variables increased compliance to high levels for the remaining two children, and high compliance levels maintained until treatment integrity was deceased to 20%. Our results suggest that moderate levels of integrity with strategies involving both antecedent variables and 3-step prompting results in acceptable levels of compliance in preschoolers. Implications for the design of preschool classroom practices are discussed.
Symposium #351
CE Offered: BACB
This Aint Your Mamas Skinner Box: How Behavior Analysts Can Shape Corporate Learning
Monday, May 28, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Amy L. Christensen (Convergys Corporation)
Discussant: Eric J. Fox (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Amy L. Christensen, M.A.

Behavior analysts have a long-standing presence in education; however the corporate arena offers a relatively untapped education facet: corporate learning. Large companies typically spend over $100 million yearly on learning and training programs but what, if any, is the return on this investment? Corporate learning solutions generally are not built upon sound behavioral principles. They are, however, built upon Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD) methodologies. The most popular methodologythe ADDIE modelprovides a systematic process for creating corporate learning. It is through this model that behavior analysts have the opportunity to drive results. Behavior analysts have the capability to turn learning solutions into behavioral learning solutions and produce a return far greater than a monetary investment. Not only do behavior analysts have the power to influence corporate learning, but corporate learning also has the capability to impact behavior analysis. A variety of learning modalities are delivered in the corporate arena, many of which can enhance current behavioral solutions. A showcase of learning solutions will be demonstrated in an effort to highlight Whats out there? and where, as behavior analysts, we can make a difference.

Can Behavior Analysis and Corporate Learning Get Along?
AMY L. CHRISTENSEN (Convergys Corporation), Heather J. Huber (Convergys Corporation)
Abstract: Some of the most significant contributions of behavior analysts have addressed autism, developmental disabilities, education, and organizational behavior management (OBM) – areas of study founded on basic behavior analytic principles. The behavioral principles that have proven effective in these areas can also improve the effectiveness of corporate learning. The skills that allow behavior analysts to succeed afford behavior analysts an opportunity to drive the results that businesses seek.
Reinventing Corporate Learning Solutions with Behavior Analysis.
HEATHER J. HUBER (Convergys Corporation), Amy L. Christensen (Convergys Corporation)
Abstract: The ADDIE model is the instructional design methodology most widely accepted in the corporate learning environment. Working with the ADDIE model’s five components – Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate – yields behavior analysts a unique opportunity to reinvent the model and its components from a molecular level and improve return on investment through the delivery of data-based learning solutions. Just as behavior analysis offers corporate learning solutions an opportunity to become more behaviorally oriented, today’s corporate learning solutions offer the field of behavior analysis creative ways to deliver learning to our clients – be they students, teachers, parents, or a variety of other participants. E-learning and simulation-based training provide an enormous opportunity for behavior analysts to train a multitude of clients in an assortment of learning environments – providing safe and effective means of changing behavior and improving performance.
From the Classroom to the Board Room.
AMY L. CHRISTENSEN (Convergys Corporation), Heather J. Huber (Convergys Corporation)
Abstract: We will demonstrate a showcase of learning solutions to depict how corporations are training their workforce in today’s market. These solutions will include e-learning and simulation-based training that target industries such as retail, manufacturing/automotive, financial services, pharmaceuticals, and high tech. The training types targeted in this training demo include workforce development and sales and services. As you watch this demonstration, we challenge you think. We challenge you to listen. And we challenge you to get imagine how you might apply these learning solutions to your own learning environment.
Invited Paper Session #352
CE Offered: BACB

If Applied Behavior Analysis Has so Much to Offer Education (and it Does), Why Does Education Take Such Limited Advantage of its Findings?

Monday, May 28, 2007
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Douglas C
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: William L. Heward, Ed.D.
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
WILLIAM L. HEWARD (The Ohio State University)
Dr. William L. Heward is Emeritus Professor of Education at The Ohio State University (OSU) where he taught for 30 years. Internationally recognized for his work in applied behavior analysis and special education, Dr. Heward has served as a Visiting Professor of Psychology at Keio University in Tokyo and as a Senior Fulbright Scholar in Portugal. His publications include more than 100 journal articles and book chapters and nine books, including the widely used texts, Applied Behavior Analysis (co-authored with John O. Cooper and Timothy E. Heron) and Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, which is in its eighth edition and has been translated into several foreign languages. In 1985, he received OSU’s highest honor for teaching excellence: the Alumni Association’s Distinguished Teaching Award. A Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Dr. Heward received the 2006 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award by Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. Bill’s current research interests focus on “low-tech” methods for increasing the effectiveness of group instruction and on adaptations of curriculum and instruction to promote the generalization and maintenance of newly learned knowledge and skills.

Applied behavior analysiss (ABA) pragmatic, natural science approach to discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and to developing a technology that takes practical advantage of those discoveries offers humankind our best hope for solving many of our problems. Unfortunately, ABA has had limited impact on society. Using public education as the exemplar, this presentation will explore the question, If ABA is so wonderful, why dont we (society) make greater use of it? Improving the effectiveness of education is one of societys most important problems, and for more than four decades applied behavior analysis has provided powerful demonstrations of how it can promote learning in the classroom. In spite of this evidence, behavior analysis is, at best, a bit player in efforts to reform education. Dr. Heward will identify a dozen reasons why ABA is ideally suited to help improve education, review a somewhat longer list of reasons that work against the widespread adoption of behavioral approaches in education, and suggest some actions that practitioners and researchers can take to enhance and further ABAs contributions to effective education.

Panel #357
CE Offered: BACB
A Panel Discussion for Sharing Materials and Ideas for Increasing Acceptance of ABA Worldwide
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
Chair: Michael Weinberg (Professional Education Resources and Conference Services)
MICHAEL WEINBERG (Professional Education Resources and Conference Services)
JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Children Crisis Treatment Center/St. Joseph's University)

Although ABA has the data showing effectiveness, parents continue to pursue fad and controversial treatments. Behavior analysts need to behave in a way that will result in increased acceptance of ABA and a scientific skepticism of all therapies. Attendees of this symposium are asked to bring materials - phamplets, flyers, brochures, videoclips, etc. - that can be disseminated to other members of the audience. These materials will hopefully be customized and given to pediatricians, parent groups, and other professional agencies, to begin developing a more positive attitude about ABA and a more objective evaluation of therapies being proposed for children with autism.

Symposium #360
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Affective Behavior in Children with Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Susan M. Vener (New York Child Learning Institute)
Discussant: Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: Henry D. Schlinger, Ph.D.

"Affect" refers to a persons facial expression, gestures, and verbalizations that are emitted in response to a complex set of discriminative stimuli that evoke the observers use of terms that draw inferences about a persons emotional state. People with autism have deficits in social interaction that are apparent in nonverbal behavior. Such deficits have been addressed using applied-behavior-analytic methods that successfully promote social interaction. Based on the reviewed literature, however, only two studies (Gena, Couloura, & Kymissis, 2005; Gena, Krantz, McClannahan, & Poulson, 1996) used behavioral principles to increase appropriate affective responding in individuals with autism. This symposium presents a review of the literature on affective behavior and two studies that add to that literature. The study by DeQuinzio, Townsend, Sturmey, and Poulson emphasized the role imitation and modeling play in displaying facial expressions. The study by Najjar, Vener, and Poulson used a behavioral intervention package, consisting of modeling, shaping, and script-fading to increase appropriate verbalizations, vocal intonation, and facial expressions. Both studies were conducted with children with autism.

Affective Behavior and the Stimulus Control Procedures Relevant in Affect Training.
NIDAL K. NAJJAR DAOU (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Children with autism show little or no interest in people as evidenced by the fact that they often look past or away from them. Such deficits have been addressed using applied-behavior-analytic methods that have been successful in promoting social interaction, which is emphasized in the present review. This review examines (a) affective behavior in children of typical development; (b) affective behavior in children with autism; and (c) the stimulus control literature with respect to its potential use to promote appropriate affective behavior in children with autism. The review concludes that applied-behavior-analytic methods can be and have been successfully used to teach people with autism to emit appropriate affective responses. It is finally suggested that more studies are needed to explore the problem of affect in people with autism, given that the two studies by Gena (Gena, 1994; Gena, Krantz, McClannahan, & Poulson, 1996; Gena, Couloura, & Kymissis, 2005) seem to be the only thus far published behavioral studies addressing this problem.
Generalized Imitation of Facial Models by Children with Autism.
JAIME A. DEQUINZIO (The City University of New York), Dawn B. Townsend (Institute for Educational Achievement), Peter Sturmey (Queens College, City University of New York), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Imitation is an essential skill in the acquisition of language and communication skills. An initial phase in teaching young children with autism to engage in appropriate affective responding may be to teach the imitation of facial models. Using a multiple-baseline-across-participants experimental design, the imitation training procedure consisting of modeling, prompting, differential reinforcement, and error correction was introduced successively across three subjects. Low, inconsistent rates of imitation of facial models were observed in the baseline condition. All of the participants learned to imitate some of the facial models presented during imitation training, however only two of the three participants demonstrated generalized responding to a novel facial model presented during interspersed generalization probe trials. Limitations of this study provide suggestions for future research in identifying the number of exemplars needed to better promote generalized imitation of facial models and in assessing to what extent imitation of facial models facilitates skill acquisition during more complex affective training.
Using Modeling, Shaping, and Script-Fading Procedures to Teach Children with Autism to Engage in Appropriate Affective Behavior.
NIDAL K. NAJJAR DAOU (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Susan M. Vener (New York Child Learning Institute), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: People with autism have difficulty displaying appropriate affective responses. Based on the reviewed literature, two studies (Gena, Couloura, & Kymissis, 2005; Gena, Krantz, McClannahan, & Poulson, 1996) used behavioral principles to increase appropriate affective responding by individuals with autism. This study adds to that literature by increasing precision of measurement and by using explicitly defined shaping procedures. This study used a behavioral intervention package, consisting of modeling, shaping, and script-fading to increase appropriate affective responding. A multiple-baseline experimental design across affective categories was used to evaluate the effects of the treatment package on the percentage of appropriate affective responding emitted by three children with autism following teacher-presented statements designed to evoke an affective response. Affective responding consisted of verbalizations, vocal intonation, and facial expressions. The participants did not emit appropriate affective responding during baseline. The percentage of appropriate affective responding emitted by all participants across categories increased systematically with the introduction of treatment. Nonreinforced probe responding also improved following treatment.
Symposium #361
CE Offered: BACB
BATSS to the Rescue: Interventions for Students at High Risk for Failure
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Janet Ellis (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Janet Ellis, Ph.D.

The label "high risk" in the past denoted dangerous areas to avoid/was predictive of a problem that might not be readily resolved. Currently, the "high risk" label is being applied to students with behavioral deficits--and children who have been so labeled are placed into special education classrooms along with those diagnosed as persons with mental retardation, autism, developmental delay. Behavioral Assessment & Technology Support Systems (BATSS) has been successful in training classroom staff to remediate these behavioral deficits and, thereby, enable these children to function more appropriately and effectively in public school classrooms. Our discipline does not encourage us to recognize boundaries established by descriptive assessments. The papers presented in this symposium describe how master's-level graduate students are demonstrating to educators and classroom staff how to bypass some of the problem type behaviors being exhibited in these classrooms. Following the presentations the audience will be included in a discussion of problems, problem-solving strategies, and directed to literature that will acquaint them with behavioral technology. The speakers and the chair will generate discussion by asking questions of the audience.

Teach Them while They're Young: Reading Program for Preschoolers.
SARAH A. LAW (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Reading skills are critical to student academic success-- especially for those at-risk for academic failure in kindergarten.. Nine pre-schoolers-- ages 4 and 5--participated in a reading program 10-15 minutes/day 5 days/week for 8 months. They were in a blended classroom--half typically developing students and half students with DD: 4 had no identified developmental disabilities, and 5 were diagnosed with language delays, autism, learning disabilities, and mild MR. Each received 1:1 training consisting of vocally identifying letter sounds, followed by sound blends and short words. 20-sec, 30-sec, and 1-minute timings were implemented daily, thus measuring each student’s fluent and accurate sounds, blends, and word production. A pre-test consisted of asking each student to verbally identify and sound out all 26 alphabet letters prior to intervention. Results of the pre-test showed that none of the students correctly identified any of the letter sounds. Final outcomes of this training will be presented at the convention.This on-going intervention will serve to teach young children letter sounds and blends, as well as how to read short words, before these children enter kindergarten.
Contingent Attention: An Effective "Magic Pill" for Decreasing Severely Aggressive Behavior.
JAIME GOETTL (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Managing aggressive behavior in special education classrooms can require a considerable amount of valuable time and attention that could be spent with students behaving appropriately. BATSS was invited to assist the staff in a Life Skills classroom (4:7 teacher-student ratio) in managing the aggressive behavior of a 14 year-old student diagnosed with Mental Retardation and Selective Mutism. Baseline data were consistent with staff descriptions of the amount of attention delivered to the student (62-96% of intervals) when appropriately engaged in an activity. However, attention followed physical and object aggression in 89.6% and 20% of intervals containing aggression, respectively. Appropriate vocalizations were recorded in 15-36% of intervals. Appropriate requests steadily increased from 3-25% of intervals. Staff training will include modeling, role-playing, and delivering feedback to teachers on checklist performance to increase the student’s appropriate requesting and commenting, leaning the schedule of attention delivered to the student while maintaining high levels of engagement in appropriate activities and concomitantly low levels of aggressive behavior. The training will allow teachers to distribute attention more evenly among students and increase learning opportunities throughout the day.
Effects of Staff Training on Aggression, Flopping, and Elopement by a 12-Year-Old Female in a SPED Classroom.
ANNA MARIE WHALEY (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Students in special education classrooms who engage in seriously disruptive behaviors can and do cause dangerous situations for the student, evoke imitative behavior in their peers, inflict physical damage on staff, and have been, in extreme cases, refused seating on the school bus, caused parents to come to the school many times/month--endangering their jobs, and create chaotic situations for all concerned. BATSS was recruited to train 3 classroom staff on behavioral intervention procedures to reduce inappropriate behavior (aggression, flopping, and elopement) and increase appropriate behavior (engagement and compliance) of a 12-year-old female. The procedures focused on limiting forms of attention that followed inappropriate behavior while increasing forms of attention that followed appropriate behavior. Baseline observations indicated that reprimands followed noncompliance and physical aggression 50%-100% of occurrences, whereas compliance was praised for less than 10% of occurrences. This intervention is ongoing and final outcome data will be displayed in graphic format for the presentation.
Overhauling an Entire Social Adjustment Classroom.
LARISA MAXWELL (University of North Texas)
Abstract: As public schools develop classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, the need for behavior analytic training increases, and the need for behavioral technology--appropriately applied--becomes ever more critical. In one such classroom, BATSS developed a class-wide intervention plan for 7 students, 1st through 5th grade, with diagnoses including ADHD, ED, and bipolar disorder. The available staff training intervention included: implementation of a reinforcer system, classroom restructuring, effective prompting techniques, and appropriate behavior management techniques. Baseline data across students indicated that student engagement ranged from 28% to 100% of intervals, compliance, from 35% to 100% of intervals, and physical aggression occurred in up to 35% of intervals. Data collection is in progress as the intervention is being implemented, and a completed data set will be available in full at the time of presentation. Potential impacts include the identification of an effective system for use in classrooms for students with severe emotional and behavioral disorders.
Symposium #363
CE Offered: BACB
Can't We All Just Get Along? Collaborating with Ancillary Therapies to Provide Effective Services
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Annie AB
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lauren M. Frederick (Melmark)
Discussant: Terry J. Page (AdvoServ)
CE Instructor: Lauren M. Frederick, M.A.

Behavior analysts are frequently part of an interdisciplinary treatment team; quality programming for students requires that behavior analysts work effectively with other disciplines, which are likely to present vastly different approaches. This symposium presents data on interventions combining behavior analytic principles and strategies employed by speech and occupational therapists. The first study uses multi-element designs to assess the effects of various sensory stimulation protocols on two students challenging behaviors. The second study, conducted by a behavior analyst and speech therapist, uses a multiple baseline across settings to assess the effects of functional communication training on the aggressive and self-injurious behaviors of an 11-year-old boy. The effects of this intervention on his overall language acquisition rate will also be discussed. The final study will present data to be collected on the food refusal and selectivity of a young man with autism. Interventions from behavior analytic and speech pathology literature were combined; data on the effects of two phases of the intervention will be collected and evaluated in a changing criterion design. Collaborating with other disciplines can result in empirical and creative interventions.

An Empirical Evaluation of Sensory Stimulation Interventions.
JUAN-CARLOS LOPEZ (Melmark), Brigid Carbo (Melmark), Mark Streeter (Melmark), Tara Bernard (Melmark)
Abstract: Behavior analysts typically eschew invalidated sensory integration therapies. However, a successful collaboration between behavior analysts and occupational therapists can result in an empirical evaluation of these protocols. This study will investigate the effectiveness of various sensory stimulation protocols on the challenging behaviors of two students. First, using a counter balanced multi-element design, the effects of two types of sensory stimulation protocols on the reduction of lip biting for an adolescent with autism and severe mental retardation will be evaluated. Preliminary data show that sensory stimulation on the form of gentle rubbing of the participant’s arms and hands significantly reduces his rate of lip biting. Data will be collected on the long-term effects of the more effective protocol by comparing the rate of lip biting during the 10-minute intervals immediately before and immediately after the implementation of the sensory protocol, using a pre-post intervention design. The second study assesses the effects of sensory stimulation protocols on the stereotypy of a 16-year-old male. Baseline measures, using partial interval data collection, indicate that stereotypy ranges from 75%-100% of intervals. A multi-element design will evaluate four sensory stimulation protocols. Further implications of working as part of an interdisciplinary team will be discussed.
Behavior Analysis and Speech Therapy: Language Acquisition Goals and Challenging Behaviors.
BRENDA DOUGHERTY (Melmark), Melissa Stone (Melmark), Lauren M. Frederick (Melmark)
Abstract: Functional communication training has received a great deal of attention in the field of behavior analysis. However, the rationales and methods of increasing communication frequently differ between behavior analysts and speech therapists. This study presents the results of a functional behavior assessment and intervention of aggression and self-injury of an 11-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation. A behavior support plan consisting of noncontingent attention and a de-escalation protocol as well as picture communication system training represent baseline conditions. The results from the functional behavior assessment will be used to implement functional communication training. The addition of a functionally equivalent communicative response to the behavior support plan will be evaluated with a multiple baseline across conditions design. In addition, ongoing data collection by the speech therapist on number of requests and acquired pictures will be presented. The correlation between overall language acquisition, functionally equivalent communication, and the reduction of challenging behaviors will be discussed.
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Food Selectivity and Refusal.
CATHLEEN M. ALBERTSON (Melmark), Cynthia Hoyle (Melmark), Andrew Winston (Melmark), Brian Garozzo (Melmark)
Abstract: Evaluating and treating an individual with disabilities’ eating problems typically requires input from many professionals, such as doctors, nutritionists, behavior analysts, and speech pathologists. While behavior analytic research provides effective interventions for eating problems, a speech pathologist can provide valuable input on the oral-motor functioning of an individual. This study examines an intervention, derived from a combination of behavior analytic and speech pathology research, on the food selectivity and refusal of a 20-year-old male with autism. In the first phase of the study, the student is negatively reinforced for tolerating (defined as not pushing the food away or exhibiting disruptive behavior) a non-preferred food in close proximity to preferred foods. Both proximity and duration are manipulated using a changing criterion design. In the second phase of the study, data will be collected and a changing criterion design will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of preferred foods as positive reinforcement for the intake of non-preferred foods. A multidisciplinary approach to eating problems can result in empirical assessments and interventions that address complex causes and potential concomitant issues.
Symposium #365
CE Offered: BACB
Human Operant Work in Behavioral Momentum and Behavioral Economics
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Madeleine CD
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Jason C. Bourret, Ph.D.

Ongoing research on behavioral momentum and behavioral economics continues to examine the generality of the momentum metaphor and the utility of behavioral economic analyses. The first study examined the effects of differing types of disrupter stimuli. The second evaluated momentum effects in a natural education environment. The third examined the effects of response effort manipulations on responding maintained by qualitatively different reinforcers on progressive-ratio schedules. The fourth evaluated a method to determine reinforcer value based on a unit-price analysis.

Behavioral Momentum in Children with Autism.
KAREN M. LIONELLO-DENOLF (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center)
Abstract: Behavioral momentum was examined in 3 low-functioning (mental age equivalent scores < 1.75 years) children diagnosed with autism. Stimuli were presented in the context of a computer game on two separate monitors in the Shriver Center automated teaching laboratory (Lionello-DeNolf & McIlvane, 2003). Reinforcers were snack foods. Two-minute Low (VI 15) and High (VI 5 with 2 reinforcers per delivery) components alternated (on different monitors) on a multiple schedule. Behavioral momentum was assessed with four different types of disrupters: pre-feeding plus inter-component interval reinforcer delivery, concurrent presentation of an alternative stimulus, concurrent presentation of a movie, and non-contingent verbal reinforcement delivered by an experimenter who entered the experimental space during the disruption tests. Resistance to change differed depending on the type of distracter used: with pre-feeding distracter, resistance was approximately equal under High and Low conditions; with an alternative stimulus distracter, there was greater resistance in the High condition; and with a movie presentation distracter, resistance tended to be greater in the High condition, with some exceptions. These data extend earlier findings with developmentally disabled children (Dube & McIlvane, 2001; Dube, McIlvane, Mazzitelli, & McNamara, 2003) by examining momentum in an environment free from social influences.
The Persistence of Task Performance in a Natural Learning Environment.
DIANA PARRY-CRUWYS (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center)
Abstract: The behavioral momentum metaphor suggests that a behavior is more resistant to distraction when reinforced on a denser schedule of reinforcement in a multiple schedule. While most research in behavioral momentum has been conducted in laboratory or analogue settings, this experiment studied resistance to distraction in a natural educational environment. Six participants with developmental disabilities were presented with familiar activities for which responding was reinforced on a multiple VI VI schedule. For four participants, two familiar play activities were used, such as stringing beads, and for two participants, two familiar academic tasks were used. Each activity was reinforced with a different schedule. Baseline sessions consisted of either six or eight alternating components, three or four for each task. In the distracter sessions, a disrupting item was placed on the student’s desk during the activity in the final two components of each session. This was a test of behavioral persistence. Sessions were presented in a multielement design, alternating between baseline and distracter sessions. Responses in the distracter components were compared to within-session responding in baseline components and to baseline sessions. Results are consistent with the behavioral momentum effect for four out of six participants. IOA was collected in 100% of test sessions and was above 92% for each participant.
Using Progressive-Ratio Schedules to Measure the Reinforcing Effects of Stimuli under Differing Levels of Effort.
LINDSAY C. PETERS (University of Kansas), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children), Jonathan Seaver (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The paired-stimulus preference assessment (Fisher, Piazza, Bowman, Hagopian, Owen, & Slevin, 1992) may identify a hierarchy of relative preference but may not reflect that stimuli identified as low preferred may actually function as reinforcers. Progressive-ratio schedules have been used in both basic and applied research to measure the strength of reinforcers. Comparing responding on progressive-ratio schedules for qualitatively different reinforcers allows for a measure of the reinforcing efficacy of stimuli in both an absolute and relative sense. The purpose of the current research is to determine the effect of changes in response effort on responding maintained by qualitatively different reinforcers on progressive-ratio schedules. After identifying stimuli of high- and low-preference on a paired-stimulus preference assessment, progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement were arranged in a two-component multiple schedule in which responding was reinforced with high-preference stimuli in one component and low-preference stimuli in the other. The response measured was moving a weight from one target to another and effort was manipulated by changing the heaviness of the weight. Data were analyzed in terms of break points in responding, response rate and frequency, pre-ratio pauses, and work and demand functions. Results showed greater differentiation between response patterns produced by the qualitatively different reinforcers under lower levels of response effort.
Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: The Effect of Cost and Benefit Components.
XERES DELMENDO (University of the Pacific), John C. Borrero (University of the Pacific), Kenneth Beauchamp (University of the Pacific), Noel A. Ross (University of the Pacific), Sandeep K. Sran (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to develop a method that can be used to determine reinforcer value, using the unit price prediction that the rate of consumption (or obtained reinforcers) at a given price will be constant regardless of the response requirement and magnitude of reinforcer that make up the unit price. A free operant preference assessment was conducted with four children, followed by a reinforcer assessment to determine reinforcer efficacy. Following the reinforcer assessment, the unit price evaluation was conducted. The number of reinforcers and responses required were manipulated by varying the number of reinforcers available and the fixed-ratio requirement, respectively. Four to five different unit price values were evaluated for each child. Preliminary results showed that responding decreased as unit price increased for all four children. Furthermore, for one participant consumption was not equivalent given equal unit price values but differing FR and consumables received.
Symposium #370
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research on Behavioral Safety
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Edward C
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.

This symposium will present recent research promoting behavioral safety. In the first study, Mackner and colleagues will discuss procedures for teaching parents to provide safety skills training for preventing gun play to their children. In the second study Tarasenko and colleagues will describe peer tutoring for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. In the third study, Knudson and colleagues will describe behavioral skills training to promote fire safety skills with individuals with severe and profound mental retardation. Finally, Van Houten and malenfant will discuss procedures for promoting safety belt use among drivers.

Parent Training to Prevent Gun Play.
AMY GROSS (Western Michigan University), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Peter J. Knudson (North Dakota State University), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Unintentional firearm injuries and deaths affect many children each year. Recent research has shown that behavioral skills training with in situ training has been an effective training strategy to teach children the proper safety skills to use if they ever encounter an unattended firearm. The current study evaluated the use of parents as trainers in order to increase the efficiency of training. Parents received a training program that taught them to conduct behavioral skills training with in situ training to teach safety skills to their children. The success of parent training on their children’s safety skills was evaluated in a multiple baseline across participants research design. The results showed that the training was effective for three of the four children.
Evaluating Peer Training of Abduction Prevention Skills.
MELISSA TARASENKO (North Dakota State University), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Carrie M. Brower-Breitwieser (North Dakota State University), Peter J. Knudson (North Dakota State University), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida), Amy Gross (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Child abduction is a serious problem with approximately 100 children killed each year by nonfamily abductors. Training programs that attempt to teach children the correct skills to use if they ever come into contact with a stranger can be effective when they incorporate behavioral skills training (BST) and in-situ training into their protocol. However, these methods can be rather time and energy consuming. The current study evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of a peer tutoring approach to teaching abduction prevention skills. Peer trainers implemented BST sessions and in-situ training sessions with their younger peers. Children successfully acquired the target safety behaviors taught by the peer trainers.
Fire Safety Skills Training for Individuals with Severe and Profound Mental Retardation.
PETER J. KNUDSON (North Dakota State University), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida), Amy Gross (Western Michigan University), Carrie M. Brower-Breitwieser (North Dakota State University)
Abstract: Literature concerning fire safety has focused largely on children but persons with mental retardation also are in need of fire safety training as they are highly vulnerable to fire injury and death. The purpose of this research was to evaluate behavioral skills training procedures for teaching individuals with severe and profound mental retardation to exit their residence upon hearing a smoke detector. Fire safety skills training involved instructions, modeling, prompting, and corrective feedback with in situ training. Assessments took place in the participants’ group home with the participants unaware that an assessment was taking place. The results showed that the participants did not exit their residence independently following training but that the level of prompting needed to promote exiting behavior decreased for all participants following training.
Using Technology to Increase Seatbelt Use.
RON VAN HOUTEN (Western Michigan University), J. E. Louis Malenfant (Centre for Education and Research in Safety)
Abstract: This study evaluated a seatbelt gearshift delay that did not allow a person to place their vehicle into gear during a final 8-second seatbelt reminder chime that was presented when the driver placed his or her foot on the brake to place the vehicle in gear. Participants were drivers of 60 US and 60 Canadian fleet vehicles that did not consistently wear their seatbelt. Drivers could avoid the reminder by fastening their seatbelt before attempting to place the vehicle in gear, or could terminate the reminder and escape the delay by buckling their seatbelt at the start of the reminder. The seatbelt reminder presented along with the seatbelt gearshift delay increased seatbelt use from 39% to 73% when the duration of the remind was always fixed at 8 seconds and from 51% to 64% when the length of the reminder was random with a mean values of 8 seconds. Drivers rarely removed their seatbelts once they were buckled during the pre-treatment baseline phase and there was no increase in unbuckling during with delay condition. Some of the participants that did not show a large increase with an 8 second delay showed a larger increase when the delay duration was increased to 16 seconds.
Symposium #372
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Tactics Used at The Jigsaw CABAS School to Expand the Academic and Communication Repertoires of Children on the Autistic Spectrum
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Elizabeth F
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Catherine F. Grant (The Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Grant Gautreaux (Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: Emma L. Hawkins, M.S.

Various tactics used at the Jigsaw CABAS School are described and data are provided to show their effectiveness in expanding the academic and communication repertoires of children on the Autistic Spectrum. The effect of multiple exemplar instruction was tested on the transfer of stimulus function for unfamiliar pictures across listener and speaker responses. Conditioning procedures were used to increase time spent playing appropriately with various activities, increasing the number of learn units presented was used to decrease out-of-seat behaviour and items were targeted to a rate criterion for fluency. Writer immersion is used to increase the number of written autoclitics and to decrease the number of written errors. Textual prompts are also being tested in this classroom as a tactic to increase the use of descriptive autoclitics. Data will be presented on the effectiveness of all these tactics.

The Emergence of the Listener Component of Naming and Full Naming in Children on the Autistic Spectrum by Using Multiple Exemplar Instruction.
JACKIE CHARNOCK (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Emma L. Hawkins (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Elizabeth Theo (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Racheal Eade (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Grant Gautreaux (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: The effect of multiple exemplar instruction was tested on the transfer of stimulus function for unfamiliar pictures across listener and speaker responses. Four children on the Autistic Spectrum who did not have the listener to speaker component of naming participated in this study along with a further non-vocal child who did not have the listener component of naming. Multiple exemplar instruction consisted of teaching the match, point to, tact and intraverbal repertoires simultaneously (match and point only for the non-vocal child). The participants were tested on previously untaught unfamiliar pictures post multiple exemplar instruction and naming was shown to have emerged.
A Collection of Tactics Used in the Pre-Listener Classrooms to Increase Academic and Communication Repertoires of Children on the Autistic Spectrum.
KATHY HALES (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Emma L. Hawkins (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Elizabeth Theo (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Elizabeth Theo (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Jo Phillips (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Emma Payn (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Jackie Charnock (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Grant Gautreaux (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This presentation includes the effects of conditioning procedures to increase time spent playing appropriately with various activities, increasing the number of learn units presented to decrease out-of-seat behaviour and targeting items to a rate criterion for fluency. Six pre-listener children on the Autistic Spectrum participated in this study. All participants achieved significant gains across academic and communication repertoires because of the tactics implemented.
The Effects of Reader/Writer Tactics on the Reading and Writing Behaviour of Children on the Autistic Spectrum.
EMMA L. HAWKINS (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Elizabeth Theo (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Racheal Eade (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Jackie Charnock (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Elizabeth Rougier (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Grant Gautreaux (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Writer immersion is defined as an establishing operation consisting of a period of time in which all communication is required to be in written format including learn units presented by the teacher. It is a tactic that is used in the reader/writer classroom at The Jigsaw CABAS® School to increase written autoclitics and to decrease the number of written errors. Textual prompts are also being tested in this classroom as a tactic to increase the use of descriptive autoclitics. Data will be presented on the effectiveness of these tactics.
Symposium #373
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Joint Attention Skills to Children With Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Douglas A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center)
CE Instructor: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald, Ph.D.

Joint attention involves the coordinated attention between a social partner and an object in the environment and has been identified as one of the earliest emerging social behaviors in typically developing children. Deficits in joint attention for children with autism have been well documented in the literature. These children fail to orient to speech sounds or social stimuli, show deficits in the ability to follow the gaze of another person and often to use gaze shifts and gestures to initiate joint attention. Interventions based on behavioral teaching approaches have shown the most promise for ameliorating joint attention deficits in young children. A variety of instructional procedures including systematic prompting, shaping and reinforcement have been shown to be effective in teaching responding to joint attention and initiating joint attention. A limitation of this research to date is in the generalization and maintenance of the acquired skills. The purpose of this symposium is to describe several research projects in which the authors are using behavioral interventions to teach joint attention to preschool age children. The implications of these findings will be discussed as they relate to the integration of these skills into the general behavioral repertoires of these children.

Teaching Children with Autism to Initiate Bids for Joint Attention with Peers.
BRIDGET A. TAYLOR (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah Hoch (Alpine Learning Group), Nicole M. Scrivanich (Alpine Learning Group), Rachel Kirk (Alpine Learning Group), Courtney Berman (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Children with autism have deficits in joint attention. Joint attention involves the use of gesture and eye contact to share attention with another person about an object or an observed event. Bids for joint attention can include looking toward an item and shifting gaze between the item and the person, pointing or gesturing toward an item, and displaying or showing an item. Recent research indicates that children with autism can be taught to respond to and initiate bids for joint attention with adults (Taylor & Hoch, 2004). This current study used a multiple baseline design across pairs of peers to assess the effects of video modeling to teach children with autism to initiate and respond to bids for joint attention with their peers. Children with autism were taught to approach a peer, display an item of interest (an unusual or novel toy), to make a declarative statement (e.g., “Wow! look at this”), and to wait until the peer responded with a reciprocal comment (e.g., “That’s funny!”). Results indicated that video modeling was effective in facilitating some of the responses associated with joint attention, but additional prompting procedures were required to promote more subtle responses.
The Role of Social Consequences in the Development of Joint Attention in Young Children with Autism.
REBECCA P. F. MACDONALD (New England Center for Children), William V. Dube (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), Diana J. Ervin (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In this paper we will review a contingency analysis of joint attention in which the characteristic gaze shifts, gestures, vocalizations, are shaped and maintained by conditioned socially mediated reinforcers. According to this analysis, joint attention deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders may be related to failures of socially mediated consequences to function as conditioned reinforcers. We will describe a protocol for assessing social reinforcers and intervention procedures based on use of these social consequences to establish joint attention initiations. Joint attention initiations were defined as use of gaze shift, gestures and vocalizations in the context of a target stimulus in the environment. Data from preschool age children with autism spectrum disorder will be reported. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures. Results will be discussed in the context of the posited behavioral contingency analysis of joint attention.
Does Teaching Approach Matter in Facilitating Joint Attention and Symbolic Play in Young Children with Autism?
CONNIE KASARI (University of California, Los Angeles), Connie Wong (University of California, Los Angeles), Stephanny Freeman (University of California, Los Angeles), Tanya Paparella (University of California, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Acquiring and generalizing new skills can be particularly difficult for children with autism and may be affected by teaching approach, skill domain, and individual child characteristics. In this study, joint attention and symbolic play skills were taught to children with autism using both discrete trial and naturalistic, developmental intervention approaches. Forty-one children with autism (aged 31 to 55 months) were randomized to a joint attention intervention or symbolic play intervention. The intervention procedure first involved structured discrete trials at a table to “prime” children for the targeted goal and then floor play involving naturalistic developmental intervention similar to pivotal response and milieu language interventions. Results indicate that children with autism generally acquire skills with the structured teaching approach first. However, these findings are qualified by interactions between skill domain and teaching approach. Children learning play skills reached mastery first in the structured setting whereas children learning joint attention skills reached mastery at the table and floor at the same time. Children with higher mental and language ages reached mastery faster in structured settings. These results suggest that some skills may be more quickly mastered using specific teaching methods, and should be considered in evaluating the success of a treatment program.
Invited Paper Session #376
CE Offered: BACB

Interbehavioral Psychology in Service to Behavior Analysis

Monday, May 28, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Douglas C
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Hayne W. Reese, Ph.D.
Chair: Hayne W. Reese (West Virginia University)
LINDA J. PARROTT HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
Dr. Linda J. Parrott Hayes received her bachelor’s degree from the University of Manitoba, and her Master’s and doctoral degrees from Western Michigan University. Dr. Hayes was a member of the behavior analysis faculty at West Virginia University while completing her doctorate, after which she took a position at Saint Mary’s University in Canada. She founded the campus-based and satellite Programs in Behavior Analysis at the University of Nevada, Reno on a self-capitalization model. Dr. Hayes has participated in the governance of the Association for Behavior Analysis throughout her career, serving as Coordinator of the Education Board, founder and Director of the Council of Graduate Programs in Behavior Analysis, and multiple terms as a member of the Executive Council, including its President. She is actively involved in efforts to promote the development of behavior analysis around the world. Dr. Hayes is best known for her work in behavior theory and philosophy.

Scientific communities rarely embrace new formulations of their subject matters or theories concerning them with enthusiasm. On the contrary, new theories are frequently and sometimes forcefully resisted, the latter peculiar to those touching upon issues of so fundamental a sort as to threaten venerable scientific traditions. Historians note that the eventual adoption of new formulations of events in the sciences is typically preceded by their having first suffered through successive stages of being ignored, dismissed, reviled, ridiculed, distorted, and exploited. Such has been the fate of interbehavioral psychology in the most powerful sector of the behavior analytic community. While it is the case that certain aspects of the behavior analytic position are incompatible with Kantors formulation of psychological events, the threat posed by the adoption of the latter is not as great as might be imagined. Indeed, it is only the most ill-formed and incoherent aspects of the former that are threatened by interbehavioral logic. More importantly, unless behavior analysis strives toward greater scientific systemization, problems of this sort will inevitably resurge, putting the validity and significance of this enterprise at continued risk. Adequate systemization is exemplified in interbehavioral psychology. For these and related reasons, certain assurances and clarifications pertaining to Kantors views are warranted. In addition, many members of the behavior analytic community are wholly unaware of Kantors enormous contribution to the development of a natural philosophy and science of behavior. My aim in this address, thereby, is also to provide an overview of interbehavioral psychology and the philosophy of interbehaviorism for this audience.

Invited Tutorial #377
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Applications of Behavior Analysis for Industrial Safety and Healthcare: Expanding the Paradigm from Behavior-Based to People-Based
Monday, May 28, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Douglas B
Area: OBM/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: E. Scott Geller, Ph.D.
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
Presenting Authors: : E. SCOTT GELLER (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)

Scott Geller coined the term behavior-based safety (BBS) in 1979 when consulting with Ford Motor Company on applications of behavior analysis to increase the use of vehicle safety belts. He subsequently taught BBS principles and relevant intervention strategies for on-the-job safety, first at several Ford manufacturing plants and then at various other companies nationwide. Over the next decade, BBS gained substantial popularity as the leading-edge approach to addressing the human dynamics of industrial safety. Annual conferences have been dedicated to BBS, and consulting firms purporting to implement BBS continue to spring up worldwide. Indeed, BBS likely represents the largest-scale application of behavior analysis beyond educational and rehabilitation institutions. The presenter has authored several books and training programs on BBS, including participant workbooks, audiotapes, videotapes, CDs and DVDs. However, Gellers most recent books and training materials (e.g., People-Based Safety and The Anatomy of Medical Error) advocate people-based safety (PBS) over BBS. This presentation will explain the evolution of PBS from BBS, with particular reference to applications in industrial and hospital settings. Learn the principles of BBS and PBS as presented to industries worldwide and most recently to healthcare workers, as well as distinctions between BBS and PBS.

E. SCOTT GELLER (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Dr. E. Scott Geller, Ph.D. is Alumni Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech and Director of the Center for Applied Behavior Systems in the Department of Psychology. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the World Academy of Productivity and Quality. He is past Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1989-92), and current Associate Editor (since 1983) of Environment and Behavior, and consulting editor for Journal of Safety Research, Behavior and Social Issues, Behavior Analyst Digest, and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. Dr. Geller has authored 31 books, 42 book chapters, 38 training manuals, 197 magazine articles, and more than 300 research articles addressing the development and evaluation of behavior-change interventions to improve quality of life. He received a teaching award in 1982 from the American Psychological Association and has received every university teaching award offered at Virginia Tech. He has also been awarded the University Alumni Award for Excellence in Research, the Alumni Outreach Award for his exemplary real-world applications of behavioral science, and the University Alumni Award for Graduate Student Advising. In 2005, he received the Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award by the State Council of Higher Education, and in the same year, Virginia Tech honored him with an Alumni Distinguished Professorship.
Panel #388
CE Offered: BACB
Application of OBM Strategies in Service Settings for Individuals with Autism: Promoting Quality Outcomes
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Emma C
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daphna El-Roy, Ph.D.
Chair: Joanne Gerenser (Eden II Programs)
RANDY I. HOROWITZ (Eden II Programs)
DAPHNA EL-ROY (Eden II Programs)

The incidence of autism has increased considerably during the past decade. A corresponding development of programs serving individuals with autism has occurred. While these programs are essential to meet the needs of the autism community, attracting, training and retaining a qualified workforce becomes very difficult. In addition to the competition among programs serving individuals with autism, these agencies must also compete with employment opportunities that are less stressful and less demanding than working with individuals with autism. Despite the widespread use of empirically-based teaching techniques in the field of special education, few providers apply these same principles to address staff behavior change. Organizational behavior management (OBM), also referred to as Performance Management (PM), is the application of applied behavior analysis to organizational improvement. The purpose of this panel is to address common issues within the field of human services and more specifically, to programs serving individuals with autism. Topics to be addressed include issues of staff retention and turnover, staff development as well as issues of quality assurance and improvement.

Symposium #391
CE Offered: BACB
Less is More: Effective Staff Training on the Most Important Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Annie AB
Area: DDA/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael C. Strouse (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Discussant: Alan E. Harchik (The May Institute)
CE Instructor: Diane Bannerman Juracek, Ph.D.

Efficient training of staff is a high priority for agencies serving people with severe developmental disabilities. This symposium examines a complete makeover of staff training in two agencies supporting people with severe developmental disabilities. Community Living Opportunities, Inc. (CLO), located in Eastern Kansas, provides residential services for 185 adults and features the Family Teaching Model (FTM), where 1 to 3 people live with a family who provides care, teaching, and a preferred lifestyle. California Community Opportunities, Inc. (CCO), located in San Jose, provides FTM services to people moving from Agnews Developmental Center. The first paper examines the effects of shortened workshop and in-home training on Family Teacher performance on tests and observations after workshop sessions, after 90 days, and after six months. The second study is a replication (at CCO) of the training and testing model, but focuses on in-home coaching lessons and ongoing assessment of primary outcome areas including safety, rights, supervision, and teaching skills. The third paper focuses on Social validity of the training model. Parents and frequent visitors of individuals are queried regarding satisfaction with training and outcomes. Preliminary data suggest that in situ training focused on the most important staff skills results in the best outcomes.

Let Go of the Kitchen Sink: Are Staff Learning and Doing the Most Important Things?
DIANE BANNERMAN JURACEK (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Holly M. Sweeney (Community Living Opportunities, Inc. and University of Kansas), Michael C. Strouse (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Jamie D. Price (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Yolanda Hargett (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Getting direct support staff trained as efficiently as possible is a high priority for agencies serving people with severe developmental disabilities. Additionally, insuring that staff are focused on the safety, health, and rights of consumers is critical. Community Living Opportunities, Inc. recently decreased the number of learning objectives and training hours in Family Teaching Model Pre-service workshops based on feedback from peer professionals. The number of learning objectives was reduced to focus on safety, health, and rights. Revised classroom and in-home training is evaluated with post-training quizzes and 90 day and 6-month tests and observations. Outcomes, like the number of injuries, care concerns, and consumer satisfaction are continuously tracked. Prior to intervention, new staff were completing an average of only 68% of required training activities within 30 days after hire. Preliminary data are expected to show improvements in completion of training and staff performance. It is also expected that the frequency of injuries and care concerns will be reduced. Though everything seems important when it comes to the care of people with significant needs, attempting to teach people too much, too quick, may not be effective.
Evaluating the Family Teaching Model Training Workshops and Coaching.
DEBI ANN ALVEY (California Community Opportunities, Inc.), Susan L. Richardson (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Amy Peeler (California Community Opportunities, Inc.), Robert M. Churchill (Behavior Analysis, Inc.), Holly M. Sweeney (Community Living Opportunities, Inc. and University of Kansas), Diane Bannerman Juracek (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Michael C. Strouse (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Abstract: Human Service Agencies that serve adults with developmental disabilities in their communities are often challenged with meeting mandated state training requirements and their own rigorous internal training components while ensuring that staff are demonstrating the skills taught. California Community Opportunities (CCO) is one such agency that is currently receiving support from Community Living Opportunities (CLO) to replicate the Family Teaching Model (FTM). The Family Teaching Model training package consists of (a) a Pre-service workshop, (b) a Family Teaching Model workshop, (c) in-home coaching between the Family Teaching Couple and the FTM Coach, and (d) regular evaluation and feedback regarding implementation of the CLO FTM outcomes. Quality Evaluation (QE) tools have been developed to track the progress made by Family Teachers on producing the skill sets that need to be learned. Data analyzed include results of QE tools completed before and after training workshops and before and after in-home coaching on the topics of schedules, engagement, supervision and safety, rights, and teaching. An evaluation of the data will show possibilities of implementing a simplified training process in the FTM.
Social Validity of Family Teaching Model Outcomes.
SUSAN L. RICHARDSON (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Debi Ann Alvey (California Community Opportunities, Inc.), Amy Peeler (California Community Opportunities, Inc.), Robert M. Churchill (Behavior Analysis, Inc.), Holly M. Sweeney (Community Living Opportunities, Inc. and University of Kansas), Diane Bannerman Juracek (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Michael C. Strouse (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Abstract: The Family Teaching Model (FTM) is a comprehensive treatment package with the ultimate goal of providing a meaningful life to individuals with profound developmental disabilities. Several primary components of this package include the identification of measurable outcomes for the individuals served, and the implementation of a teaching curriculum for the teachers providing direct care. Another important component includes the analysis of satisfaction surveys disseminated to the individuals, family members and other independent parties that have regular contact with the individuals served. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the outcomes identified in the FTM through the analysis of satisfaction surveys disseminated to family members and other frequent visitors of individuals served. CLO has developed Quality Evaluation (QE) tools to measure Family Teachers’ progress with meeting the outcomes. A study previously described in this symposium examines the effectiveness of CLO’s teaching curriculum on producing the desired skill set for achieving the outcomes. This study systematically examines the correlation between skill sets and outcomes achieved and degree of family member and visitor satisfaction.
Invited Tutorial #393
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Analysis and Treatment of Trichotillomania and Other Repetitive Behavior Problems
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Douglas B
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.
Chair: Ann Branstetter-Rost (Missouri State University)
Presenting Authors: : RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER (University of South Florida)

This tutorial will focus on trichotillomania and other repetitive behavior disorders in children and adults with an emphasis on functional assessment and intervention strategies. Following a discussion of the different repetitive behaviors, functional characteristics, and diagnostic categories, the tutorial will discuss assessment procedures, describe functional analysis research with these behaviors, and present recent research on habit reversal and other treatment of these disorders.

RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER (University of South Florida)
Dr. Raymond G. Miltenberger received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Western Michigan University in 1985 after completing a pre-doctoral internship in developmental disabilities and behavioral pediatrics from the Kennedy Institute at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He was a professor of psychology at North Dakota State University from 1985 to 2006. He is currently a professor in the Department of Child and Family Studies and the Director of the Master’s Program in Applied Behavior Analysis at the University of South Florida. Dr. Miltenberger is a member of the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International and a member of the board of directors of the Society for Advancement of Behavior Analysis. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavioral Interventions, and Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. He is also an associate editor for Education and Treatment of Children and a guest associate editor for Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Dr. Miltenberger’s research in applied behavior analysis focuses on teaching safety skills to children and individuals with mental retardation, analysis and treatment of repetitive behavior disorders, and functional assessment and treatment of problem behaviors. He has published over 125 journal articles and 25 chapters, has co-edited a text on analysis and treatment of tics and repetitive behavior disorders, and has written a behavior modification textbook, now in its third edition. Dr. Miltenberger has received a number of awards for his teaching and research.
Symposium #394
CE Offered: BACB
Clinical Treatment Evaluations for Food Selectivity and Pill Swallowing in Children
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Douglas A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.

This symposium will present innovations in procedures for treating feeding problems and teaching pill swallowing. The first presentation will present data of efforts to treat food selectivity by texture using antecedent manipulations and reinforcement-based procedures. The second presentation will present data demonstrating that stimulus fading can be used in the absence of escape extinction to teach pill swallowing to children. The third presentation will present data of a component analysis of a treatment package used to treat food selectivity by type.

Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture in a Young Boy with Autism.
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), J. Helen Yoo (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Thirty-one percent of children diagnosed with autism present with food selectivity by texture (Field, Garland, & Williams, 2003). In combination with escape extinction (EE) and differential reinforcement, stimulus fading procedures have been used to treat food selectivity by texture by gradually changing antecedent stimuli from more refined textures to courser textures (Shore, Babbitt, Willams, Coe, and Snyder, 1988). However, to the current authors’ knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether escape extinction is a necessary component of a treatment package used to treat food selectivity by texture. This study is a clinical treatment evaluation of efforts to treat food selectivity by texture without the use of escape extinction. Methods used to treat food selectivity by texture included texture fading, simultaneous presentation (for chicken only), and differential reinforcement.
A Component Analysis of a Multi-Component Treatment Package for Food Selectivity.
BECKY PENROD (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno), Mandy J. McClanahan (University of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Holland (University of Nevada, Reno), Kara A. Reagon (Utah State University), Alison M. Betz (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: Najdowski (2004) evaluated a parent-conducted treatment for food selectivity which consisted of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior combined with escape extinction (i.e., nonremoval of the spoon). Results indicated that this treatment package successfully increased food consumption of non-preferred foods. Although this study contributes to the literature on feeding disorders in a number of ways, it is not possible to determine which treatment component was responsible for behavior change in that treatment components were introduced simultaneously. Specifically, demand fading, changes in the magnitude of reinforcement, and escape extinction were all implemented at the same time. Hence, the purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous research by conducting a sequential component analysis of the aforementioned treatment components. Results indicated that escape extinction, in the form of a nonremoval of the spoon procedure, was a necessary treatment component for two participants. For one participant, increased food consumption was observed after the magnitude of reinforcement was increased; therefore, escape extinction was not necessary. Results were maintained at a 12-week follow-up.
Behavioral Management of Oral Medication Administration Difficulties.
J. HELEN YOO (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Approximately 26% of the general population has difficulty swallowing oral medication (Anderson, Zweidorff, Hjelde, & Rodland, 1995). While the exact number is unknown, anecdotal observations indicate that swallowing difficulty is prevalent in children, and even more prevalent among children with autism and developmental disabilities, often leading to treatment noncompliance. Some children may not have the prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from unpleasant past experiences. In most cases, this is not a critical problem, because alternative preparations such as chewable or liquid medications are readily available. When alternative preparations are not readily available, other simple methods of administering medication, such as pill crushing, opening the capsule and dissolving it in a beverage, or hiding it in food (e.g., apple sauce) are often utilized. However, when oral medications are a part of the treatment for a chronic illness and the medication is not chewable and cannot be dissolved or hidden due to an unpleasant taste or alteration in release mechanisms (e.g., extended release), the importance of pill swallowing skill increases dramatically In this multiple baseline study, several typically-developing children and children with autism were taught to swallow pills using stimulus fading and positive reinforcement. Participants learned to swallow pills in a relatively short time and parents were successfully trained to implement the procedures.
Symposium #397
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Sport, and Fitness: Behavior Analytic Technologies to Improve Health
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Edward AB
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Guy S. Bruce (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.

Children, persons with intellectual disabilities, their caretakers, and the general population are at increasing risk for illness and premature death because of their unhealthy eating and exercise habits. Since eating and exercising are behaviors, this problem provides an opportunity for behavior analysis to contribute to its solution. This symposium will present data on the effectiveness of behavior-analytic technologies that provide resources, training, and/or performance management interventions (such as goal-setting, feedback and incentives) to help persons at risk for illness and premature death to acquire and maintain healthier eating and exercise habits.

HealthVisor: Tools to be Lean and Healthy.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC), James Keefe (Warren Achievement Center)
Abstract: Persons with intellectual disabilities, their caretakers, and the general population are at increasing risk for illness and premature death because of their unhealthy eating and exercise habits. HealthVisor is an internet program that provides resources, training, and performance management tools to help people acquire and maintain eating and execise habits necessary to achieve better health. We will present pilot data on improvements in health achieved by users of the HealthVisor program.
Wellness Initiatives at the Judge Rotenberg Center.
MATTHEW L. ISRAEL (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: The Judge Rotenberg Center, a behavioral treatment center for special needs students, has developed a variety of procedures to encourage better nutrition in its staff and students. These include: (1) self-instructional software that enables nutrition films to be converted to self-teaching lessons given to the center's 960 staff members and to those of its students who are capable of benefiting from them; (2) incentive systems for encouraging staff to lower their total cholesterol through better eating; (3) educational lunches featuring nationally known nutritional experts; (4) student menus that reflect a largely plant-based diet; (5) incentives for students to choose healthy food when given the choice. Data on student and staff cholesterol improvement, as well as changes in student information and attitudes will be presented.
Behavioral versus Education-Alone Intervention to Manage Obesity in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of Pilot Research.
RICHARD K. FLEMING (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Elise Cooke (Holliston Public Schools), Carol Curtin (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: Research on weight-loss programs for children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is lacking, desite the problem it presents in segments of the population (e.g., Down syndrome). This paper presents the results of pilot research on two interventions with adolescents with ID and their parents: 1) nutrition/activity education (NAE) alone, and 2) parent-supported weight reduction (PSWR), which combines NAE with training in behavior analytic procedures (monitoring, goal setting, stimulus control, feedback, reinforcement and contracting). Results of the pilot research are being used to inform a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) to begin in 2007 (R. Fleming, PI, NIDDK, R03DK070627-01A2). Intervention protocols will be described, and pilot/case study data will be presented on changes in participants’ Body Mass Index (BMIz), accelerometry readings, self-reported goal achievement and program satisfaction. Plans for the larger NIDDK study will also be discussed, with commentary on advantages and limitations of RCT versus within-subject research in the study of childhood obesity.
Using Known Effective ABA Technologies to Increase the Physical Activity Levels of Young Children: Principles and Practice.
MATTHEW R. MARTIN (Illinois State University), Thomas L. Sharpe, Jr. (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Abstract: A variety of physical activity linked physiological diseases (e.g., type II diabetes, obesity etc.) are being exhibited in youth with greater prevalence (Rosenbloom, 2002). Epidemiological literature shows an alarming trend with respect to the physical activity levels of our youth, and that this trend is supported by the geometric increase in physiological diseases that until now have been rare in young children (Center for Disease and Control, 2002). A primary challenge for educators is, therefore, one of increasing participation effort in physical activity (McKenzie et. al, 1996, Sallis & McKenzie, 1991). This presentation shows with support data two documented ABA technologies – public posting and goal setting – potential positive impact with young children. A treatment reversal coupled with a comparative control experimental design was implemented across three fifth grade elementary education classes (N=79, age M=10.8) engaged in volleyball and softball activity units, and with pedometers used to collect physical activity data. Results indicated that both treatments were effective in increasing the average number of steps taken per individual class as a function of each treatment exposure. Implications for the positive impact that the ABA community may have on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of youth are last discussed from study illustration vantages.
Symposium #399
CE Offered: BACB
Issues in Applied Behavior Analysis and Consultation in Public Schools Settings
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
America's Cup C
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Bryan J. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Discussant: Frank M. Gresham (Louisiana State University)
CE Instructor: Bryan J. Davey, Ph.D.

Behavior consultation can involve a behavior analyst working on behalf of a public school to address a wide range of issues requiring behavioral services. Commonly, referrals are for training, skill acquisition, or behavior reduction with individual or small groups of students. This symposium will present 3 data-based papers representing this range of behavioral referrals. One paper will present data on skill acquisition in social skills training to a group of middle school students receiving special education services. Specifically, data will be presented on several childrens acquisition of social skills during a systematic training process. The second paper will present data on reducing prompt dependency and increasing spontaneous manding in a child with autism. The third paper will present data-based decision making procedures derived from an analysis of how much data is required for making informed decisions during discrete trials training. Using both contrived and real data sets, decision making strategies were applied to daily data collection, and data taken during 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% of days.

Evaluation of a Measurable, Data-Based, Social Skills Training Method.
AMANDA J. MANN (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Bryan J. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Ajamu Nkosi (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Abstract: The extent to which children and adolescents possess social skills can influence their academic performance, behavior, social and family relationships, and involvement in extracurricular activities. For individuals who experience difficulty in building and maintaining positive interpersonal relationships with peers and adults, social skills training is often recommended as an intervention. Despite the desire to enhance these social competencies in children and adolescents, measurement and evaluation of skill acquisition during social skills training is not a well researched area. The current study will discuss multiple research-based interventions for teaching social skills with adolescents. In addition, this study will discuss how to make data-based decisions by forming objective definitions of the skills and quantitatively measuring the acquisition of social skills. Data from 3 participants will be presented using the multiple baseline across skills design used to evaluate skill acquisition.
Overcoming Prompt Dependency in a Public School Setting: A Systematic Approach to Increasing Independent Mands.
SARAH NATARELLI (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Bryan J. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Andrea D. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Abstract: One common characteristic across children with Autism is difficulty with language and communication. Communication is sometimes difficult for children with Autism to emit independently when mands are not under non-verbal antecedent control. As a result of this deficit, children can become dependent on verbal prompts. Data will be presented from a participant who displayed prompt dependency across mand repertoires. A Verbal Behavior Model using echoic to mand procedures was implemented. In addition, establishing operations was used to increase a participant’s independent mand repertoires. The number of echoics, mands, and generalized mands were recorded during 2-hour sessions. Results show an increase in independent and generalized mands.
Analysis of Data Collection Parameters in School-Based Discrete Trials Training.
MEAGHAN TIMKO (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Michael M. Mueller (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Bryan J. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Christine Palkovic (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Sarah Natarelli (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Ajamu Nkosi (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Andrea D. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Amanda J. Mann (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Abstract: Skill acquisition programs are often implemented with an emphasis on data collection. Mastery criteria are set during discrete trials training (DTT) to evaluate when a child has mastered a skill; a commonly used mastery criteria is at least 80% accuracy for at least three consecutive sessions. Some literature suggests that collecting data less than every session will yield similar results for interpreting mastery criteria when compared to daily data collection. When implementing programs in the school setting, teacher and teacher-assistant therapists often cite the time requirements of data collection as a common concern or complaint. The current paper presents the outcomes of studies in which contrived, and actual, DTT data sets are evaluated for mastery criteria when daily, and less than daily data are used for decision making. Less than daily data analyses were evaluated when 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of sessions were evaluated.
Symposium #401
CE Offered: BACB
New Frontiers for Behavior Analysts: Emotional Development, Internalization, and Conscience
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Edward D
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Discussant: Nathan H. Azrin (NOVA Southeastern University)
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.

Children who have experienced abuse, neglect and/or separation from parents often exhibit severe behavioral difficulties that can result in expulsion from homes, schools and various community programs. With the structure, consistency and positive reinforcement provided by behavioral treatment programs, the behavior of these children often improves, they can frequently be maintained in these settings, and they are sometimes found to have been misdiagnosed. However, they often have continued dependency on the external structure provided by the behavioral treatment program. This is manifested by a failure to generalize positive behaviors in alternate settings and/or to internalize the values and motivation provided by the external structure. These children tend to show no indication of experiencing the emotions of joy, pride, shame, guilt, anxiety or fear. Their behavior appears to be strictly influenced by external stimuli and does not seem to be modulated by emotions. They tend to exhibit what appears to be a false sense of high self-esteem, show no indication of having a conscience, and seem to lack any genuine emotional expressiveness other than anger. A theoretical interpretation based on behavioral principles of the issues discussed above will be provided with specific behavioral treatment strategies to address these issues.

Hey, You’re a Behavior Analyst, Don’t Get All Emotional on Me.
Abstract: When discussing the treatment of children who are labeled as having emotional and behavioral challenges, many descriptions may be used to indicate behaviors of concern. These terms may include: lack of conscience, lack of “genuine” emotionality, refusal to take responsibility for their actions, inappropriately high levels of self esteem. Traditionally many people view these areas as internal psychological issues and thus not the province of intervention for behavior analysts. This presentation will describe how Behavior Analysts can and should operationally define these euphemisms for observable and measurable behavior. We will then describe how environmental contingencies may shape the presence, absence or “insincere” demonstration of these behaviors. Lastly, we will describe how the absence of precise descriptions of these terms may set the occasion for the application of imprecise and ill defined interventions, and a willingness not to measure outcomes of these often poorly described treatments.
Talking about Traumatic Experiences from the Past: Therapeutic or Traumatizing?
WALTER WITTY PRATHER (Agency for Persons with Disabilities)
Abstract: Often traditional therapists see the need to talk with their clients about traumatic events that have happened in the past in order to allow those clients to "deal with" the pain from their trauma and to "get some relief". The idea is that their clients will be able to "move on" and cope more effectively with the challenges in their present life once they have “dealt with” their trauma. Behaviorists question the legitimacy of this approach to therapy for several reasons. First, there is the risk that talking about these events may set the occasion for the same trauma to occur that occurred when the event first took place. Secondly, there is the possibility that some of the facts about what actually occurred are inaccurate or erroneous. This is possible based on research findings related to recovered memories and the difficulty in obtaining accurate information about an event that occurred in the past. Finally, the specific goals of therapy are neither clearly delineated nor objectively defined and quantified. The presenter will provide alternative methods using sound behavioral principles that accomplish specific goals for improved behaviors of clients who experience present difficulties due to traumatic past events.
When Psychiatric Symptoms Become Functional.
CYDNEY JO YERUSHALMI (Agency for Persons with Disabilities)
Abstract: As a behavior analyst, how are you supposed to respond to a client who says, at your first meeting, “I have an anger management problem.” Or a mother introduces you to her child and says, “ I have bipolar disorder, and so does she.” With these introductory remarks, you are to understand that their behaviors are beyond their control and that very likely, you will be unable to be effective either. People who have had traditional “talk therapy” are convinced that they are victims of their diagnoses and that the words used to describe their symptoms have in some magical way become them. This paper will discuss the effect that explanatory fictions have on clients and the barriers that interfere with behavior analysis. It will look at ways that the behavior analyst can overcome those barriers in order to provide effective behavioral treatment.
Symposium #403
CE Offered: BACB
Precision Teaching and Augmentative Communication
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Elizabeth H
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
CE Instructor: Kelly J. Ferris, M.A.

Four papers on augmentative communication device and autism will be presented. Paper topics include: Modifying Existing Curricula for Use with Augmentative Communication Devices; Producing Generative Language on Augmentative Communication Devices using Precision Teaching: Quasi-Experimental Designs; Pre-Skills to support Augmentative Communication Devices; Modifying the Layout of an Augmentative Communication Device to Measure the Affects on a Child with Autisms Vocabulary Acquisition and Spontaneous Device Use

Modifying Existing Curricula for Use with Augmentative Communication Devices.
KELLY J. FERRIS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Direct Instruction curricula are rich with learning opportunities for students with and without autism who are speakers. Within these curricular sequences, the high frequency of student responding and high rate of teacher feedback serve an effective teaching arrangement. However, students who use alternative means to communicate can also benefit from this type of instruction. This paper will illustrate successful modifications for the use of Direct Instruction curricula with students with autism who are not speakers but communicate with augmentative communication devices. Data on a Standard Celeration Chart will be presented showing students’ progress through different curricular sequences.
Producing Generative Language on Augmentative Communication Devices Using Precision Teaching: Quasi-Experimental Designs.
HOLLY ALMON (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kristin Wilkinson Smith (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This presentation will highlight several examples of using precision teaching to teach language skills to children with autism who use augmentative communication devices which in turn fosters generative language. Beyond simple requesting, there are many skills that must be taught systematically in order for children with autism to become fluent device users. Data on a Standard Celeration Chart will illustrate the environmental arrangements used to evoke spontaneous speech, the tracking of spontaneous speech, and utilization of curricular sequences and data systems to best capture spontaneous language use.
Pre-Skills to Support Augmentative Communication Devices.
ALISON L. MOORS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This presentation will describe a systematic programming approach for teaching the necessary pre-skills that child with autism need in order to become successful candidates for augmentative communication devices. Data will be presented on a Standard Celeration Chart illustrating common skill sequences and the description of component skills necessary to navigate dynamic display voice output devices. Actual student data and video clips will be included.
Modifying the Layout of an Augmentative Communication Device to Measure the Affects on a Child with Autism’s Vocabulary Acquisition and Spontaneous Device Use.
AMY KING (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss device modifications and the affect on a student’s generative language, exploration and spontaneous use of his augmentative communication device. Data will be presented on a Standard Celeration Chart showing students’ progress through different instructional sequences.
Symposium #407
CE Offered: BACB
School Based Functional Assessments, Analysis, and Function Based Interventions
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
CE Instructor: Linda S. Heitzman-Powell, Ph.D.

This symposium includes four studies concerning functional assessments, analysis and function based interventions in school settings.

Functional Assessment with a Student with Autism in a Special Education Setting.
RACHEL L. WHITE (University of Kansas), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: This study uses the functional behavior assessment (FBA) process for schools suggested by Crone and Horner (2003) to develop a function based intervention for a fourth grade student with autism in a special education setting. An FBA interview and direct observation were used to develop a written schedule intervention. Effects of the written schedule on student behavior were measured using a reversal design. Student engagement and compliance increased and teacher prompts decreased. A functional analysis conducted in the classroom confirmed the hypothesized functions of behavior and supported the use of the written schedule intervention. The need for future research in the use of the FBA process in schools is discussed.
Training a Reading Teacher to Implement a Functional Analysis and Intervention.
EMILY D. SHUMATE (University of Kansas and Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: This presentation will describe the training procedures used to teach a reading teacher how to run the play, escape, and attention conditions of a functional analysis and how to implement a function based intervention. The presentation will also describe the effectiveness of the functional analysis and intervention. The referred student was identified as being a reading and a behavior risk and attended an inner city school. The functional analysis was conducted in the reading classroom while the teacher was conducting the daily session with the target student and four other students. Training consisted of a 15 minute meeting going over the conditions and giving the teacher color coded sheets with a short description of each condition that he could refer to during the sessions and they served as a stimulus for condition changes. The results of the functional analysis suggested that attention was maintaining behavior. The intervention was a differential reinforcement of other behaviors procedure. The teacher also used a check-off sheet to monitor his rate of attention and to help him thin the schedule. During intervention the students problem behaviors decreased to near zero and during the last two follow-up probes the rate of problem behaviors was at zero.
Escape to Attention: Differentiating between Attention and Escape Behavior during an Escape Condition.
LINDA S. HEITZMAN-POWELL (University of Kansas), Kimberly K. Bessette (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This study modifies the traditional functional analysis process (Iwata, 1982, 1994) to differentiate between “escape” behavior and “escape to attention” behavior. An FBA interview and direct observation were used to develop a hypothesis about the function of the behavior. Results indicated that the behavior “served multiple functions”, a common report from school FBA’s. Initially, the behavior appeared to be maintained by escape. However, diverted attention resulted in significant increases in problematic behavior. Results indicated that traditional escape methodology resulted in levels of target behavior that were similar to attention conditions. During the modified FA, the modified task removal (escape condition) resulted in small increases in target behaviors, while the diverted attention condition resulted in significant increases in challenging behavior. The need for future research in the use of the FBA process in schools is discussed.
An Investigation of Functional Assessment and Function Based Intervention Plans in Schools Implementing School-Wide PBS.
LORI L. NEWCOMER (University of Missouri)
Abstract: The presentation reflects a study designed to investigate (1) the efficacy of functional assessment-behavior support planning for students diagnosed as having EBD, (2) the robustness of indirect strategies in generating valid hypotheses, (3) the efficiency and effectiveness of behavior support plans based on functional assessment versus plans that are not and (4) maintenance and generalization of plans in schools that have developed school wide discipline systems of positive behavior support. A series of single subject and descriptive studies are presented. The study was conducted in two phases. Study One examines (a) functional assessment strategies in general education settings with students with EBD and who are considered at risk for school failure to determine the most parsimonious strategies that lead to effective interventions, and (b) if functional assessment leads to more efficient and effective interventions than traditional approaches. Study two focuses on the potential impact of school-wide systems of PBS on student behavioral outcomes at the tertiary level. Study participants included students in grades 1, 2 and 3 who display chronic problem behaviors and who have been labeled EBD. They attended a school that met criteria for implementation of Schoolwide Systems of PBS as measured by the Systems Evaluation Tool (SET).
Symposium #408
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Selected Techniques of Supported Inclusion for Young Children with Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
CE Instructor: Joel P. Hundert, Ph.D.

As children with autism move into general educational classrooms, there is a need to develop effective and contextually-practical interventions. There is little evidence that placement of children with autism in a general education classroom setting by itself, will produce significant gains in their academic or social skills. This symposium will present a number of techniques associated with the success of supported inclusion for children with autism. One paper will present data on the use of embedded instruction to teach children with autism within a general education setting. A second study will describe a study of training paraprofessionals to support adolescents with autism in secondary schools. The third paper will present data on generalization across tasks of teaching children with autism to answer why questions. The fourth paper will discuss the use of a transitional classroom to prepare children with autism for supported inclusion and z method of evaluating the match between the expectations of a potential receiving classroom and the needs of a child with autism.

Training Teachers to Develop Inclusive Class Interventions For Preschoolers With Disabilities.
JOEL P. HUNDERT (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Embedded instruction holds promise as an intervention that can be used to teach children with autism in general education settings, particularly when there is a sizeable discrepancy between the academic skill level of a child with autism and the rest of the students in the class. Embedded instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching IEP objectives to children with autism in general education classrooms and has been rated by educators as an acceptable intervention. However, research on the effectiveness of embedded instruction is limited and research on variables associated with the effect of embedded instruction is almost non-existent. For example, typically the total number of embedded instructional trials per day implemented in studies has been between 10 and15. Presumably, increased learning may be able to occur with increased practice of embedded instruction trials. The paper will describe the results of a study in which the amount of embedded instruction practice was increased and effects examined on acquisition and generalization of skills.
The Effect of Paraprofessional Training on Active Engagement of Adolescents with Autism in Inclusive Secondary Schools.
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute), Olivia Alexandre (McMaster University), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: As part of the movement to include children with autism into general education, some secondary schools are attempting to educate adolescents with autism in such general education classes as history, geography, and music. When compared to similar efforts for younger children with autism in elementary schools, the inclusion of adolescents in secondary schools has additional challenges including: a) transition of adolescents from class to class each period; b) the involvement of several teachers in planning and delivering education for the adolescents with autism; and, c) a large discrepancy between the skill set of many adolescents with autism and their typically-developing peers. This paper will describe the results of a study in which secondary school paraprofessionals were taught to develop individualized curriculum materials and provide direct teaching of adolescents with autism in inclusive classrooms. Effects of this training on the active engagement in functional tasks of three adolescents with autism and on the behaviors of paraprofessionals will be described.
The Development and Coordination of A Comprehensive Plan to Support a Youth with Autism in Secondary School.
COURTNEY MICHELLE MOODY (Behaviour Institute), Sari van Delft (Behaviour Institute ), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Donna C. Chaney (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: There have been several examples of successful teaching of children with autism tasks such as reading, mathematics, and spelling in general education classrooms in which there is a correct answer associated with each presented question. Yet, children with autism included in general education classrooms may be exposed to learning that does not involve a direct and fixed association between a question and an answer. Such tasks would include answering “why” questions in which there may be a number of plausible answers. This paper will describe the results of a study in which children with autism were presented with three types of tasks that involve answering “why” questions: a) observing a sequence of pictures depicting a story; b) listening to a brief story; and, c) listening to a general question. A multiple-probe design across stimuli was used to evaluate the acquisition of “why” questions and generalization to untrained stimuli for two children with autism. The results indicated that training effects generalized to novel stimuli within the same type of “why” questions, but limited generalization occurred from one type of question to the next.
A Description of a Transitional Classroom to Move Children with Autism into General Education Classrooms.
NICOLE WALTON-ALLEN (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Transition classrooms have been used to ease the movement of some young children with autism from a discrete trial teaching format to learning within the instructional formats more typical in general education classrooms. This paper will describe the Preparatory Class at Behaviour Institute, as one example of a transition classroom. The presentation will describe intervention strategies used for teaching children with autism to learn within a group setting including individualized group instruction, unintrusive reinforcement and prompting procedures and embedded instruction. Also presented will be the method for making a transition from the Preparatory Class to the general education classroom setting and the assessment of the behaviors and skills of the child with autism in relationship to expectations of the receiving classroom.
Symposium #409
CE Offered: BACB
Theory and Philosophy in Behavioral Science: Issues in Development and Advancement
Monday, May 28, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Cunningham B
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Marianne L. Jackson (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Mitch Fryling, M.A.

Theory and philosophy have important roles in the development and advancement of behavioral science. This symposium will include four papers related to theory and philosophy. The first paper discusses the extension of behavior analytic theory to the important area of adherence, particularly as it relates to health. The second paper addresses the role of classical conditioning in the evolution of behavioral science. The third paper describes the relationship between philosophy and behavioral science. Lastly, the fourth paper addresses the concept of probability in behavioral science.

A Behavior Analytic Account of Adherence.
MITCH FRYLING (University of Nevada, Reno), William O'Donohue (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Many of the most pressing problems in society today can be prevented or managed via adherence to prescribed regimens. Chronic health conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) require ongoing monitoring, planning, and intervention. A behavior analytic account of adherence to prescribed regimens may facilitate the development of effective intervention strategies. This presentation will describe a behavior analytic approach to assessment and intervention in this area. Implications for understanding caregiver adherence to behavior intervention plans will also be discussed.
The Impact of Classical Conditioning in the Evolution of Behavior Science.
DIANA M. DELGADO (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Skinner’s operant conditioning arose as a new paradigm that explained a wider and more complex range of behaviors than those accounted for by respondent conditioning. As introduced by Skinner operant conditioning is understood as a new kind of causality that replaced the mechanistic S-R approach. Since then, the analysis of behaviors both simple and complex has been predominantly of an operant type. By contrast, classical conditioning processes when acknowledged are given but a secondary role within behavior science. As a result, research in classical conditioning processes has evolved as part of the psychobiological and cognitive approaches and apart from behavior science. However, stimulus-stimulus relations are often fundamental in the analysis of complex human behavior and a unidirectional type of causality, such as that implied in biological phenomena, is seldom implied. The benefits and implications of re-cognizing Pavlovian relations from an ontogenetic view of behavior are discussed and some promising areas of research are highlighted.
An Interbehavioral Perspective on the Need for a Bidirectional Relationship with Philosophy.
MARIANNE L. JACKSON (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: A science of behavior has much to gain and to offer a reciprocal relationship with philosophy. A philosophy of science can serve many important roles in scientific enterprises, including the semantic supervision of sciences, monitoring the coherence of sciences, and fostering effective interdisciplinary studies among sciences. Each of these will be discussed in turn and some examples of their relevance to a science of behavior are described. We will then turn our attention to the reciprocal nature of scientific interactions and to the benefits that a science of behavior can offer philosophy and other sciences. A science of behavior has a subject mater that is ubiquitous in science; human behavior or the behavior of the scientist. As such we can contribute a significant amount to other sciences through effective interdisciplinary study and are better equipped to describe the interbehavioral history of the scientist, in relation to the events studied. We conclude that a science of behavior must take on the task of addressing its philosophical assumptions if it is to participate in the expanding area of interdisciplinary study. Furthermore it needs to rise to the tasks outlined and make its own unique contributions to other sciences and the philosophy of science.
Philosophical Discussion of Probability in Behavior Analysis.
DONALD R. KARR (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The concept of probability is fundamental to much of behavior analysis, yet there is no unambiguous interpretation of probability that is applicable to all experimental or applied settings. Since its inception in the late 17th century, inspired principally by games of chance, numerous philosophical formulations of probability have been proposed. This presentation will focus on several interpretations of probability by behavior analysts including the eminent pioneers J.R. Kantor and B.F. Skinner. Brief treatments of each of three categories of probability theories are presented as follows: (a) conventional interpretations; (b) frequency interpretations; and (c) subjective interpretations. Highlights of early and later historical developments are discussed. Specific analyses of the interpretations of Kantor and Skinner including their similarities and differences are offered.
Invited Tutorial #412
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Back to the Future Part Two: Renovations and Innovations in Behavioral Treatment for ADHD
Monday, May 28, 2007
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Douglas B
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: John A. Northup, Ph.D.
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Presenting Authors: : JOHN A. NORTHUP (University of Iowa)

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has contributed greatly to the treatment of behaviors related to a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) since the inception of the field. Early ABA studies still provide the foundation for now routine recommendations such as the token economy and behavioral parent training. However, recently these early treatments have become much more refined and systematized. The application of functional analysis principles and procedures as well as the development of sophisticated concurrent operant assessment procedures have also led to new and innovative behavioral treatments for ADHD. The purpose of this presentation is to present recent functional analysis and concurrent operant assessment research related to the treatment of ADHD in the context of the past, the present, and our future.

JOHN A. NORTHUP (University of Iowa)
Dr. John A. Northup is currently an Associate Professor in School Psychology at the University of Iowa. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa, completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the Kennedy-Krieger Institute, John Hopkins University School of Medicine and was previously an Associate Professor at Louisiana State University. His research interests are in the areas of the assessment and treatment of disruptive behavior disorders. He is currently conducting research on the development of functional analysis and assessment procedures for typically-developing children, the evaluation of medication (e.g., Ritalin) effects in the classroom, and drug-behavior interactions.
Symposium #413
CE Offered: BACB
Outcome Data from Caregivers and Children Participating in Floridas Behavior Analysis Services Program
Monday, May 28, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Betsy B
Area: CSE/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stacie Neff (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Hewitt B. Clark (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Stacie Neff, M.S.

Floridas Behavior Analysis Services Program (BASP) is a statewide program for dependent children and their caregivers. Over 60 board certified behavior analysts from the University of South Florida and the University of Florida work with parents and staff to improve their interactions with previously abused and neglected children. Caregivers receive training in the Tools for Positive Behavior Change Curriculum and learn how to implement individualized behavior plans when necessary. Three presentations within the current symposium discuss outcome results with both caregivers and children. The results of these studies indicated that the training and/or individual assessments were effective in producing positive outcomes (i.e., decreasing teen runaway behavior and increasing the positive interactions of caregivers). The final presentation applied the same curriculum, which is typically only taught to those affiliated with child welfare, to volunteers in the community who were interested in taking a parenting class. This study indicated positive outcomes on child behavior and also showed that additional measures of caregiver stress and depression can improve after training. In summary, the results of the current studies indicate that the BASP program can be effective in making positive changes in both child and caregiver behavior.

A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaways and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care.
DAVID GELLER (University of South Florida), Hewitt B. Clark (University of South Florida), Bryon Robert Neff (University of South Florida), Michael Cripe (University of South Florida), Terresa A. Kenney (University of South Florida), Stacie Neff (University of South Florida)
Abstract: A significant problem in the field of child protection is that of teenagers running from their foster placements. In this presentation, it is argued that a functional and behavior analytic approach could be effective in reducing the problem of runaways. A functional approach involves conducting assessments regarding the motivations for running, involving the teens themselves in the assessment process, and implementing subsequent interventions designed to make the placements more appealing to the youth, thereby reducing the probability of running. As an early demonstration of this approach, thirteen adolescents with histories of running participated in the functional interventions. Data on placement changes and days on the run showed significant pre-post differences. The total percent of days on the run for the group decreased from 40% of days in baseline to 11% of days post-intervention. Individual data using an AB design will also be presented to illustrate the process of intervention with three severe cases of running. The approach is discussed in terms of the potential benefits of a functional and behavior analytic perspective on foster care and child protection.
Using the Tools for Positive Behavior Change to Improve Staff Interactions in Group Homes for Foster Care Children.
KIMBERLY CROSLAND (University of South Florida), Catherine Wilcox (University of South Florida), Wayne A. Sager (University of South Florida), Alfredo Blanco (University of South Florida), Tamela Giddings (University of South Florida), Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Staff training is an often used intervention designed to strengthen caregiver behaviors that may function to decrease inappropriate child behavior and increase appropriate child behaviors. Weise (1992) conducted a critical review of caregiver training research and suggested that more studies need to collect specific direct observation data on caregiver behavior. She reported that approximately 83% of published caregiver training studies only used subjective measures, such as rating scales. The current study collected both baseline and treatment measures, employing a multiple baseline design across three group homes. All caregivers were trained in the Tools for Positive Behavior Change Curriculum. Direct observation measures were conducted in which data were collected on positive interactions, negative interactions (i.e., coercives), and tool use. Incident report data were also obtained. Reliability measures were obtained for approximately 15% of the sessions. Increases in both positive interactions and tool use were observed at all three group homes in the treatment phase while decreases in negative interactions were also found for two of the group homes. For group home #1, positive interactions increased from an average of 32% in baseline to an average of 83% post-training and continued to maintain high levels during follow-up observations.
Evaluating the Outcomes of PBC Training on Child Behavior and Parental Stress and Depression.
AMANDA M. KEATING (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida), Bryon Robert Neff (University of South Florida), Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The majority of parent training studies have evaluated skills acquisition of the parent while few studies have specifically taken direct observation measures of child behavior change. Even fewer evaluate the changes in auxiliary parental factors such as stress, depression, and locus of control. Using an AB design with repeated measures, this study evaluated the effects of the Tools for Positive Behavior Change on both child and parent behavior. Parents from Hillsborough County attending the positive behavior change program were taken from a community sample and in home observation measures were conducted during baseline, training, and post training. Results showed that parent’s pre-test tool role play scores averaged 23% during baseline and increased to 86% post-training. Direct observation measures also showed improvements in specific child behaviors including tantrums, noncompliance, and aggression. Indicators of parental stress and depression both decreased more than one standard deviation. Locus of control measures showed parents in the class reported a greater sense of having control over environmental events after training.
Symposium #414
CE Offered: BACB
Performance Feedback and Video Technology: Training from Education to Athletics
Monday, May 28, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Emma C
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John Stokes (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: John Stokes, Other

There are many challenges with training staff and teachers in Humans service agencies and schools with limited time and resources Administrator and supervisory must find way to quickly and accurately train staff to be able to perform with students and individuals in school day program and residential setting. This symposium provide several example of multiple training interventions, using video Feedback to train educational assessment and interaction skills to teachers parents and direct care staff The first presentation describes a method for training parents and staff to implement functional analysis using performance feedback and Video Feedback to increase accuracy of implementation of consequence during conditions. The second presentation describes a performance management intervention that used Video observation to increase effective interaction skills increasing clinical interaction skills for teachers in a school and residential programs. The third presentation describes a training program to teach discrete trial training to staff in a residential school for children with Autism. All presentation represents interventions used across multiple staff in education and therapeutic environments.

The Effects of Video Feedback in Training Parents and Direct Care Staff to Implement Functional Analysis Conditions.
MARY BOLTIN (Vinfen Corporation), John Stokes (Simmons College), Megan Guidi (Simmons College and The Vinfen Corporation)
Abstract: Accuracy in implementing appropriate consequences during Functional Analysis condition is critical in gaining accurate outcome. The present study examined the use of instructional workshop for staff and parent, Performance feedback and Video Feedback to conduct functional analysis. Results indicated that six of eight participant met accuracy criterion following the video feedback training. Follow up data taken at 1 week and 1 month indicated that a high level of accuracy was maintained in all subjects. Five participants accurately conducted sessions with students in the home. Inter-observer reliability was conducted for 70% of session. Reliability ranged from 31%-100% with a mean score of 87.5% accuracy. Data is represented graphically.
Utilizing Performance Feedback and Video to Increase Athletic Performance of High School Football Players.
JOHN STOKES (Simmons College), Elise Cooke (Holliston Public Schools)
Abstract: In the field of human services, utilizing effective training methods for developing and monitoring staff work performance is critical to the maintenance of a high quality of life for individuals served. The same principles that used for increasing work skills can also be used to increase the skills used for most sports. In this study five high school football players were exposed to a training package which utilized video as a performance feedback tool as well as tag teaching to improve desired athletic skills. There was verbal feedback, video feedback and the use of successive approximation with a tag teacher provided. Player’s performances were assessed in a multiple baseline design. Results indicated an increase in desired athletic skills in all 5 participants following the video-self-monitoring training package. Each player was trained to competency then maintenance checks were conducted for a 2 week period. Results showed that skill performance was maintained. Inter-observer agreement on the dependent variable was collected during 100% of the sessions and averaged 94.65% (graphs available upon request).
Performance Feedback: A Component Analysis with Extended Generality.
KRISTOFER VAN HERP (Greater Lawrence Educational Collaborative), Stephanie Nostin (Greater Lawrence Educational Collaborative)
Abstract: Performance feedback has been shown to be an effective teaching tool and motivator in a wide variety of professional environments. Performance feedback typically consists of two key components; corrective and positive feedback. Recent studies have demonstrated positive effects of performance feedback, but have come up short in maintenance outcomes (Moore et al, 2002) and generality to supplementary curriculum (Leblanc, Ricciardi & Luiselli, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of corrective feedback and positive feedback independently and as a treatment package through the use of a reversal design. In addition to, investigating each component’s extended temporal effects as well as generality across a curriculum of activities. This was done through a sequential feedback program involving 6 instructional assistants of varied tenure, and their ability to implement discrete trial instruction with children on the autism spectrum. Results showed that corrective feedback alone displayed superior generative effects of improved instruction than that of positive feedback alone; but combined in a treatment package they were superior to both individually. This was shown through improved discrete trial instruction across a curriculum and 14 weeks beyond training.
Symposium #420
CE Offered: BACB
Clinical Behavior Analysis: Evaluating Treatment for Bulimic Behavior and Smoking
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Edward D
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Amanda Bosch (University of Florida)
Discussant: David Reitman (Nova Southeastern University)
CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.

This symposium includes three papers with recent research on the treatment of binge eating and purging associated with bulimia, and smoking. In the first study, Bosch and colleagues describe a study in which extinction was used to treat binge eating maintained by automatic negative reinforcement. In the second study, Azrin and Kellen describe research in which a slowed eating rate resulted in a decreased level of purging behavior associated with bulimia. In the final paper, Anderson and Gaynor describe a multifaceted behavioral intervention for smoking. David Reitman will serve as discussant and comment on the papers.

Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating.
AMANDA BOSCH (University of Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Amy Gross (Western Michigan University), Peter J. Knudson (North Dakota State University), Carrie M. Brower-Breitwieser (North Dakota State University)
Abstract: Binge eating is primarily maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotions elicited by negative thinking. Although extinction has been thought impossible with behaviors maintained by automatic negative reinforcement, this study evaluated the application of extinction with binge eating. Four women who reported engaging in binge eating at least twice a week participated. To implement extinction, participants listened to an audio tape recording of their own negative thinking associated with their negative emotional responses when they began binge eating to prevent alleviation of the negative emotions contingent on binge eating. The procedure effectively reduced the frequency and duration of the binges, in addition to reducing the number of calories consumed during a binge for all participants when the procedure was correctly implemented. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Bulimic Purging Altered by the Rate of Eating.
NATHAN H. AZRIN (Nova Southeastern University), Michael J. Kellen (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Self-induced vomiting was found to decrease when the rate of eating was experimentally decreased in a study of several profoundly retarded institutionalized residents exhibiting this unusual problem. Experiments with normal nonretarded outpatients diagnosed as bulimic revealed that this same result occurred for these typical outpatient bulimics obtaining a quantitative measure of the urge to vomit after eating slowly the same "taboo" foods that otherwise resulted in bulimic purging when eaten rapidly. These results suggest a possible effective treatment for bulimic purging.
A Multi-Modal Treatment for Cigarette Smokers.
JAMES ANDERSON (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Smoking is a serious health problem worldwide. Several intervention techniques to help people quit have demonstrated some measure of success, though none has clearly distinguished itself as a superior method of treatment. Nicotine transdermal systems have become increasingly popular and have demonstrated some success, but relapse rates remain alarmingly high. Psychology has offered some promising intervention techniques, yet none has produced consistent data of sustained abstinence. Motivational Interviewing (MI), Exposure Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and contingency management have all demonstrated promise in assisting smokers to achieve abstinence. In the present study, we have combined aspects of all of these treatment techniques. The protocol includes one session of MI (in order to assess and facilitate desire and commitment to change), seven sessions of ACT-enhanced exposure therapy with concurrent scheduled smoking reduction (to help the patient learn to tolerate withdrawal symptoms while accepting their inevitability and maintaining his or her commitment to abstinence), and a week of contingency management (in order to help patients achieve an initial period of total abstinence that previous research has indicated is a good predictor of long-term success in maintaining abstinence). The presentation will provide a detailed rationale for the present protocol, available data, and future implications.
Symposium #421
CE Offered: BACB
Estudios en Paises de Habla Hispana
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Betsy A
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mapy Chavez Cueto (Wagner College)
CE Instructor: Mapy Chavez Cueto, Ph.D.

Este simposio presentara estudios que han sido realizados ya sea en paises de habla hispana, or por investigadores de habla hispana. Todas las presentaciones seran en espaol.

Comparación de Diferentes Procedimientos de Discriminación en el Marco de la Lectura y Escritura, y el Papel de las Contingencias Diferenciales.
MAPY CHAVEZ CUETO (Wagner College), Carlos V. Garcia-Cruz (Escuela Magisterio y Colegio Ave Maria ), Inmaculada Gomez Becerra (Universidad Almerí­a, Spain)
Abstract: Se trata de un estudio experimental sobre la eficacia de distintos procedimientos de discriminación en el marco del aprendizaje de lectoescritura. Así el objetivo es la comparación de diversos procedimientos de adquisición de discriminaciones a la base y/o propias de la lecto-escritura (formas simples, formas compuestas, arriba-abajo, delante-detrás). Se aplicará un diseño intrasujeto con línea base múltiple y tratamiento alterno, y un diseño entresujeto. En el estudio participarán un total de 15 niños con edades comprendidas entre 3 y 5 años, que aún no tienen la habilidad de leer ni escribir. La tarea experimental y, a su vez, aplicada será la discriminación e identificación de diferentes elementos estimulares organizados siguiendo el formato de un sistema de aprendizaje de lecto-escritura ampliamente diseminado y elaborado bajo el mismo prisma metodológico y conceptual (en concreto, el sistema de “Superlectoescritura” de García y Luciano, 1996). Los procedimientos aplicados son los siguientes: - Procedimiento 1º: Discriminación con mínima probabilidad de error, a través de un método de igualación a la muestra junto a la aplicación de contingencias diferenciales y sistemáticas de los errores en la tarea experimental (reforzamiento de las respuestas correctas y corrección con práctica positiva de los errores). - Procedimiento 2º: Discriminación ensayo-error, sin uso de un método de igualación a la muestra, aunque si se incorporan contingencias diferenciales respecto de los errores. - Procedimiento 3º: Discriminación ensayo-error, sin igualación a la muestra y sin aplicación de contingencias diferenciales ni sistemáticas.
Emergencia de las Relaciones de Equivalencia y de las Analogías en el Desarrollo Verbal y Otros Repertorios Prerrequisitos.
INMACULADA GOMEZ BECERRA (Universidad Almerí­a, Spain), Maria Rosa Garcia Barranco (Universidad Almerí­a, Spain), Mapy Chavez Cueto (Wagner College)
Abstract: Se trata de una línea de investigación en curso cuyo objetivo general es conocer en qué momento del desarrollo normativo se muestran respuestas de equivalencia generalizadas y analogías como relaciones de orden superior, así como trata de analizar el papel de determinados comportamientos prerrequisitos y simbólicos (Horne y Lowe, 1996; Luciano, Barnes-Holmes y Barnes-Holmes, 2001; Luciano, Gómez y Rodríguez Valverde, in review). Se presenta un primer estudio de tipo transversal, en el que participan 8 preescolares de diferentes grupos de edad cronológica (de 20 a 33 meses). Se evalúan la equivalencia visual-visual a través de igualación a la muestra. Además, se evalúan las habilidades lingüísticas receptivas y expresivas, con diversas pruebas estandarizadas utilizadas en estudios anteriores de equivalencia con bebés (Peláez, Gewirtz, Sánchez y Mahabir, 2000; Horne y Lowe, 2001); el repertorio de conducta de hablante como propio oyente (Greer y Keohane, 2005); y el nivel de desarrollo de otras operantes como la imitación generalizada, las habilidades de categorización y las abstracciones espacio-temporales; la mayoría de ellas medidas directamente en situaciones estructuradas, así como informadas por padres y educadores. Los resultados son analizados destacando el papel del naming, del porcentaje de vocabulario expresivo, de las habilidades de categorización y de la imitación vocal. Y se enfatiza la necesidad de entrenamiento con múltiples ejemplos (MET) para futuros estudios. Luego se aplica un segundo estudio longitudinal que supone tomar medidas repetidas a lo largo de doce meses de los 8 preescolares de diferentes grupos de edad cronológica que participaron en el estudio anterior, evaluando de nuevo la equivalencia visual-visual a través de igualación a la muestra, así como todas las habilidades que en el estudio transversal resultaron relacionadas con los diferentes niveles de repertorio simbólico. Aquellos niños que alcanzaron el nivel máximo en las tareas de equivalencia en el estudio 1, fueron evaluados en ejecuciones simbólicas de orden superior como las relaciones de equivalencia-equivalencia y analogías, a la par que otros repertorios considerados prerrequisitos o íntimamente relacionados, como el porcentaje de vocabulario expresivo, habilidades de categorización y de extraer semejanzas, naming y coeficiente intelectual. El tercer estudio pretende conocer en que momento del desarrollo normativo se muestran respuestas de equivalencia-equivalenci
Comparación entre un Entrenamiento en Nominación y uno de Razón Fija en la Emergencia de Clases de Equivalencia.
YORS A. GARCIA (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: El objetivo del actual estudio fue comparar dos procedimientos para facilitar la emergencia de clases de equivalencia en estudiantes universitarios. En una condición, los participantes fueron entrenados en primera instancia a nombrar los estímulos de tres clases diferentes, los cuáles luego fueron condicionalmente relacionados. En una segunda condición, los participantes fueron entrenados en primera instancia a emitir respuestas bajo un programa de razón a estímulos de tres clases diferentes, los cuáles luego fueron condicionalmente relacionados. En la condición de control, los participantes fueron directamente entrenados en discriminaciones condicionales, seguido por una prueba de equivalencia. Un procedimiento de “think aloud” fue utilizado en las tres condiciones durante el entrenamiento en discriminaciones condicionales y las pruebas de equivalencia. Los resultados sugieren que las dos condiciones fueron igualmente eficaces en facilitar la emergencia de clases de estímulos. Igualmente los resultados del análisis de protocolos sugieren que nominar los estímulos no es necesario para la formación de clases de equivalencia.
Symposium #423
CE Offered: BACB
Food Selectivity and Refusal: Home and School Case Studies of Evaluation, Interventions, Outcomes, and Limitations
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Elizabeth G
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joseph Gentry (The May Institute)
Discussant: Robert F. Putnam (The May Institute)
CE Instructor: Colleen Ann O'Leary-Zonarich, M.A.

Research has shown positive reinforcement to be an effective strategy for increasing food consumption in children with developmental disabilities who display food selectivity/refusal. Three papers will review background, incidence, significance, assessment, intervention, outcomes, and limitations with three different students diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders who display food selectivity and/or refusal across home and school environments. Each paper will discuss systematic intervention, including a variety of antecedent and consequence strategies used to promote increased food consumption across home and/or school environments. Papers will also present individualized programs tailored to the child and team and that using one or more types of interventions concurrently or with multiple baseline approaches may generate outcomes quickly to create team confidence. The impact of several variables will be presented; including, developing technically sound protocols, identifying functional reinforcers, promoting comprehensive team involvement and communication, treatment integrity, data collection, and limitations of interventions. Results presented will show significant improvements in meal times and increased food consumption for all three children, with results sustained over time with maintenance procedures in place.

Getting Started at Home and School: Feeding Assessment and Intervention to Increase Consumption.
Abstract: This paper will discuss the initial feeding evaluation process and intervention completed with a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder who also displayed severe food selectivity. Assessment and intervention was completed across home and school environments. Assessment procedures and results will be reviewed to highlight critical planning logistics involved when initiating feeding protocols. Procedures used included a multiple baseline format (across settings and adults) and a combination of sampling, blending, and fading procedures paired with positive reinforcement. Results will indicate an increase in the number of nutritious foods and drinks accepted from baseline levels, which is consistent with documented research suggesting that similar antecedent control procedures are effective in treating food selectivity. Discussion points will include staff and parent training procedural options considered, logistical issues, differences across settings and adults, and the continued need for and impact of strong programming in public school systems.
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Blending Treatments: Mystery Motivator and Positive Reinforcement to Increase Food Consumption.
LAURIE KAUFMAN (The May Institute), Joseph Gentry (The May Institute)
Abstract: This case study evaluated the impact of a modified Mystery Motivator system on a food blending treatment to increase the consumption of non-preferred foods in a child with autism displaying food selectivity. In previous research, use of the Mystery Motivator has led to increases in the consumption of non-preferred foods with a child on the spectrum. The use of positive reinforcement in the form of finishing preferred foods as well as earning tokens was used to replicate previous findings and extend them using blending techniques. Blending treatment has been well established throughout the literature for food refusal and selectivity, and results suggest that the reinforcement uncertainty and variable ratio of reinforcement of the Mystery Motivator may be an interesting way to increase the effectiveness of blending treatments in children with developmental disabilities.
treatments in children with developmental disabilities Increasing Food Acceptance Using Blending and Subsequent Simultaneous Presentation within the Public School Setting.
CYNTHIA ANN SIMONE (Nashoba Regional School District)
Abstract: Previous research demonstrated that food refusal maintained by escape can be treated effectively through combining antecedent and consequent manipulations. In the current study, we used a multi-component treatment package following both functional and feeding assessments to treat food refusal by blending and fading foods and then presenting accepted foods paired with novel foods through simultaneous presentation. An 8-year old male with multiple disabilities was trained and assessed in the public school setting across 2 years in a changing criterion design. Results indicated an increase in novel food acceptance and combinations of food from 9 in baseline to 35 following intervention. Results were maintained over time. These results were consistent with prior research suggesting that antecedent control procedures are effective in treating food refusal. These results are discussed in terms of blending and fading procedures, simultaneous presentation, escape extinction and reinforcement as well as limitations and practical considerations within this setting.
Symposium #424
CE Offered: BACB
Intervening in Child Abuse and Neglect: Project 12-Ways' Innovations and a Canadian Replication
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Edward C
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: James F. McGimsey (AdvoServ)
CE Instructor: Brandon F. Greene, Ph.D.

Since 1979 Project 12-Ways has served families with a history of child abuse and neglect. The Project has operated under the auspices of the Behavior Analysis & Therapy Program at SIU and, therefore, adopts an experimental-clinical approach to rendering service. Recent innovations will be described including the first attempt at an international replication in Ontario, Candada.

Facilitating Involvement in Vocational and Avocational Activity among Unemployed Parents with a History of Child Abuse and Neglect.
BONNIE M HENRY (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University), Alan Summers (Illinois Department of Human Services), Dianne Bradie-Gregoire (Illinois Department of Human Services)
Abstract: A variable that is predictive of the likelihood of parents perpetrating child abuse/neglect is the employment status of parents. That is, unemployed individuals are at greater risk of inflicting child maltreatment. The majority of parents served by Project 12-Ways are, and have been, chronically unemployed. Most subsist on various tax-supported subsidies (e.g., disability payments for themselves or their children). This presentation will describe the effort to involve these individuals in vocational and avocational activities. The effort involved an assessment of preferred activities and an intensive problem solving process that incrementally engaged the parents in productive activity. The implications for this process and its relevance to addressing the problem of child abuse and neglect will be discussed.
Project 12-Ways' Canadian Replication: Issues in Managing a Direct Replication.
DANA M. DAHMAN HARVEY (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Autumn Kaufman (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Hugh Nicholson (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: A Children's Aid Society (CAS) in Ontario, Canada identified Project 12-Ways as an "evidenced based practice" in the intervention of child abuse and neglect. Members of the CAS visited the Project's headquarters in Illinois and elected to undertake a replication beginning in late 2006. Now, after one year into the replication, a variety of issues have been identified as critical to the process. The scope and nature of these will be described in this presentation. In addition, the relevance of issues associated with replicating other large scale programs (e.g., Teaching Family Model) will be presented in the context of the current effort.
Project 12-Ways Canada: Evidence of the Replication of an Evidence-Based Practice.
AUTUMN KAUFMAN (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Dana M. Dahman Harvey (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Hugh Nicholson (Kawartha-Haliburton Children's Aid Society), Brandon F. Greene (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: "Evidence based practice" is a popular term in human services that presumably refers to the importance of adopting treatment practices that have empirical evidence of effectiveness. Thus, some professionals are lulled into the belief that such practices are readily identified or claim to have adopted such practices without any substantiating evidence. However, the question of whether an "evidenced based practice" has been successfully adopted requires evidence itself. This presentation will present the evidence to indicate the successful adoption of the Project 12-Ways model in Canada. Various challenges to this adoption will be discussed.
Symposium #426
CE Offered: BACB
Issues in School-Based Functional Assessment
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
America's Cup AB
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jennifer Soeda (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University)
CE Instructor: Jennifer L. Austin, Ph.D.

The use of functional assessment prior to treatment selection is considered best practice in a range of settings, including schools. However, promoting quality school-based functional assessments is often a challenging endeavor. This symposium will explore some of the issues surrounding functional assessments in schools, including the relative value of function-based interventions for typically developing children, challenges to the quality of school-based functional assessments, and models for improving functional assessment practices within school districts.

An Analysis of the Importance of Function in Treatment Selection for Children with Minor Behavior Problems.
JENNIFER SOEDA (California State University, Fresno), Jennifer L. Austin (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: One of the challenges facing researchers and practitioners alike has been determining the most practical, yet effective assessment methods for producing desired treatment outcomes. Although functional assessment and analysis procedures have shown considerable value within the field of applied behavior analysis, concerns regarding time and efficacy have hindered their consistent use within school settings. This study assessed the comparative treatment utility of function-based interventions with non-function-based interventions for high incidence, low severity behavior problems in four typically developing children. Results via an ABAC research design indicated that interventions based upon a functional behavior assessment were more effective and efficient at reducing off-task behaviors than an intervention which attempted to create a new function for appropriate behavior across all four participants. Social validity measures also indicated the functional intervention to be more effective, efficient, and easier to implement.
Training School Personnel to Conduct Functional Behavior Assessments: Are We Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?
JENNIFER L. AUSTIN (California State University, Fresno), Jennifer Soeda (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Conclusions regarding the adequacy with which school personnel conduct functional behavior assessments and analyses appear to be dependent upon the range of behaviors these personnel are expected to perform. With regard to relatively simple protocols, such as conducting standard functional analysis conditions, school personnel tend to do quite well. However, when asked to conduct, interpret, and plan interventions based on functional behavior assessments, results are less promising. One potential reason for these deficits regards the model of training employed within both school systems (e.g., workshops and other trainings conducted by behavior analysts) and non-behavioral degree programs (e.g., school psychology). Within both contexts, there exists the potential to misrepresent the complexity of functional behavior assessments. These misrepresentations might be caused by a variety of factors, including a general misunderstanding of the functional behavior assessment literature or the contingencies surrounding meeting FBA mandates required by law (i.e., IDEA 2004). This presentation will review the extant literature on functional assessments conducted by school personnel and will seek to provide a critical analysis of the effectiveness of current training models, including those considered to be behavior analytic in nature. Behavior analysts’ roles in providing an accurate account of the scope of functional behavior assessments (and the training necessary to conduct them) also will be examined.
The Behavior Analyst in the Public School System: A Model for Enacting Best Practices in Functional Assessment and Intervention.
AMANDA N. ADAMS (California State University, Reno)
Abstract: School districts are a growing area of practice for behavior analysts. Functional assessment is one area that schools have a growing need for behavior analysts and this presentation will discuss the methods of doing FBAs and disseminating training for FBA’s in a school district. Although current BCBAs may know how to conduct FBAs, the specifics to working well in a public school system from a methodology and practice standpoint are important features that will be the focus of this talk. The ways to intervene and the considerations of working as a behavior analyst in a public school system will be a focus of relating our data and information to audience participants. FBA data from more than 40 assessments conducted in public schools will be presented to illustrate several points.
Symposium #428
CE Offered: BACB
Parameters of Staff Training and Performance-Based Evaluations in Intensive Behavioral Intervention Programs for Children with Autism
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Elizabeth H
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Len Levin (Coyne & Associates, Inc.)
Discussant: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Len Levin, Ph.D.

ABA-based treatment and education programs for children with autism frequently require staff to conduct highly structured, 1:1 intervention sessions. The staff that fill these positions are typically psychology undergraduates or B.A. level graduates, and many have not had formal training or coursework in behavior analysis or behavioral intervention techniques. Consequently, most ABA-based service providers develop and implement their own training protocols and performance-based evaluations to facilitate the acquisition of intervention skills in these entry-level, front-line staff. This symposium will discuss this critical issue of staff training and performance in ABA-based programs in home, school, and center-based settings. The presenters will emphasize performance-based criteria to assess skills in the areas of discrete-trial teaching; incidental teaching; mand training; teaching in dyads; fluency; and problem-solving via functional analyses. Training procedures will be described in detail, data on staff performance will be presented, and the implications of staff training and performance on the efficacy of intensive behavioral intervention will be discussed.

Training and Evaluating the Critical Treatment Skills of Interventionists in Home-Based, Intensive Behavioral Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism.
LEN LEVIN (Coyne & Associates Inc.), Tiffany Bauer (Coyne & Associates Inc.), Jessica Ann Korneder (Coyne & Associates Inc.), Paul Coyne Coyne (Coyne & Associates Inc.), M. Alice Coyne (Coyne & Associates Inc.)
Abstract: In many areas of the country, public policy has created resources for young children with autism to receive intensive, home-based, early intervention treatment and education services that are based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. This has created a new demand for “front line” interventionists to implement highly prescribed, behavioral techniques. Assuming that the intervention is overseen by a qualified behavior analyst, the efficacy of the intervention is still dependent on the home interventionist’s skills with respect to the execution of these techniques in the absence of continuous, on-site supervision. This presentation will review an intensive training protocol to facilitate the acquisition of these intervention skills, specifically the implementation of three different types of discrete-trial drills, and the implementation of incidental teaching-type strategies to promote spontaneous language. Performance-based data will be presented to assess the efficacy of the training protocol in facilitating the acquisition of these intervention skills.
Staff Training in a Center-Based Program: Ensuring Competency in Core Instructional Areas and Dyad Instruction.
MARY JANE WEISS (Rutgers University), Dania L. Matthews (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Todd Frischmann (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Ensuring staff competency is a widespread concern for trainers and supervisors in ABA programs designed for children with autism. Ineffective instruction is a primary reason for the failure of students to progress. Staff members require specific performance-based criteria and feedback to effectively master instructional skills. As the teaching procedures within ABA multiply and become increasingly complex, the need for treatment integrity is even more critical. Core areas of instruction for students with autism requiring precision in implementation include discrete trial instruction, incidental teaching and other naturalistic teaching strategies, mand training, rate-building, classroom management, and dyad instruction. Dyad instruction is especially important in classrooms and in settings in which 1:1 instruction is not available or in which functioning with less staff support has been identified as a goal. In this presentation, treatment integrity targets for rate-building and dyad instruction will be discussed. Assessments for each of these areas will be shared, as well as data on their use.
Shaping Staff Repertoires Critical to Fully Competent Service Delivery.
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Regardless of the instructional arrangement selected, direct care staff members who implement behavior analytic services require at least three critical repertoires: verbal behavior about the service they deliver (talking about what they are doing), contingency-shaped behavior related to delivering the service (implementing prescribed procedures), and verbally mediated behavior related to decision making (using learner/client data to change procedures). This presentation will discuss the importance that shaping and maintaining these repertoires plays in the delivery of a range of behavior analytic teaching formats and will present example data and procedures for improving staff performance related to effective service delivery.
Invited Paper Session #432
CE Offered: BACB

Preventing Serious Problems Associated with Autism: Some Validated and Promising Strategies

Monday, May 28, 2007
3:30 PM–4:20 PM
Douglas C
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Glen Dunlap, Ph.D.
Chair: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
GLEN DUNLAP (University of South Florida)
Dr. Glen Dunlap is a professor at the University of South Florida in Tampa. He is one of the pioneers in the Positive Behavior Support movement and serves as one of the founding editors of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Glen has directed a large number of federal and state projects typically focused on identifying the factors that foster the development of challenging behavior and then assisting families and professionals, working in partnership, to prevent the development of these challenges. Dr Dunlap is the author of a long list of books, books chapters, and research articles on intervention and disability. His research interests include the role of choice in intervention, early and family focused intervention and the creation of sustainable and community-based interventions for persons with severe disabilities.

Autism is a complex and heterogeneous disability that is associated with a myriad of serious problems that affect the lives of the diagnosed child as well as family members and others who are close to the child. Such problems include challenging behaviors, family disintegration, isolation, and highly restricted learning opportunities. A number of interventions have been implemented in efforts to prevent or remediate these problems. This presentation will describe several of the most conspicuous problems associated with autism, along with selected prevention strategies that have been validated with experimental data or that seem particularly promising as a result of quasi-experimental findings and clinical experience.

Symposium #434
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis vs. the Biomedical Model of Mental Disorders
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Edward AB
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Stephen E. Wong (Florida International University)
CE Instructor: Stephen E. Wong, Ph.D.

This symposium will critically examine the biomedical model of mental disorders and its underlying assumptions, diagnostic system, empirical evidence, clinical outcomes, professional and corporate sponsors, and wide spread promotion through educational and media campaigns. Ways in which the biomedical approach suppresses research and practice of behavior analysis with persons with mental disorders will also be discussed.

Psychiatry’s Flight from Science: A 2007 Update.
W. JOSEPH WYATT (Marshall University)
Abstract: This presentation updates last year’s presentation which described the guild interests of psychiatry and the financial interests of the pharmaceutical industry and how the two have dovetailed to push acceptance of the biological causation model of behavioral/psychological disorders. The claims of biological causation have gone well beyond the data. Following a brief review of the topic, highlights of the past year will be presented including issues such as new research on the placebo effect; lobbying efforts by the pharmaceutical and psychiatry industries; advertising of drugs; and others.
A Behavioral Analytic Look at Mental Disorders, the DSM-IV, and Functional Effects of Psychotropic Medications.
MERRILL WINSTON (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation critiques diagnostic criteria for mental disorders listed in the DSM-IV, as well as examines functional effects of medications (in terms of behavior) as opposed to their supposed neurochemical effects. The presentation provides behavior analysts with a framework that they may use to better understand mental disorders and how treatment goals may be formulated. Participants will also be more prepared to “get to the heart of the matter” regarding the problems that give rise to a particular diagnosis. Individuals will also be better equipped to help evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of various medications as they pertain to target behaviors.
Behavior Analysis vs. Biomedical/Pharmacological Treatment of Psychosis.
STEPHEN E. WONG (Florida International University)
Abstract: This presentation will review behavior analyses of psychotic disorders comparing them to biomedical treatments, the latter almost entirely reliant on “antipsychotic” drugs. The biomedical model of psychotic disorders and anti-psychotic drugs will be critiqued, revealing their weak scientific foundation, therapeutic shortcomings, and harmful effects. Ideological, political, and economic factors maintaining the biomedical model’s preeminence over behavior analysis will also be discussed.
Symposium #436
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluation of the Relation between Descriptive Analyses and Functional Analyses
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Elizabeth DE
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Eileen M. Roscoe, Ph.D.

Although descriptive analyses only provide correlational information about antecedent and consequent events associated with problem behavior, they may be useful in some situations. The four papers included in this symposium discuss various extensions of descriptive assessment methodology. In the first paper, Sacha Pence will discuss results from a study comparing outcomes from two commonly used descriptive assessment methods to outcomes obtained from a functional analysis. In the second paper, Jessa Love will review descriptive analysis and functional analysis data from 30 children diagnosed with autism, noting the relation between behavioral function and a number of other dependent variables, including referral source, diagnosis, response topography, descriptive assessment type, and functional analysis characteristics. In the third paper, Curtis Harris will discuss a study evaluating the utility of conducting a structured descriptive assessment method when a functional analysis resulted in unclear outcomes. In the final paper, Erin Camp will describe a study evaluating the utility of an antecedent descriptive analysis by comparing probabilities of both antecedents and consequences of problem behavior to results obtained during a functional analysis.

Evaluation of the Relative Validity of Two Descriptive Analysis Methods.
SACHA T. PENCE (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Mary Chiang (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Although research has compared outcomes from descriptive assessments to those obtained from functional analysis, no study to date has compared the relative validity of different descriptive assessment methods. Because different descriptive assessment methods vary greatly with respect to their time and resource requirements, it may be helpful to determine whether methods that vary on these dimensions also differ in how they correspond with outcomes obtained from a functional analysis. This study compared the outcomes of two descriptive analysis methods, the ABC method and the interval-based method, to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals diagnosed with autism, who exhibited problem behavior, participated. Functional analyses indicated that participants’ problem behavior was maintained by social-positive reinforcement (n = 2), social-negative reinforcement (n = 2), or automatic reinforcement (n = 2). Results showed that both descriptive analyses were useful in differentiating between behavior maintained by social versus automatic reinforcement, but were not useful in differentiating between behavior maintained by social positive versus social negative reinforcement.
Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 30 Outpatient Cases.
JESSA R. LOVE (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control (2006) recently reported that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children aged 4 to 17 years has increased to approximately 5.6 out of 1000 children. Problem behavior constitutes a diagnostic criterion class (e.g., stereotypy) and common clinical concern (e.g., self-injury, aggression) for this population. Recently, a number of researchers have published experimental-epidemiological analyses of the topographic and functional characteristics of problem behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. One of the uses of such reports is the ability to predict the probability of behavioral functions under certain conditions (e.g., topography, diagnosis). However, no large-N summaries based on the objective observation of problem behavior of individuals with ASD have been published to date. The purpose of the present study is to summarize 30 cases from an outpatient problem behavior clinic serving children with ASD, including autism and Asperger’s disorder. The relation between behavioral function, as determined via experimental and descriptive analysis, and the following variables will be reported: referral source, diagnosis, response topography, descriptive assessment type, and functional analysis characteristics.
Clarifying Variables Associated with Problem Behaviors Using a Structured Descriptive Assessment.
CURTIS J. HARRIS (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Bryan S. Lovelace (University of North Texas), Jessica Hobbs (University of North Texas), Heather A. Moore (University of North Texas), Roxanne L. Wolf (University of North Texas), Donnie M. Staff (University of North Texas)
Abstract: This study evaluated the utility of a structured descriptive assessment (SDA) as an alternative method of functional assessment. Initially, an analogue functional analysis, conducted to assess the problem behavior of one adult with developmental disabilities, produced inconclusive results. Subsequently, an SDA was conducted in the individual’s natural environment with the direct-contact caregivers acting as therapists. The results from the SDA showed that problem behavior occurred during the demand condition but was maintained by attention. A treatment based on the results of the SDA was implemented in a reversal design and resulted in a notable reduction in the occurrences of problem behavior. This outcome suggests that SDA procedures may be useful when results from analogue functional analyses are inconclusive.
Antecedent versus Consequent Events as Predictors of Problem Behavior.
ERIN CAMP (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jennifer Lynn Hammond (University of Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of Florida)
Abstract: Although descriptive analyses are limited to the identification of correlational relations, they have been used occasionally in an attempt to identify the functional characteristics of problem behavior. Results of previous research have shown that attention is observed frequently as a consequence for problem behavior, even in cases when a functional analysis has shown that attention is not a functional reinforcer. Because the correlation between problem behavior and attention may arise simply because attention is “prescribed” as a means of terminating serious problem behavior, it is possible that antecedent events (establishing operations) might be better predictors of problem behavior than consequences. This study compares the probabilities of both antecedents and consequences of problem behavior during descriptive analysis to the results of a traditional functional analysis to assess the utility of an antecedent descriptive analysis.
Symposium #437
CE Offered: BACB
Further Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Annie AB
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida)
Discussant: Carrie S. W. Borrero (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Jorge Rafael Reyes, M.S.

This symposium will include three papers on the assessment and treatment of sex offenders with developmental disabilities. In the first presentation, Jorge R. Reyes will show data from an investigation on the manipulation of pre-session factors on responding during an arousal assessment. In the second presentation, Astrid Hall will discuss the development of the portable plethysmograph and show data related to the assessment of arousal in community settings.. In the third presentation, Timothy R. Vollmer will provide an overview of the general model of assessment that we have developed for working with this population as well as some implications of this model. The discussant is Carrie S. W. Borrero who has published extensively in the areas of behavioral assessment and developmental disabilities.

The Influence of Pre-Session Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal.
JORGE RAFAEL REYES (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Astrid Hall (Seguin Unit)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that arousal assessments utilizing the penile plethysmograph can identify differential patterns of arousal for sex offenders with developmental disabilities (e.g., Reyes et al., 2006). In this study, we used arousal assessments to evaluate the influence of pre-session factors. The pre-session factors included masturbation and suppression instructions. Masturbation and instructions were selected because clinicians have suggested that they may influence assessment outcomes. To date, there is no empirical evidence for this assertion. Four male sex offenders with developmental disabilities volunteered to participate as part of their ongoing clinical assessment and treatment. Conditions were conducted in which the pre-session factor was either in effect or not in effect. Results showed that both masturbation and suppression instructions reduced arousal levels during assessments.
Evaluation of a Portable Plethysmograph Device in the Assessment of Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities.
ASTRID HALL (Seguin Unit), Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Plethysmograph assessment of sexual arousal for sex offenders with developmental disabilities have questionable external validity because it is not known whether the arousal obtained in clinic assessments is representative of arousal obtained outside of the clinic setting. Therefore, the purpose of the current clinical evaluation was to evaluate the use of a portable plethysmograph. This device consists of a penile strain gauge connected to a portable computer which is unobtrusive and capable of being discretely worn in the community. Two male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated as part of their ongoing clinical assessment and treatment. First, clinic-based plethysmograph assessments were conducted. Second, the portable plethysmograph was tested in the clinic. Results showed similar patterns of arousal using both the non-portable and the portable plethysmograph. Third, the portable plethysmograph was tested away from the clinic using target videos and photos. Fourth, the portable plethysmograph was tested in the community during normally occurring community activities. Results showed that the device was capable of capturing periods of arousal and non-arousal for both participants. Potential treatment implications for the use of the portable plethysmograph will be discussed.
A Behavioral Model for the Assessment of Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities.
TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER (University of Florida), Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida), Kimberly Sloman (University of Florida), Astrid Hall (Seguin Unit)
Abstract: The assessment of sex offenders has been a widely investigated area. Numerous assessment methods have been utilized in attempting to gauge an individual's sexual preferences and their risk for re-offense. The purpose of the presentation will be to describe the assessment components for a behavioral model. The model is intended to assess components of sexual offending that may be both respondent and operant in nature. For example, assessing an individual's arousal to appropriate and inappropriate stimuli, as well as the conditions under which an offense may be committed. The various components of the model include reviewing any information related to the offense (i.e., police records), arousal assessments involving the penile plethysmograph, preference assessments for victim characteristics, and covert observations in high-risk situations (i.g., children present) and in the presence of high-risk materials (e.g., magazines with pictures of children). All of this information would be combined to produce a profile of an individual to potentially provide information and as a means of goal setting and establishing individualized interventions.
Symposium #439
CE Offered: BACB
Sources of Verbal Developmental Cusps: An Empirically Derived Skinnerian Account
Monday, May 28, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Molly AB
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate )
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.

We present four papers on functional or correlations between instructional history interventions and the emergence verbal developmental cusps and capabilities. These include the relation between naming and other measures, the relation between the observational training and verbal social behavior and empathy, a comparison of single and multiple exemplar instruction on emergence of Naming, and the effect of MEI induced Naming on advanced listener comprehension. The acquisition of these higher order operants allow children to learn from instruction they could not previously learn from or accelerate learning in several realms.

The Effects of Naming on Language Acquisition.
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Jeanne Marie Speckman (The Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We analyzed the verbal capabilities of 50 students attending a preschool for children with special needs. All participants were between the ages of three and five years and had developmental delays. The Preschool Language Scale- (Fourth Edition) was administered to all students at the beginning of the school year along with The Preschool Inventory of Repertoires for Kindergarten. In addition, we tested for the prevalence of Naming in students' repertoires. Throughout the school year we re-tested for the prevalence of Naming and once it was acquired, the PLS-4 and PIRK were re-administered. Results show the rates of acquisition of "language skills" for students with and without Naming repertoires and rates before and after the emergence of naming.
Induction of Naming: A Comparison of Multiple and Singular Exemplar Instruction.
NIRVANA PISTOLJEVIC (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Lauren M. Stolfi (The Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We compared the effects of singular exemplar instruction (SEI) and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses, or naming, for 2-dimensional stimuli by preschool children who were missing the naming capability. In combined experimental-control group and nested single case multiple probe designs, we taught training sets of pictures using multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to one group of 4-participants using a multiple probe design and the same sets using single exemplar instruction (SEI) to another set of 4-participants. Naming emerged from MEI but not SEI. Subsequently, the SEI group received MEI and naming emerged for them also.
The Effects of Observational Training on the Acquisition of Reinforcement for Listening.
TRACY REILLY-LAWSON (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate ), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Darcy M. Walsh (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Experiment 1investigated the effects of a yoked contingency in a social listener reinforcement game on participants’ conversational units. Experiment 2 tested the effects of a multiple exemplar instruction on the development of empathy. In Experiment 1, data were collected on the number of sequelics, conversational units, “wh” questions, vocal approvals and vocal disapprovals during 5 minute probe sessions after meeting criterion on each objective of the listener reinforcement game. Data showed that the total number of verbal interactions in the play area increased significantly. In Experiment 2 multiple exemplar instruction was implemented to teach the participants empathy. The results showed an increase in correct responses to empathy questions.
The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Emergence of Naming in First Graders and Its Relation to Listener Comprehension.
DENISE O'SULLIVAN (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate ), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: Typically developing first graders in a public elementary school were assessed for the presence of a Naming repertoire. Students without naming responses were matched and then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, each also receiving multiple probe single case designs. Prior to treatment, a standardized assessment for listener comprehension was administered for all students. Multiple exemplar instruction was begun with the experimental group, with follow-up probes for naming for both groups after the experimental group met MEI criterion. Following treatment and the emergence of Naming, the listener comprehension assessment was re-administered across both groups, and treatment for the control group was subsequently begun. Results replicate the MEI effect and relations between naming and listener comprehension will be identified.



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