Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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11th Annual Autism Conference; San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2017

Poster Sessions for Tuesday, January 31, 2017


 

Poster Session #2
Poster Session
Tuesday, January 31, 2017
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
San Juan Grand Ballroom
2. Comparing the Relationship Between Psychological Flexibility and Rigidity in Adults With Autism and Adults Without Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID LEGASPI (Southern Illinois University), Andrea Mazo (Southern Illinois University), Daniel Spohr (St. Louis Community College), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Wulfert et al. (1994) discussed rigidity, a proponent of rule following, and compared the effects of rule following with contingency control using accurate and inaccurate instructions regarding two different schedules of reinforcement. A characteristic of individuals with autism is the inability to break established routines, and often show high levels of rigidity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite rigidity being a core characteristic of Autism, research in this area is limited (Eilers & Hayes, 2015). Psychological flexibility has been described as the ability to contact the present moment more fully allowing for individuals to persist or change behavior in pursuit of their goals or values (Hayes et al., 2010). The present study is preliminary research designed to conduct an analysis of the relationship between psychological flexibility and rigidity. Questionnaires regarding rigidity and psychological flexibility were administered to both undergraduate students and individuals with autism. Participants were also asked to respond to two machines: an FR8 schedule with accurate instructions, and another with a DRL4 schedule with either accurate or inaccurate instructions. Participants were randomly assigned to accurate or inaccurate instructions for the second machine. The results showed a difference in performance across both conditions. Future participants with autism will be run.
 
3. Behavioral Effects of Variable Delays to Reinforcement on Choice Responding: Systematic Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CAYENNE SHPALL (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Delays to reinforcement can have an adverse effect on appropriate behavior during treatments of challenging behavior (e.g., Functional Communication Training; FCT). In the absence of programmed delay training, the utility and generality of FCT may be limited in many cases. Despite the importance of considering delays to reinforcement during FCT, few studies have empirically isolated the effects of parameters pertaining to the delay. Although research exists showing the effectiveness of various methods for thinning schedules during FCT (e.g., multiple schedules; progressively increasing delays), it may be beneficial to explore additional alternative procedures that may lead to successful outcomes. The purpose of this literature synthesis was to investigate the basic behavioral literature pertaining to delays to reinforcement and to explore and identify potential mechanisms and procedures for increasing individuals tolerance of delays to reinforcement following FCT. Results across 22 empirical studies showed that variable delays, or bi-valued mixed delays, were preferred in human and nonhuman studies, relative to fixed delays to reinforcement. Potential avenues of future research such as the use of variable or mixed delays in the application of delay to reinforcement in FCT are discussed.
 
5. Assessing Language Growth of Toddlers With Autism Using a Standardized Measure Following Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER WOLFSON-CHERON (New England Center for Children, Inc), Erin Michaud (NECC), Judy Southey (New England Center for Children )
Abstract: One of the identifying characteristics of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a deficit in communication. Early intensive behavior intervention (EIBI) incorporating the principles of applied behavior analysis has been found effective in significantly reducing this deficit. In addition, greater gains have been observed when EIBI is initiated before the age of two. However, it remains unclear whether speech and language gains on the Preschool Language Scale (PLS) 5 will be achieved as a result of EIBI and whether more substantial gains will be achieved with children who begin the program before rather than after the age of two. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of an EIBI program for increasing language skills for 20 children with ASD. All participants received EIBI 28 hr per week. The PLS-5 was administered pre and post intervention. Results showed increases in post-test PLS-5 scores relative to pre-test PLS-5 scores in both groups with greater gains for participants who entered the program before the age of two.
 
6. Does Presenting Nontarget Information in the Antecedent or Consequent Event Make a Difference?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERAY OLCAY GUL (Hacettepe University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate whether presenting instructive feedback stimuli in the antecedent or consequent event during simultaneous prompting procedure make a difference in teaching academic skills from general core curriculum to high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Maintenance and generalization effects of both interventions were also compared in the study. Last, social validity of the study was investigated by asking the opinions of the students. Participants of the study were four high school students who are mainstreamed to regular classrooms in high schools in central Ankara, Turkey. Parallel treatments design was used in the study. Results showed that simultaneous prompting procedure was effective in teaching academic skills to high school students with ASD and students could acquire instructive feedback stimuli presented to them either in antecedent or consequent events to certain extend. Social validity findings were encouraging. The results and implications of the findings will be shared with the audience during presentation
 
7. Enhancing Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behaviors in Autism Using Physiological Monitoring
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHANNA F. LANTZ (The Center for Discovery), C. Matthew Northrup (The Center for Discovery), Theresa Hamlin (The Center for Discovery), Tania Villavicencio (The Center for Discovery), Kalyn Bertholf (The Center for Discovery)
Abstract: Identification of contextual variables and antecedents is critical for establishing effective interventions. Electrodermal activity (EDA) reflects activation of the sympathetic nervous system, commonly known as the fight or flight response. Wearable sensors have been employed in a laboratory classroom serving adolescents with autism spectrum disorder who have limited to no verbal language and who also present with aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. These sensors are used to measure EDA responses to naturally occurring environmental stimuli. The physiological data are aligned with video recordings of antecedents, behaviors, and consequences as part of the functional behavior assessment. The analysis of EDA helps to identify antecedents that can be missed through traditional observational methods, which informs intervention. Furthermore, this technology can detect rises in EDA that sometimes occur prior to the emergence of a behavior. EDA data along with behavior data are used as dependent measures to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Through advancements in technology, this innovative assessment process has been translated to other settings beyond the laboratory classroom. A Bluetooth-enabled watch paired with a mobile app was developed that sends alerts when an increase in EDA has been detected. This not only informs assessment but also allows intervention prior to behavior onset.
 
8. Effects of Paraprofessionals’ Fidelity of Implementation of Peer Support Arrangements: Lessons Learned
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEARTLEY B. HUBER (College of William & Mary)
Abstract: Peer support arrangements, an evidence-based practice for students with autism and severe disabilities, involve training between one and three peers to provide academic, social, and behavioral support for a student with disabilities in a general education class. The social validity of peer support interventions is strengthened by paraprofessionals’ and teachers’ views about feasibility of implementation and its adaptability across widely varying students and general education classrooms. Although the flexibility of peer support arrangements is a large part of its appeal, variations of key intervention components may impact fidelity and, in turn, diminish student outcomes. This study examined the impact of high vs. low fidelity of intervention facilitation on peer support behaviors and social and academic outcomes for three high-school students with autism. Findings indicate improvements in adult facilitation of the intervention impacted peer support behaviors and social and academic outcomes for students with autism. However, the level of facilitation required to maintain those high levels of peer support behavior was inconsistent across peer support arrangements.
 
9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Online vs. In-Person Training: Extension of Video Observation Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOOR YOUNUS SYED (Hawthorne Foundation Inc.; Teachers College, Colum), Amanda W. Doll (Hawthorne Foundation Inc.), Tina Marie Covington (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Previous research (Doll, Covington, Rosenfeld, & Cerrone, 2009; Doll, Covington, Sgueglia, & Cerrone, 2010) has identified that teaching staff who do not respond to repeated observation-and-feedback cycles with a modified TPRA form (Ingham & Greer, 1992). In these studies, teachers who continued to commit instructional errors subsequently improved when they were taught how to use the modified TPRA form and used this form in order to self-score their own teaching behavior from video samples. Teaching accuracy improved and instructional rate also improved; accuracy was a treated variable, while rate was an untreated variable. In subsequent studies, a prescriptive model of a similar intervention was tested. A priori in-service training, which included new staff conducting TPRAs on discrete trial teaching videos, was compared against the usual new staff training practices without explicit TPRA training and video observations. Data suggested that teaching new staff to conduct TPRAs on others and themselves is an effective and efficient way to decrease staff training time and increase the percentage of accurate learn units/instructional trials presented. An extension of this study has been conducted to investigate the effects of online vs. in-person training on classroom management skills and instructional trial presentation. This study is currently ongoing.
 
10. Focus Groups as a Starting Point for Systemic Interventions: Valuable or Non-Empirical Waste of Time?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN JAMESON MARTIN (National Autism Center at May Institute), Sharon Hodges (University of South Florida), Rocky Haynes (University of South Florida ), Sheri Grace (Appalachian State University), Caryn Stark (University of Rochester Medical Center), Tristram Smith (University of Rochester Medical Center), Rose Iovannone (University of South Florida; Florida Mental Health), Cynthia M. Anderson (National Autism Center at May Institute)
Abstract: Qualitative research has not played a major (or minor) role in behavior analysis. Although understandable given our fields emphasis on measurable variables and outcomes, it may be that qualitative research could inform development of interventions. For example, focus groups conducted prior to implementation of a large-scale intervention could be useful for assessing stakeholder impressions of feasibility, utility, and social validity. Results of focus group interviews could be used to modify features of the intervention, its targets, or how it will be implemented. We demonstrate the value of this type of qualitative research by reviewing findings of a series of focus groups conducted as the first part of a multi-experiment study assessing a comprehensive, school-based intervention for students with autism. We conducted focus groups in four states with three groups of stakeholders; parents, teachers, and administrators. After focus groups were completed, data were analyzed using thematic analysis to identify themes within and across groups and interviews. These results will be presented as an example of how focus groups might be useful to behavior analysts prior to implementing interventions at systems of scale.
 
11. From Early Intervention to Kindergarten Classroom: What Strategies Promote Continued Gains?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAISY BUENO (Illinois State University), Kerry Pecho (Illinois State University), Jocelyn Kuhn (University of Wisconsin - Madison), Rochelle Schatz (Indiana University-Bloomington)
Abstract: Research suggests that behaviorally-based early intervention programs can positively impact the long-term developmental trajectories of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Reichow, 2012). The Sprouts program is a semi-intensive, behaviorally-based early intervention service for children ages 3-5 with a diagnosis of ASD. Children enrolled in Sprouts have exhibited significant increases in receptive language skills, social skills, and adaptive functioning skills, as evidenced by parent ratings and direct assessment of child behavior (Toby, 2014). However, follow-up data suggested that several of the gains made by children in Sprouts are not maintained through kindergarten. The current study examined possible factors contributing to lack of expected gains in kindergarten. Participants were children currently in Sprouts as well children who transitioned from Sprouts to kindergarten. Observation data on classroom-wide antecedent and consequence management strategies were collected during one-hour sessions in kindergarten and Sprouts classrooms. Compared to children in kindergarten classrooms, children in Sprouts demonstrated higher rates of on-task behaviors, had more opportunities to respond to teachers and peers, and received more positive praise and reinforcement from teachers. It is hypothesized that these factors may contribute to the lack of continued gains in kindergarten and therefore merit further promotion in kindergarten classrooms.
 
12. Functional Communication Training and Demand Fading Using Choice Making
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REGAN WESTON (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Lauren Uptegrove (Baylor University), Kristen Williams (Baylor University), Kelly M. Schieltz (The University of Missouri-Columbia)
Abstract: Demand fading typically includes an escape extinction component, which can be difficult to implement due to extinction bursts as well as the inability to continue task presentation due to the nature of challenging behavior. If escape extinction is carried out incorrectly, it may unintentionally strengthen challenging behavior.. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of demand fading with choice making, rather than extinction, for a 7-year old male participant diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and disruptive mood dysregulated disorder. The participant consistently engaged in severe, escape-maintained aggression when presented with academic tasks. First a functional communication response (FCR) was trained so the participant could request breaks. Functional communication training was followed by demand fading to systematically increase the amount of work completed between break requests. During demand fading, aggression and requests emitted prior to meeting the task completion criterion were reinforced with short, low-quality breaks, and requests emitted following task completion criterion were reinforced with long, high-quality breaks. As the task completion criterion increased, percentage of problem behavior decreased and FCR rates dropped to socially appropriate levels. Results suggest that choice making may be an effective alternative to extinction as a component of demand fading.
 
14. Increasing Attending to Group Directives by Fading Antecedent Stimuli: Compliance as a Covariant
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBYN M. CATAGNUS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Elizabeth Hughes Fong (Saint Joseph's University), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

A teaching methodology to increase student attending to group nouns in a group setting is proposed and evaluated. In examining the effects of antecedent auditory stimuli on the rate of attending and rate of compliance as a co-variant, a 9-year old child with developmental delays in a classroom setting was the participant in a hybrid design of alternating treatments, reversal, and multiple baselines to evaluate the effects of intervention, fading, and maintenance. Rates of both attending and compliance increased, and a discrepancy in rates during follow-up is discussed in relation to behavioral classes, chaining, adduction, and high-p low-p effects. Attending is conceptualized to e auditory and evidenced by action rather than by eye gaze.

 
15. School WORK: Measurement for Effective Implementation Practices in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NAOMI SWIEZY (HANDS in Autism, IU School of Medicine), Tiffany Neal (HANDS in Autism, IU School of Medicine)
Abstract: With prevalence of 1 in 68, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest-growing developmental disability in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014) and intervention for the disorder has advanced with identification of a number of evidence-based practices (NAC, 2009; NRC, 2001). However, comprehensive models most representative of best practice involve a complex blend of EBPs implemented and utilized in a systematic and integrated manner. These comprehensive models impact the potential fidelity of intervention due to the complexity of conceptualizing and applying the intervention. Yet, the extent to which outcomes are derived depends on the ability of providers to utilize and implement with fidelity. The School WORK (2005 HANDS in Autism) was developed as a measure of implementation and training to hold school personnel accountable to the use and application of strategies and their trainers accountable to the training content and delivery. The School WORK provides a framework for shared goals and expectations of programming, definitions and understanding of best practices or EBPs, transparency of evaluation methods, and greater communication from trainer to trainee and administrator to teacher. The practical utility and feasibility of the measure and impact on measured fidelity of implementation is demonstrated within a case example.
 
16. Social Story Intervention Efficacy on Social Interaction of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MUHAMMED KARAL (The Pennsylvania State University), Pamela Wolfe (The Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Social stories frequently have been used to improve the social interaction of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This literature review examined the effectiveness of social story interventions on the social interactions of students with ASD including with whom, where, and what formats have been implemented, as well as the methodological rigor of the research. Findings indicate preliminary evidence to suggest that social stories are a promising intervention to increase social interactions. Future research related to methodological rigor is needed to reveal the most effective strategy for developing and implementing social story interventions.
 
17. Structural Analysis to Inform Peer Support Arrangements for High School Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEARTLEY B. HUBER (College of William & Mary)
Abstract: As the enrollment of students with autism in general education classrooms increases, the need for effective strategies to improve the quality of inclusive practices remains evident. This study examined peer support arrangements as an alternative to direct adult support for three high school students with autism. In addition, I explored structural analysis as a means of formative assessment to further refine each peer support arrangement to better meet the individual needs of students. Peer support arrangements were associated with increases in social interactions and academic engagement for all participants. In addition, structural analyses implemented in general education classrooms yielded findings used to further refine peer support arrangements. These findings strengthen support for peer support arrangements as a means of improving the inclusive experiences of high school students with autism and highlight the potential of structural analysis as a feasible and effective means of further refining these interventions. Based on these findings, I offer implications for practice and directions for future research.
 
18. Teaching Textual Verbal Behavior to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Through Matching-to-Sample and Recombination of Morphological Units
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IRIS PONS (Starbright Academy), Celia Nogales-Gonzalez (ABA Life)
Abstract: Introduction: The underdevelopment of textual verbal behavior positions people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at a disadvantage and risks their exclusion in society, as well as increases their levels of frustration, poor self-esteem, and emotional and/or behavioral problems. Sidman's theory of Stimulus Equivalence (1971) could be used in experimental designs to teach reading skills to children with ASD. Objective: To teach reading skills to children with ASD through matching-to-sample and the recombination of morphological units. Method: A single-case experimental research design with multiple baselines through three subjects was used. It included pre-intervention, intervention, post-intervention, and comprehension tests. Each set of teaching went through seven experimental conditions. Every experimental condition consisted of training, testing, and generalization. Inter-observer agreement (IOA) determined reliability. Results: The three participants were able to discriminate syllables by matching-to-sample, recombining the syllables learned, generalizing the reading skills, and developing comprehension. Training time ranged between 7 and 16 hours. The IOA was equal to or above 95% in all participants. Conclusions: The procedures derived from the Stimulus Equivalence theory allows teaching textual verbal behavior with comprehension in a short time without having to train all syllabic recombinations of the Spanish language in children with ASD.
 
19. Understanding Autism and Collaboration Skills: Evaluation of Asynchronous Presentations for Postsecondary Students
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RANGASAMY RAMASAMY (Florida Atlantic University), Jazarae McCormick (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Postsecondary education settings provide the opportunity for future professionals to increase their awareness and experience across fields of study. Understanding effective methods of instruction are an important component of maximizing time and resources in education. This research study was designed to examine the efficacy of an asynchronous PowerPoint presentation that provides basic knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as well as, collaboration skills for postsecondary students who may potentially be working with children and families with ASD in schools and the community after graduation. The participants in this study are university students enrolled in a class called “Inclusive Education for General Educators” in south Florida. This study took place during the Spring 2016 semester and for Fall 2016, we have started to collect data and will have over 250 participants at the end of October. The participants complete(d) a 15 item pre-test, followed by watching and listening to a narrated PowerPoint presentation, and subsequently complete(d) a 15 item post-test. The pre and post-test data were (will be) entered into an Excel workbook prior to being entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. This poster presentation will describe the results of the data collected and suggestions for future research.
 
20. Accelerating Learning and Leveraging Outcomes for Learners With Autism: The Implications of Implementing LiftEd, a Mobile Application for Data Collection on Student Learning and Staff Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOANNE HILL-POWELL (LiftEd, Incorporated ), Andrew Hill (LiftED, Incorporated ), Anjalee Nirgudkar (Behavior Analysts of New Jersey ), Heather Peltack (Caldwell University, Parsippany Troy-Hills School District)
Abstract: LiftEd, is a mobile academic and behavior tracking application for special education teachers and related service professionals designed to effectively improve learning outcomes for learners with disabilities, particularly autism spectrum disorder. The implementation of LiftEd as comprehensive system for tracking, scoring, and analyzing learning based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis will be outlined. Implications and findings for the integration of LiftEd as a replacement to paper-based data collection systems will be shared based upon the results of a pilot of the application in home, school, and community settings with a range of professionals. The results of the implementation of LiftEd indicate that learning can be accelerated and practitioner training can be conducted efficiently, ultimately promoting treatment integrity and best practices in instruction for individuals with autism across a variety of settings.
 
21. Autism, Aggressive Behavior, and Positive Behavior Supports: Predictive Components Leading to Quality Behavior Intervention Plans
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA BAILLIE (Trinity Christian College; Gwynedd Mercy University)
Abstract: This study examines if special education teachers who work with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who display aggressive behaviors are able to write a quality BIP based upon a vignette. Furthermore, the quality of BIPs written for two different functions of behavior will be compared to see if the function of behavior leads to a distinctive difference in quality of BIP. This study also aimed to find predictors, with relation to the teacher's beliefs and perceptions of behavior and discipline, that are related to higher quality plans. This will be accomplished by (a) gathering demographic information about special education teachers teaching students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who display aggressive behavior, (b) asking each teacher to complete the Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline (SPBD) (Feuerborn, L.L, Tyre, A.D., & King, J.P, 2015), (c) using vignettes and a rubric, the Behavior Support Plan- Quality Evaluation II (BSP-QE II) (Cook et al., 2007), gather data on the quality BIP the special education teachers write, and (d) analyzing the information to determine factors affecting the quality of the BIP using a regression analysis.
 
22. Closing the Gap Between Interventionist Procedural Fidelity and Caregiver Achievement in Implementing ABA Strategies With Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA SPIESS (Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorder (TRIAD))
Abstract: ABA services are increasingly difficult to access, though they are highly recommended and sought after by many families of young children with ASD and other developmental delays. The increasing need for accessible early behavioral intervention warrants further investigation into the effectiveness and social validity of caregiver and early intervention provider training protocols within existing community-based services. Previous findings have shown that it is possible to implement caregiver training protocols with high procedural fidelity and high parent satisfaction, but caregiver achievement scores have been variable. In this program evaluation study, the authors summarize behavior specialist and caregiver fidelity from 2 years of early intervention service delivery for families of young children evaluated for ASD. This dataset includes 42 children and their caregivers. Eligible families participated in an ASD evaluation for a child between 18 and 34 months of age, and lived within 120 miles of the originating clinic site. Subsequent early intervention services included 12, 90-minute caregiver training sessions utilizing a manualized curriculum to address a variety of skill domains (i.e., communication, social skills, imitation, independent play, pretend play, etc) Each family's state-funded early intervention provider attended at least one-third of caregiver sessions. Behavior specialist fidelity measured general session agenda items and was self-reported by the behavior specialist. Caregiver fidelity measured caregiver use of target intervention strategies within sessions. Similar to previous research, behavior specialist fidelity was high, but caregiver achievement was variable. In order to address this discrepancy, we have restructured our service delivery model to utilize more focused curriculum modules. A new procedural fidelity procedure has also been designed to capture more didactic implementation of caregiver training procedures and a new service model has been developed to help narrow the focus and increase caregiver achievement. The current model is underway with 17 children each receiving six 60-minute sessions training caregivers to implement strategies related to the following focus areas: challenging behavior, communication, social-play skills, and toilet training. Measures of fidelity will include a behavior specialist fidelity checklist that sufficiently reflects evidence-based practices for didactic coaching of caregivers and is completed by state-funded early intervention providers to rate the performance of the behavior specialists and a caregiver fidelity checklist specific to the curriculum module used in intervention. It is hypothesized that these refinements in fidelity and service delivery will result in the maintenance of high levels of fidelity for behavior specialists and increased performance for caregivers.
 
23. Comparison on the Effectiveness of Two Quantity Discrimination Interventions Strategies for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
IRMARIE CRUZ-LÓPEZ (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Quantity discrimination (QD) is an essential skill for later math achievement (Gersten, et al., 2005; Locuniak & Jordan, 2008). While there is evidence supporting early numeracy skills predict later math achievement, little research has been conducted on QD, particularly with older children and with children with autism spectrum disorder. A combined simple phase change design (A/B/A/C/A/B/C) was conducted to compare two different intervention strategies to improve quantity discrimination accuracy and fluency with a child with Low-Functioning ASD (LFA). Preliminary results suggest little difference across interventions for improving accuracy. Additionally, the data indicate a general increase in fluency ability overtime, with Flashcard being more effective than object manipulation.
 
24. Developing District-Wide Programs for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders Through the Puerto Rico Autism Project: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AIMEE H. DEARMON (STAR Autism Support), Cami Algaier (STAR Autism Support)
Abstract: Consistency of instructional practices, across grade levels and classrooms, is essential for districts to create positive outcomes for students, communicate with parents, meet legal requirements, and monitor student progress. The Puerto Rico Autism Project was created through a partnership with the Puerto Rico Department of Education, the Centro de Estimulacion Intregral (CEI) Preschool, and STAR Autism Support (SAS) in the summer of 2014. The initial project goals were three-fold: to develop regional model sites that implement evidence-based practices for students with autism, to build capacity for local coaches to train staff for district-wide implementation, and to provide localized, translated, bilingual curriculum resources. During the 2014-2015 school year, the project expanded to develop model training sites and local district coaches. Participating teams learned effective instructional strategies in a high quality learning environment. School teams and coaches worked together to implement effective curricula, provide environmental & visual supports, and use positive behavior interventions. For the 2016 -2017 school year, Phase 4 of this pilot project, educators will receive a combination of training and curriculum tools, including the STAR Program and the Links Curriculum, to continue effectively implementing evidence-based practices with students with autism and other developmental disabilities in over 80 sites across the island.
 
25. Examining Secondary Special Educators' Competencies in Serving Transition-Aged Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
XIUCHANG HUANG (Duquesne University), Xiaohan Chen (Duquesne University), Manal Alsheef (Duquesne University)
Abstract:

With appropriate transition supports and training, individuals with ASDs can be viable, contributing members of their community and lead productive, meaningful lives. Similarly, unprepared special educators along with underdeveloped transition planning can contribute to poor outcomes in adults with ASDs. This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary special education teachers competencies involving transition services for students with ASDs. This study employed an online survey to collect data. The first part of the survey collected demographic information of the participants. In the second part of the survey, the participants were asked to rate themselves on the 4-point Likert Scale regarding their competency level in preparation, satisfaction, and frequency of implementation of transition-related services and supports. Both descriptive and statistical approaches were used to analyze demographic information and the ratings of the competency items. Results have shown that in general secondary special educator do not believe they are highly competent in providing transition services/supports to their students with ASDs.

 
26. Increasing Social Interaction in Students With Autism via a Peer Mentoring Curriculum in Public Schools
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIYA KRASNOPOLSKY (Melmark New England), Brittany Hill (Lawrence Public Schools), Heidi Gomez (Melmark New England), Kristin Pas (Lawrence Public Schools)
Abstract: Benefits of peer mentoring as an effective evidence-based intervention for increasing social skills in students with autism has been demonstrated in previous studies (Bene, Banda, & Brown, 2014; Cray, 2008; Kretzmann, Locke & Kasari, 2013; Laugeson &Frankel, 2010; Reilly, Hughes, Harvey, Brigham, Cosgriff, Kaplan, & Berstein, 2014). The present study focused on increasing social interactions between students with autism and typically-developing peers across three public schools using a peer mentoring manual. During each lesson, mentors--students from general education--received didactic instruction and spent time interacting with their mentees--students with autism. An AB design was used to measure levels of social interactions across participants. A total of 21 participants included eleven peer mentors and ten peer mentees, who varied in age from 6- to 14-years old. Following baseline and teaching phases, mentors were paired with a new peer mentee to determine generalization of skills. Pre- and post-tests measured increase of mentors' knowledge of autism and behavior analytic strategies. Inter-observer agreement was collected on levels of social interaction for 56% of sessions and averaged 95%. Results indicate an increase or sustainment of higher levels of social interactions for most participants. Implications, limitations, and consideration for future studies are discussed.
 
27. The Potential Analysis of the Impact of Video Modeling to Teach Social and Communication Skills to Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Investigation
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIAN DANIELSON (Slippery Rock University), Matthew Erickson (Slippery Rock University ), Eric Joseph Bieniek (Slippery Rock University ), Ashlea Rineer-Hershey (Slippery Rock University), Robert Isherwood (Slippery Rock University)
Abstract: There are vast amounts of research showing video modeling to be an efficient and evidence-based-practice for teaching a variety of skills. Specifically focusing on teaching social and communication skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorders has been examined extensively. This meta-analytic investigation provides a comprehensive review of these investigations to attempt to identify critical variables in the video modeling teaching process that result in successful skill development. Specific variables examined will include the types of models used in video presentation, age of students, gender of learners examining videos, technologies used to develop and deliver video models, ancillary environmental considerations to maximize learning experiences, the types of social interactions best taught through video models as well as specific social skills that are best delivered through the video modeling methodology.
 
28. The Use of Say-it and Move-it Phonemic Segmentation Activity With Reinforcement for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
IRMARIE CRUZ-LÓPEZ (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: While there is evidence suggesting phonological awareness has a significant influence on the development of early literacy skills (Hulme, Bowyer-Crane, Carroll, J. M., Duff, & Snowling, 2012), there is limited research targeting these skills in older children with autism spectrum disorder. The Say-it and Move-it intervention is one that has been used to increase phonological awareness in children (Blachman, et al., 1999). The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of the Say-it and Move-it intervention strategy paired with reinforcement contingent to task completion to increase phoneme awareness with a child with Low-Functioning ASD (LFA). An A/A+B/A+C design was used to compare whether or not the intervention results were maintaining when direct instruction was not provided. Results, indicated that the implementation of Say-it and Move-it intervention with reinforcement is effective in increasing phonemic awareness and word identification in a child with LFA.
 
29. A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders in School Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
RYAN JAMESON MARTIN (National Autism Center at May Institute), Cynthia M. Anderson (National Autism Center at May Institute)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges and often require effective and intensive support in schools. Although numerous evidence-based interventions exist for children with ASD, most research has been conducted in clinics or private homes. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on evidence-based interventions for ASD (we used criteria for evidence-based that were developed by the National Autism Center and What Works Clearinghouse). We coded studies based on setting (private school, public school, non-school), age of participants, target of intervention, and intervention. A total of 26 evidence-based interventions were identified (this corresponds with prior research by National Autism Center and the National Professional Development Center on ASD). To date we have reviewed research published between 1990 and 2011; a total of 399 peer-reviewed articles were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of our review will be presented and implications for researchers and school-based practitioners will be discussed, as it is critical to provide teachers and other professionals who work with students with ASD in school settings with adequate research to inform educational practice.
 
33. Age Appropriate Opportunities With Peers in High School to Reduce Inappropriate Attention Seeking Behavior in a Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAMRA L ZANCA (University of West Florida)
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of same age peer intervention to decrease inappropriate attention seeking behaviors and show an increase in positive behavior responses. The same-age peer mentors were paired with a participant in a high school self-contained classroom with autism who has severely limited communication and cognitive skills. The peer intervention was evaluated in an A-B-C-B reversal design. To increase social opportunities for the participant to participate in age appropriate activities that were reinforced by praise and positive feedback from peer mentors. To reduce frequency of inappropriate attention seeking behaviors and maintain a decrease in frequency of self-injurious incidents. Positive social behavior showed an increase from the mean 0.75 shown at baseline to 5.5 shown in the final treatment phase. Overall the inappropriate negative social behavior showed a decline in frequency during the final treatment phase when positive social interaction with a peer mentor occurred. The use of peer mentors will need to be part of the continued support to increase communication skills to assist the participant to learn how to initiate and respond with same age typically developing peers to gain wanted attention.
 
35. Community-Based Applied Behavior Analysis: An Integrated Summer Camp for Young Children With Autism and Peers
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NATALIE FLECE WILLIAMS (Island Therapy Solutions), Kelly Reed (Island Therapy Solutions), Lindsy Wagner (Island Therapy Solutions), Lorie Jeffers (Island Therapy Solutions)
Abstract: In the U.S. Virgin Islands, there are limited opportunities for children with autism to have meaningful experiences with their peers during summer months. To meet the needs of five young children with autism (ages three to eight), the presenters developed a 10-week, integrated summer camp program, in collaboration with a community daycare center. The population included typically developing peers, children with disabilities, and five children with autism. Each of the five clients received 1:1 Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services from a Registered Behavior Technician (RBT), facilitated by a Lead RBT under supervision of a Board Certified Behavior Analyst-Doctoral (BCBA-D). The integrated summer camp program included a daily routine of circle time, snack, toilet training, arts and crafts, and structured indoor and outdoor games. Circle time and the related activities for each week centered on a predetermined theme: superheroes, colors, jungle animals, sports, music, ocean, farm animals, people of the world, circus, and camping. A model is presented, complete with a curriculum ABA service providers can use to implement similar community-based programs. This sustainable model of ABA service delivery can serve as one option for providers who lack the resources to host a clinic-based program. The presenters also highlight obstacles associated with community-based ABA service delivery in the Virgin Islands.
 
37. Improving Social Integration for Children With Autism in Mainstream Community Programs: Can Brief Typical Peer Training Work?
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARSHA MARZOUCA (Tyndale University), Lyndsey Wagstaff (Tyndale University), Caitlyn Winger (Tyndale University), Diana Christian (Tyndale University), Sarah Potvin (Tyndale University), Teddy Kanters (Tyndale University), Amanda C. Azarbehi (Tyndale University)
Abstract: INTRO: Tyndale University Research in Autism and Community Education (TRACE) has developed a Brief Typcial Peer Training Program designed to improve the social integration of Children with ASD with their Typical peers in mainstreamed community programming settings. While some well-researched typical peer training programs have previously been developed they have all required numerous hours of training across numerous training session and are thus not feasible for implementing on a large scale in mainstream community programs such as YMCA day camps, boy scouts, etc. METHODS: During the first 2 days of TRACE community day-camp baseline data was gathered charting the rate of social interactions between Typical Peers and Children with Autism. Next, the Brief (1 session 2 hour long) Typical Peer Training Program was implemented which used ABA techniques to training typical peers in how to be more successful interacting with their peers with ASD. After the Brief Typical Peer Training several more data were gathered tracking the rate social interactions between typical peers and children with ASD post-training after they had completed the Brief Typical Peer Training. RESULTS: Analyses of the data shows that there is a very significant increase in the rate of social interactions between typical peers and children with autism following the delivery of the Brief Typical Peer Training. Note: While data 2013/14/15 is fully analyzed 2016 is in-process. However, the final poster in at the conference in January will have exact participant #s, effect sizes, graphs from all years.
 
38. Evaluation of the Quality of the Implementation of a Pilot Project for the Assessment of ASD and IDD
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marjorie Morin (Université du Québec à Montréal), Diane Morin (Universite du Quebec a Montreal), Céline Mercier (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: As part of a large research project on the evaluation of a diagnostic clinic in ASD and IDD (See things my way, Quebec, Canada) and on a longitudinal follow-up of the development and quality of life of about 500 children and their families who received the services of this clinic, we conducted an evaluation of the program's implementation quality provided by this pilot project. This evaluation of the implementation focuses on five dimensions related to the program's logic model: 1) the reference process; 2) the evaluation process based on standards of practices in ASD; 3) organizational structure; 4) interdisciplinarity; 5) the physical layout and the Localization. The evaluation of the implementation was conducted using three types of data collection methods: 1) semi-structured interviews related to the five dimensions of implementation (six employees); 2) implementation questionnaires (quantitative data for six employees); 3) analyses of the files of 50 children according to the logic model provided by the program. This assessment also takes into account the satisfaction level of about 50 parents regarding the services offered by the clinic (standardized questionnaires). This communication aims to present the implantation data according to the three types of methods chosen and the parental satisfaction data.
 
39. Quality Evaluation of Services Trajectory as Perceived by Immigrant Families With Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELINA RIVARD (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal), Céline Mercier (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: Immigrant families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have to face multiple challenges and many sources of stress on their way to access appropriate evaluation and intervention services. Ongoing research projects of our team lead us to develop a model for quality evaluation of the services trajectory from the perspective of families (French and English questionnaire TAP: valuation de la trajectoire en autisme par les parents). The current study uses this model to evaluate the perceptions of 30 immigrant families with a children that have been recently diagnosed with ASD, in regard to their access to the diagnostic (evaluation) and to early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in public services. This communication will presented data that describes parents point of view (semi-structured interviews and quantitative questionnaires) according five indicators of the model: 1) continuity between services and professionals, 2) flexibility of the intervention, organisation and professionals, 3) accessibility of the services, professionals and information, 4) validity of the information and the services; 5) empathy (help) from the professionals in their ongoing process.
 
40. State of Autism Services in Costa Rica
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Kylan S. Turner (Arizona State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Abstract: With nearly 5 million people, at the autism prevalence rates in Costa Rica may be as many as 50,000 children, yet little is known about available services in that country. The purpose of this project was to identify resources and barriers to effective autism services within Costa Rica. The project utilized structured interviews with local stakeholders to identify the following information: 1) services available to families of children with autism; 2) gaps in service provision for children with autism; 3) barriers to service provision for families of children with autism, and 4) areas of need that can be addressed to improve service provision to children with autism and their families living. 29 parents, teachers, and other professionals were interviewed and results indicated 8 themes across the areas of Identification, Access, and Needs. It is important to understand the existing services and barriers for families of and children with autism for two reasons. First, the field has little understanding on the state of disability services in many foreign countries, particularly those with few resources and limited infrastructure like Costa Rica. This gap in knowledge can be at least partially filled by identifying the types of services available in Costa Rica, how families access those services, and the barriers to this access. Second, and most importantly, this research will illuminate gaps in service access and provision that future research projects can fill.
 
41. Increasing Training Efficiency for Registered Behavior Technicians: A Methodological Comparison
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN LESA LANIER (Endicott College Collaborative Autism Resources a), Janet A. Schaefer (Collaborative Autism Resources and Education, LLC)
Abstract: While training modalities continue to be a concern, access to training resources for direct service providers and program supervisors are more readily available today. A multitude of both formal and informal training programs in applied behavior analysis (ABA) can be accessed via didactic, hands-on, remote and hybrid formats for direct service personnel. Additionally, the supervisory role has been improved with the application of formal certification through university programs. Among the available certifications, the most widely known and utilized is available through the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). The BACB was established in 1998 to meet professional credentialing needs identified by behavior analysts, governments, and consumers of behavior analysis services (BACB, n.d.). This board oversees formal certification on four levels; doctoral, master's, bachelor's, and paraprofessional. The purpose of this study is to compare a highly supervised, structured training protocol utilizing detailed feedback from a certified professional, peer discussion, and a specified timeline to the current self-paced model utilized within a remote training agency in order to facilitate more efficient training of Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) candidates. More efficient completion of training protocols required for the RBT certification will ensure patients seeking applied behavior analysis (ABA) services are able to access those services more quickly due to the increased volume and availability of trained staff. This fits within the clients right to effective treatment and current research, which shows individuals progress more adequately when ABA programs are started as soon as possible.
 
42. Using Competency Based Training to Remotely Train Therapist on Discrete Trial
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Isabel Leon (Applied Behavior Analysis: Training, Education, an), GRACE ECKOJOJO (Applied Behavior Analysis: Training, Education, an)
Abstract: Training therapists to accurately conduct Discrete Trial Training (DTT) with limited time and resources is a challenge. Often, training models based on continuous in-person modeling and feedback between the trainer and therapist is inefficient and time-consuming. A remote, computer-based training (CBT) module followed by a single in-person test for fluency may be a more efficient way to reduce the time and resources needed for staff training in special education. In the current study, the components of DTT is taught to two individuals through a CBT package involving an electronic PSI, a quiz, and video modeling. Mock discrete trials were conducted before and after introduction of the training package to measure its effects on procedural integrity. The implementation of the treatment package demonstrated a measurable increase in procedural integrity for both participants. Limitations to remote CBT training and suggestions for future research are discussed.
 
43. A Performance Management Intervention for Behavior Technicians in the Delivery of Applied Behavior Analytic Services
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID HUGHES (Continuum Autism Spectrum Alliance), Chum Newcomb (Continuum Autism Spectrum Alliance)
Abstract: A performance-based staff management intervention was implemented to assess the job performance of behavior technicians delivering behavior analytic services in home environments. The intervention consisted of a behavior technician performance assessment (BTPA) with a competency-based scoring criteria and corresponding level system. Scores from the assessment linked to the level system, which delineated compensation/advancement opportunities based on technician performance. Behavior technicians were surveyed to gain a preliminary measure of social validity for the proposed intervention. Overall, results suggested technicians surveyed (a) ranked assistance with professional certification as the most preferred method of compensation for high performance; (b) indicted current compensation procedures may lack objectivity and clarity; (c) indicated a moderate-to-high likelihood that the proposed intervention procedures would benefit behavior technicians. Baseline data were collected on the performance of behavior technicians in a pilot group as measured by the BTPA. Additional performance data will be charted and discussed following introduction of the level system contingencies. Total count interobserver agreement on BTPA scores ranged from 80.0-96.6%, suggesting an acceptable degree of confidence in the reliability of the assessment. Potential outcomes of successful implementation include: improved service delivery for consumers, increased job retention among behavior technicians, and increased efficacy in training and supervision procedures.
 
44. Improving Teacher Performance: Implementing Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales in a Public School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALICIA FALLER (Commonwealth Autism)
Abstract: Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) procedures, namely Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), were implemented in a public school setting. In a self-contained middle school classroom serving students with autism, issues regarding underperforming staff continued to grow despite ongoing behavior skills trainings. A performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was used to assess the environmental variables contributing to poor staff performance and indicated a lack of sufficient antecedents and positive consequences. Individualized, five point BARS targeted specific behaviors associated with desired performance and served to clarify tasks, provide a visual prompt, and set effective goals. A behavior analyst visited weekly to collect data, highlight task outcomes, and provide visual and verbal feedback on progression through the BARS. Results indicate an increase in frequency of program implementation for both instructional assistants (IA). IA1 increased frequency of implementation from an average of .19 to 6.75 per week. IA2 went from an average of .56 to 6.75 programs implemented per week. Socially significant results support the need for further exploration in this area.
 
45. A Review of Interventions to Teach Motor Imitation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
NICOLETTE SAMMARCO-CALDWELL (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Michelle Kuhn (The University of Texas at Austin), Laci Watkins (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: This review focuses on interventions to teach motor imitation to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of the literature review is to identify characteristics of motor imitation interventions, evaluate best practices, and offer clinical implications and suggestions for future research. A systematic search identified 20 studies that used behavioral and/or developmental strategies to teach object and gesture imitation. Positive outcomes were reported for a majority of the included studies, suggesting that motor imitation can be targeted through both discrete trial training and naturalistic strategies. Future research should focus on expanding to include community service providers, comparing the effects of intervention strategies and contexts, and developing a sequence of best practices in motor imitation interventions.
 
46. A Comparison of the Effects of Low- and High-Tech Activity Schedules on Task Engagement of Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Susan Jarmuz-Smith (Foreside Behavior Associates; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; University of Southern Maine; Arcadia University), Lisa Jade (Foreside Behavior Associates; University of Southern Maine), ELIZABETH HUGHES FONG (Saint Joseph's University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism have challenges with executive functioning skills. Research has shown that external supports, such as activity schedules, increase independence and compliance. With mobile devices, activity schedules can be presented to individuals in a flexible and durable manner. In this pilot study, three elementary school students used a paper-based activity schedule, a technology-based activity schedule on an iPad that replicated the paper solution, and a technology-based schedule with audio and video on an iPad for the same routine. An alternating, multiple-baseline design was used to control for durable learning and maturation effects. Results demonstrated increased on-task behavior with the use of an activity schedule over none. However, there were no significant differences in on-task behavior among paper-based and iPad-based schedules. Still, preference assessments demonstrated students favored the technology-based schedules. This poster will demonstrate the need for further research in the application of technology solutions. While practitioner may anecdotally fell that technology-based interventions work better, the research in this study did not support that opinion. Behavior analysts we must partner with administrators and special educators to ensure students are receiving effective access to education. The first author of this study developed and coded the iPad applications used in this research.

 
47. Effectiveness of and Parent Satisfaction With a Family-Based Behavioral Intervention for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TINA DU ROCHER SCHUDLICH (Western Washington University)
Abstract: Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is a well-established treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the role of parents in treatment is unclear. The Incredible Years is an evidence-based parent training program for child conduct problems. It was recently adapted for ASD (Webster-Stratton, 2014), but has not yet been researched. This study assesses effectiveness of and parent satisfaction with the Incredible Years for Autism parent-training program (IYA-P). Fifteen parents of children with ASD (ages 2-10) attended the 12-week IYA-P group, employing video-based discussions and practice. A pre- and post-test within-group design was used. The Parenting of Young Children assessed parenting skills and problems. The IYA-P Questionnaire assessed changes in children's behavior and parenting, and parent satisfaction. All parents reported improvement or slight improvement in child social skills, academic skills, and self-regulation & imaginary skills. Parents felt optimistic about progress with parenting and child-related goals. Parents reported greater success in supporting good child behavior and limit setting, and less problems in parenting. Parents reported all program components were helpful or very helpful. Results indicate that IYA-P may be a promising new parent-training program for parents and their children with ASD.
 
48. Feasibility of Implementing and Assessing Acute Behavioral Interventions in an Inpatient Setting for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH MARLER (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), John E. Staubitz (TRIAD, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University), Lily Altstein (MGH Biostatistics Center), Eric Macklin (MGH Biostatistics Center), Kevin Sanders (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Abstract: Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), while hospitalized, frequently present with severe behaviors and often remain hospitalized beyond medical clearance. Although Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can significantly impact functioning of individuals with ASD, professionals with ABA-specific training are rarely incorporated into inpatient treatment. Innovative programs to reduce problematic behaviors of children with ASD in inpatient settings have the potential to improve outcomes for all involved. Objectives: We investigated the feasibility of implementing and assessing the efficacy of brief Analogue Functional Analysis (AFA) in an inpatient setting to guide care during hospitalization. We evaluated if the proposed level of support and specialized care is possible during hospitalizations. Methods: Thirty-six children with ASD and aggressive behaviors, ages 6-18, admitted to an inpatient unit, were randomized into a treatment group (receiving brief AFA and behavioral intervention) or a control group. Feasibility was assessed by enrollment/completion data as well as staff, parent, and clinician ratings of challenges and successes. Results: We recruited 36 children in medical (41.7%) and psychiatric facilities (58.3%), with 20 completed, 16 lost to follow-up. Major challenges included: communication challenges with staff, availability of appropriate/safe space for AFA on medical floors, and behavioral services increasing parental desires to stay in hospital. Conclusions: We were successful in conducting a randomized intervention in an inpatient setting. The most significant challenges related to integrating behavioral staff/procedures into an established treatment flow and obtaining efficacy data from parents. This highlights the need for novel methods that will yield higher levels of efficacy data capture over time.
 
49. Methods for Quantifying Medical and Financial Benefits of Acute Behavioral Response During Inpatient Hospitalizations for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH MARLER (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), John E. Staubitz (TRIAD, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University), Lily Altstein (MGH Biostatistics Center), Eric Macklin (MGH Biostatistics Center), Kevin Sanders (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Abstract: Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have higher rates of acute healthcare utilization, increased burden of unmet needs, and decreased satisfaction with care. These patients frequently present with more severe behaviors than children without ASD, and often remain hospitalized beyond medical clearance, requiring increased levels of staffing and intensive interventions. Consequently, the cost of hospitalization is higher, with many charges remaining unreimbursed. Objectives: As part of a larger study investigating the effect of brief Analogue Functional Analysis (AFA) on hospitalization for children with ASD, we studied the ability to draw financial data from electronic medical records (EMR). Methods: Thirty-six children with ASD and aggressive behaviors, ages 6-18, admitted to an inpatient unit, were randomized into a treatment group (receiving brief AFA and behavioral intervention) or a control group. We evaluated which primary data were available from the EMR. Results We quantified length/cost of hospitalization, use of restraint, and staffing ratios for all patients. Challenges replicated previous work (e.g., quantifying human costs, staff costs). We quantified re-hospitalization for all patients within our facility; determining medical vs. behavioral necessity of hospitalization was not feasible. Conclusions: This work documented that (1) novel metrics are needed to ensure resources around behavioral interventions are captured and (2) separating medical/behavioral expenditures within financial data requires innovative methods.
 
50. Parent-Implemented Intervention for a Child With Behavior Problems: Promoting Self-Monitoring Based on the 3-Term Contingency
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHOJI OKAMURA (Hyogo University of Teacher Education), Tomoko Ohwaki (Koyano-sato School for Special Needs Education)
Abstract: Parenting levels of stress should be taken into account when designing parent-implemented intervention for a child with autism spectrum disorders. This study examined the efficacy of self-monitoring using A-B-C recording with the mother of a child with behavior problems. A second-grade boy had a history of behavior problems that occurred primarily in family routines. The mother was asked to talk about situations in child successful participation, based on the 3-term contingency. After parenting stress improved, the mother was asked to talk about situations in child behavior problems and the procedures for the target behaviors compared with appropriate interventions. The therapist provided positive feedback for mother's appropriate implementation of the interventions and didn't suggest behavior support plan. Results document improvement in child behavior and routine completion. Associated outcomes included the increase in mother's expression about situations in which he had engaged in behavior problems and appropriate interventions in routines, and positive statements for the child. In addition, mental health symptoms and parenting stress improved. These findings suggest the efficacy of self-monitoring for parents' own behavior and gradual parent training for parents who have a high level of parenting stress.
 
52. A Hybrid Social Skill Program Model for Serving Children Through Young Adults
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA C. NICOLSON (California Autism Center & Learning Group), Angeline Molina (California Autism Center), Tessa Gagliardi (California Autism Center)
Abstract: This poster will provide a breakdown of a model for a comprehensive social skills program. This program breaks into five groups divided by goals and matched to the students age and skill level. The program has data to support its effectiveness and pulls from a number of assessment and curricular tools to form the goals for each of the five programs. These program models will be elaborated upon with a basic summary of curriculum used, appropriate age, typical goals, service frequency, and staffing needs. The model could be implemented in center settings, school settings, after school programs, church programs, and family based play groups. Standardized assessments tools as well as individual behavior goals are included in evidence-based progress reports. We will show that generalization to typical environments and naturally occurring contingencies is a primary goal throughout this program model.
 
53. Replacing Food Stealing With Waiting: Mealtime Feeding of a Child With Autism and Intellectual Disability
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EVAN MICHAEL BRADLEY (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health; Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine; ), Juan Carlos Lopez (Devereux Institute of Clinical & Professional Training & Research)
Abstract: This intervention used discreet trial training to teach replacement behaviors to a child who displayed high intensity food stealing behaviors during mealtimes. Food stealing was defined as forcibly attempting to take possession of edible items from others. Our participant was a 12-year-old non-verbal male classified with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Swallowing Disorder, and Pica; he was referred for residential treatment services. During mealtimes, the client would attempt to wrest control of food from caregivers feeding him; making mealtimes difficult for service providers. Using the verbal prompt "show me ready" paired with modeling, the client was instructed to present "ready hands" (i.e., placing both hands flat with palms down on the table) after making a Picture Exchange Communication request for food. A prompting partner assisted the participant from the rear using a most-to-least hierarchy. Successful presentations of "ready hands" were reinforced with a preferred edible. Once the participant demonstrated skill acquisition (80% independence on three consecutive trials), reinforcer delivery was delayed from zero seconds, to 2-seconds, then 5-seconds. Intervention efficacy was tested using informal assessment at weekly team meetings. Caregivers reported decreases in food stealing, increases in "ready behaviors," and skill generalization to other settings.
 
54. The Positive Approaches to Reduce Restrictive Interventions (PAtRRI) Project: Preliminary Analysis and Results
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIC JOSEPH BIENIEK (Slippery Rock University), Ann K. Ellison (Barber National Institute)
Abstract: The necessity for restrictive procedures and interventions to maintain safety has been a consistent element to educating students who demonstrate significant problem behavior in the school setting. This poster will review the results of a research study evalauting a novel professional development curriculum focused on educators who are required to use restrictive procedures on a consistent basis. The effects of an in-service training, printed materials and weekly booster sessions will be analyzed to determine changes in staff perception and implementation of environmental and antecedent based interventions as opposed to restrictive, non-teaching practices. The intention of this professional development package is provide staff with evidenced based approaches to decrease problem behavior and will place a priority on teaching that is more functionally equivalent. The information presented will provide ways in which schools supporting exceptional learners can better train their staff to support these students more effectively and proactively. In addition, this study will also provide insight into how novel professional development interventions can indirectly affect the quality of the learning environment for exceptional learners. Beyond improving the professional skill sets of these educators, the researchers ultimately hope to observe a decrease in the frequency and duration of restrictive procedures.
 
56. Interaction Between Heart Rate and Environmental Variables During Self Injury: Measurement Inside the Skin
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN ROSS (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), lauren enrion (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Rickiesha March (PAAL), Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas, Department of Applied Behavioral Science)
Abstract: Skinner (1938) focused on measurement of variables in the physical world because they could be publicly observed as is necessary for a scientific study of behavior. He claimed that variables exist inside the skin, but could not be integrated into a study of behavior yet. However, with today's advances in technology and measurement, we are now able to assess changes in variables inside the skin, and incorporate those variables into statements of functional relations regarding behavior and events. Researchers have studied the relationship between self-injurious behavior (SIB) and heart rate, assessing any covariation that might exist. There exists two theories regarding the function of SIB as it relates to heart rate - overarousal and underarousal. The purpose of this study was to gather more data (extending initial studies on this topic) concerning the relationship between SIB, heart rate, and external variables. Two participants, adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder, who exhibited SIB, were equipped with a Mio Link wrist device that measured heart rate. Staff wore a Garmin sports watch that wirelessly gathered continuous heart rate data. Using an alternating treatments design, participants were placed into various activities that were preferred and not preferred. Assessments of heart rate were made across activities and time, and one minute prior to and one minute following each occurrence of SIB. Results showed that there clear changes in heart rate given the type of activity and relationship to SIB. This study supports the addition of measurement of variables inside the skin, as these variables can now be publicly studied and further the understanding of a more complete functional analysis of behavior.
 
57. Examining Caregivers' Ability to Effectively Administer Intervention Strategies to Fidelity in Spanish-Speaking vs. English-Speaking Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARIE MARTINEZ (Vanderbilt Medical Center-TRIAD), Ashley Vogel (Vanderbilt Medical Center- TRIAD), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt Medical Center-TRIAD), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt Medical Center-TRIAD), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt Medical Center-TRIAD)
Abstract: Quality early intervention programs highlight the caregivers role in skill acquisition required for child development of communication, play, and daily routines. These programs can often be difficult to access, particularly for non-English-fluent families. Research, primarily focused on English-fluent families, suggests caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have the ability to learn and implement evidence-based intervention strategies. In order to provide equal-quality services to Spanish-speaking families, language interpreters may be required. In this pilot study, we compare the impact of caregiver training services delivered across five to ten English-fluent families and an equal number of Spanish-speaking families, requiring interpreter services. Preliminary data suggests caregivers are able to implement strategies to fidelity, based on measures completed by a behavior specialist. Data also suggest caregivers are confident implementing strategies taught within training services, and report generalizability of their skills across needs and routines. Importantly, child outcome improvements across service delivery are also reported. Preliminary data collection will continue through January, 2017 for service delivery. We predict Spanish-speaking families will report similar outcomes as English-speaking families, including improved child outcomes. We will also report a cost analysis of services delivered across both groups, as well as challenges and limitations to implementation of services to monolingual Spanish-speaking families.
 
58. Token Economy to Reduce Aggression in a Residential Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TIMOTHY TEMPLIN (HABA)
Abstract: A 25-year-old female with mild intellectual disability, living in a residential setting, displays aggression and other target behaviors. Although psychopharmacological and other interventions have been applied, a behavior plan was considered more appropriate in this case. The use of token economy systems can be useful in cases where 1) there is an identified function of the target behavior; 2) there is an established inventory of reinforcers for the client to select from; 3) there is an understanding amongst the staff serving the client of how the system works. With the following set of instruments, a consistent token economy system can be put in place that shows a reduction in problem behavior, notably aggression, and is useful for those with intellectual disability and other diagnoses. This system of token economy required the staff to only document the target behaviors at three different shifts throughout the day. Making use of a Differential Reinforcement of Other (DRO), the client needed to only display appropriate behavior sufficiently well to receive a select amount of tokens.
 
60. Assessment of Parental Acceptability and Preference for Behavioral Interventions for Childhood Feeding Problems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Melissa Vazquez (California State University, Los Angeles), MITCH FRYLING (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract:

A large and growing body of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of behavior analytic interventions for food selectivity and refusal. The present study evaluated the extent to which parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder found escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and simultaneous presentation (SP) as acceptable interventions for child feeding problems. Parents also rank ordered the three interventions assessed, providing an understanding of the relative preference of the various interventions. Parents read vignettes depicting scenarios of a child with food selectivity (N = 31) or food refusal (N = 26), whereby an understanding of the impact of the severity of the feeding problem on acceptability and preference was also made possible. Across each group, parents preferred DRA the most, followed by SP, and finally EE. Similar differences were also found when comparing the treatment acceptability scores of each of the interventions. Differences for both preference and acceptability data were found to be statistically significant. There were no significant differences among the results for food selectivity and food refusal, suggesting the severity of the feeding problem did not seem to impact preference or acceptability. Implications for future research are provided.

 
61. Behavioral Intervention to Bring the Completing Tasks to a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHINZO ISAWA (Hyogo University of Teacher Education)
Abstract: This study is conducted the behavioral intervention to "completing tasks" and "bringing the completing tasks" for a junior high school student with autism spectrum disorder(male, CA:14-11, FSIQ:127). The tasks to complete were set three levels(low/middle/high) by the degree of difficulty of the task. The low level was to bring a writing material or a textbook, the middle level was to bring a simple task, and the high level was to bring a time-consuming task. This study was used AB+probe design. This behavioral intervention was applied the reminder function and the token economy system, and established 3 steps by the quantity of the tasks. This reminder function was e-mail "let's start the tasks" and "getting ready to bring completed tasks." This token economy system was 1 points of low level, 3 points of middle level, 8 points of high level, and 20 points of all complete bringing. It was provided the student with the backup reinforcement when 200 points collected. The result was around 50% of accomplishment rate in the baseline, but achieved 100% in the interventions and probe. It was discussed from the effectiveness of the reminder function and the token economy system.
 
62. Compound-Schedules Approaches to Noncompliance: Teaching Children When to Ask and When to Work
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH MICHAEL LAMBERT (Vanderbilt University), Anne Clohisy (Doyle) (Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Sylvia Barrows (Vanderbilt University), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Researchers have demonstrated for practitioners how to use multiple-schedules preparations to lean initially dense schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT), without sacrificing benefits associated with dense schedules of reinforcement for manding. However, special considerations may be required for practitioners to successfully apply this strategy to noncompliance because noncompliance is not behavior, it is the absence of behavior given a specific stimulus condition (i.e., caregiver demand). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether multiple-schedules preparations could maintain contextually-prescribed compliance and manding during interventions for noncompliance. Two children participated in this study. Jack was a Caucasian, 10-year-old boy diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and was referred to an outpatient behavior clinic for aggression (maintained by escape from demands), elopement (maintained by access to tangible items and preferred environments), and noncompliance. Ian was a Caucasian, 7-year-old boy diagnosed with a sensory processing disorder and was referred to an outpatient behavior clinic for aggression (maintained by escape, tangible, and attention) and noncompliance. For Jack, a multiple-schedules intervention was sufficient to establish socially valid outcomes. For Ian, chained-schedules modifications were required before compliance emerged in relevant components.
 
63. Differential Reinforcement as Intervention Strategy to Develop Socially Appropriate Behaviors and the Effect of Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERGIO LARA (Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz)
Abstract: Two interventions of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and other behaviors (DRO) for the generation of a new repertoire attention requests for a user with pervasive developmental disorder (TGD) were performed with a repertoire current applications of socially inadequate attention, as well as increase effectiveness in the reduction of behaviors in a program of extinction. The implementation for the study was carried out with a design of interaction of treatments, where the results observed in the effectiveness of the combined treatments, like the effectiveness of each low data stability, affirming the hypothesis of the need to support the procedures of extinction with reinforcement procedures that generate alternative behaviors in the repertoires to extinguish.
 
64. Increasing Social Interactions of a Preschooler with Autism Through Technology-Delivered Tactile Prompts and Video Modeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners In Learning, Inc.), Nicole Pease (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole M. Rzemyk (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attempt or appropriately respond to less social initiations than their peers (Koegal, Koegal, Frea & Fredeen, 2001). Also, these children rarely comment spontaneously about what they are playing with, ask questions, or offer information. Previous methods to teach these skills involved more obtrusive methods, including systematic instruction, verbal prompts and photographic or textual cues (Charlop & Walsh, 1986; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Taylor & Harris, 1995). Tactile prompting has been effectively used as an unobtrusive prompt to promote social skills in these children, as well as promote social interaction between children with ASD and their typically developing peer (Shabani, et.al., 2002). Video modeling has also shown to be effective to promote social skills with children with ASD (LeBlancet.al, 2003). The current study uses video modeling as well as technology-delivered tactile prompts to teach social initiations to a preschooler with ASD and includes baseline, treatment, and maintenance phases with IOA for all phases. A systematic fading process for the tactile prompt will be reviewed to determine if performance remains stable using methods described by Tzanakaki et.al. (2014) in this replication.
 
65. Parenting a Child With Autism: An Exploration of Parental Dyadic Coping
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH POTVIN (Tyndale University), Lindsey Lee (Tyndale University), Caitlyn Winger (Tyndale University), Teddy Kanters (Tyndale University), Diana Christian (Tyndale University), Marsha Marzouca (Tyndale University), Amanda C. Azarbehi (Tyndale University)
Abstract: Numerous studies have reported that the rate of relationship breakdown and divorce reported amongst parents of children with autism is higher than almost any other sub-population group. Indeed, ABA/IBI service providers often find that family stress and breakdown can interfere with their ability to collaborate with families to provide optimal services. The current study aims to examine how a child's autism symptomatology combined with the parents' level of stress and anxiety impact the dyadic (marriage) relationship and the dyadic coping methods used by the couple. Participants were recruited from community service providers and online ASD groups. Participants were directed to visit an online research portal where they completed a series of standardized questionnaires. Specifically, measures of parental functioning included: the Perceived Stress Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Zung Anxiety Scale, Zung Depression Inventory, and the Dyadic Coping Inventory. The results will explore how a parent's marriage relationship and the way they cope as a couple is impacted by the parenting stressors they face and their child's autism symptomatology and what approaches to coping promote the most positive outcomes. The discussion will explore how ABA/IBI community service providers might better support to the parents of the children with autism that they serve now that we know more about the challenges they face and how to promote positive dyadic coping.
 
67. Using Desensitization Techniques to Decrease Problem Behaviors in Children With Autism at the Dentist
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners In Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lori Lorenzetti (Partners in Learning, Inc,)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can display high levels of interfering behaviors when participating in novel routines such as dental appointments. When interviewed for a study in Pediatric Dentistry (2014), over half of the parents of a child with ASD reported that their child's dental health is in poor condition. This study uses a changing criterion, single subject design to desensitize 2 boys diagnosed with ASD to the routine of a dental visit by practicing in home and school settings. Systematic desensitization involves gradual exposure to the setting or events feared while reinforcing behaviors incompatible with disruption, such as relaxation (Wolpe, 1958; 1961). Two preschool subjects' performance were scored for percentage of independent trials, defined as following the directions of the therapist/dentist without the presence of interfering behaviors per treatment phase. Prior to baseline, the therapist obtained the 8-step dental routine to be used by their family dentist. During baseline, independence is not reinforced and interfering behaviors are ignored. During treatment phases, the therapist reinforces independence using a token economy, exchanging for access to preferred activity (i.e., iPad). A parent interview questionnaire was completed prior to and following the dental visit to assess the social validity of the study.
 
69. A First Look at Cultural Barriers Impacting Service Delivery for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell), ASHLEY AREVALO (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Alberto Leon (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Richard W. Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Carol Curtin (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract:

Recent statistics indicate children of Latino background are diagnosed with autism at a much later age than their white counterparts (Mandell et al., 2009). Factors that impact later diagnosis include Latino parents' lack of knowledge of autism (Zuckerman et al., 2013) and overall low health literacy (Sentell & Braun, 2012). Once a diagnosis is made, it is critically important that all families have access to evidence-based interventions, including applied behavior analysis (ABA) services. However, cultural barriers such as a lack of awareness of available services, poor healthcare access and health literacy, and language barriers may impact Latino families' ability to access these services. To begin to address this concern, the purpose of this study was to obtain more detailed information about potential cultural barriers, particularly with regard to families' ability to receive and maintain ABA services. We conducted structured interviews with Latino families that had a child with autism 6 years or younger. Questions in the interview were related to the background and diagnostic experiences of the child and about the parents' perceptions of the behavioral services received. Summary results from interviews conducted to date will be presented, and implications of these findings for future research and service delivery will be discussed.

 
71. Collaborative School-Home Approach: Generalization of Skills Across Settings for an 8-Year-Old With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIYA KRASNOPOLSKY (Melmark New England), Barbara O'Malley Cannon (Melmark New England), Catherine Judkins (Melmark New England)
Abstract: It has been well-established that children with autism need consistent programming across environments to learn and maintain skills. Difficulties in picking up cues from the environment, as well as generalizing across environments, make well coordinated, systematic interventions essential. The National Research Council (2001) points to programming for generalization as a necessary feature of best practice. Combining home and school services allows consistent delivery and generalization across settings, which is well supported within the literature (Stokes & Baer, 1977; Rincover & Koegel, 1975; Valdimarsodottir, Halldorsdottir, & Sigurdardottir, 2010). The data from this study further adds to the body of research showing successful learning and generalization across settings for an eight-year old boy with autism. With a collaborative approach that allowed for consistent teaching procedures across settings and instructors, the student showed progress with several acquisition programs in the areas of daily living and leisure skills, such as tooth brushing and following a leisure schedule. These findings support home consultation services and effective home-school collaboration for students with autism. Correlation was found between initiation of home services and positive outcomes in regards to rate of acquisition and generalization of skills across settings.
 
72. Clinic to Home: Programming for Generalization of Function Based Treatments
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
R. JUSTIN BOYD (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU)), Shawn Patrick Gilroy (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU)), D'Andre Bruce (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU)), Haley Ford (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU)), Aila K. Dommestrup (Kennedy Krieger Institute (NBU)), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A significant criticism of behavioral interventions for problem behavior is that they work in clinical settings but do not generalize once the clinical program is stopped; presumably because clinicians fail to plan for generalization to occur. A technology for planning and facilitating generalization has been in existence since the 1970’s (Stokes & Baer, 1977). However, only a few studies (e.g., Wacker et al., 2005) have documented the application of this technology to function-based interventions for problem behavior. Two parents and their 8-year old boy with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and severe problem behavior participated in the study. Following a functional analysis and function-based treatment evaluation, generalization programming strategies were employed to ensure that in-clinic treatment gains were observed in the child’s home during naturally occurring routines. Specifically, parents were trained in each treatment component and then “trained to generalize” across in-clinic conditions where antecedent stimulus conditions were systematically modified to simulate naturally occurring conditions known to be problematic at home. Finally, parents were observed to implement treatments during naturally occurring routines at home. During home observations, caregiver integrity remained at mastery levels and reductions in problem behaviors were also observed.
 
73. Evaluating the Effects of Stimulus Order and Placement During Discrete Trial Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIA FERGUSON (Autism Partnership Foundation), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership Foundation), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract: Some have recommended counterbalancing the array of stimuli (i.e., target and non-target stimuli) and the order of targets when using discrete trial teaching to teach receptive labels (e.g., Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). Although this method of counterbalancing has been referred to as "best practice" (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013, p. 58), it remains unclear if counterbalancing leads to improved learning, maintenance, and/or generalization. The present study compared the acquisition of receptive labels across three teaching conditions (i.e., counterbalance, fixed, and teacher's choice). The counterbalanced condition consisted of arranging the stimuli based on "best practice recommendations" (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013, p. 58). The fixed condition consisted of leaving the stimuli stationary throughout each teaching session. The teacher's choice condition consisted of arranging the stimuli however the teacher chose. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of each teaching condition across five children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The results are discussed in the context of practice and future research directions.
 
74. Immediate Effects of a One Day Training on Writing Behavior Support Plans
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALISSA ANNE CONWAY (Western Michigan University), Cody Morris (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Jonathan C. Baker (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) requested assistance in order to train a variety of service providers across the state of Michigan on how to write quality and comprehensive behavior support plans. Two one-day workshops were delivered (two separate locations to two separate audiences) that provided attendees with a step-by-step process for utilizing a digital behavior support plan template with an accompanying rubric. The template, developed by students and faculty in the Department of Psychology Behavior Analysis program at Western Michigan University, is based on the recommended components identified in the peer reviewed literature as well as state regulations for behavior support plans. The rubric provides detailed information about the various components of the template, pertinent information, and is meant to serve as a tool to assist in the ongoing evaluation of the comprehensiveness of the behavior support plan. Attendees across each workshop completed a pre-test immediately before the training commenced and a post-test immediately following the training. Data presented will include the results of the pre and post examinations. Directions for future trainings, research, and the ongoing process of a university program supporting the evolving and complex needs of a statewide governmental agency will be discussed.
 
75. Michigan Medicaid Applied Behavior Analysis Services and Systems: An Innovative Approach
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIANNA ELSASSER (Michigan Department of Health and Human Services), Morgan VanDenBerg (Michigan Department of Health and Human Services)
Abstract: In 2012, insurance reform legislation was passed in Michigan to cover Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services. On April 1, 2013, Michigan Medicaid began providing ABA services for eligible children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis from 18 months through 6 years of age. On December 23, 2015, a new Michigan Medicaid policy related to ABA services was approved by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services effective for January 1, 2016 which now covers ABA for individuals from birth until age 21 and includes Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, and master's-prepared professionals training to become certified as part of the qualified provider network. The new policy also permits certain services to be delivered via telepractice, allowing Michigan to be innovative in their approach for providing ABA services in geographic areas that often have shortages of providers and large distances between enrolled beneficiaries. Although the number of families who have received ABA services through the Michigan Medicaid system is remarkable, the rapid expansion of enrolled members along with ongoing qualified provider capacity concerns have been significant areas of focus for the Michigan Medicaid system as well as its network of providers and stakeholders.
 
76. Relation between High School Transition Planning and Access to Adult Services for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN EATON (Itineris), Caroline Hubbard (Itineris), Natalie Ridgely (Itineris), Gracie Greenberg (Itineris), Katherine Edwards (Itineris)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of the relation between high school transition planning and access to adult services for individuals on the autism spectrum. The quality of transition services across types of schools, specifically Baltimore City, Baltimore County, and Maryland Association of Non-Public Special Education Facilities (MANSEF) is vastly differentiated. This, in turn, affects an individuals ability to access services as an adult. The poster will identify clinical implications for the individual, as well as long term outcomes for families, communities, and cities. Limitations of the project include small sets of data (e.g., Itineris is the only autism-specific agency in the Baltimore area and applications only date back to 2012), as well as minimal empirical data on transitioning youth and outcomes for adults on the autism spectrum, with the exception of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2). Following the completion of this project, the authors will focus efforts on improving high school transition services in Baltimore by advocating for students with low rates of successful transitions to appropriate adult settings. In addition, future projects will focus on applying organizational interventions to increase the number of applications submitted to Itineris by Baltimore City students. The same information gained from this project could be applied to improve transition services in cities across the country, which will likely increase access to services for adults on the autism spectrum.
 
77. The University of Arizona SALT Center: Social Transition Supplemental Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PAUL F. BASTEDO (The University of Arizona: SALT Center)
Abstract: The SALT Center is committed to providing the highest quality academic support to college students with learning and attention challenges. We have noticed, however, that our traditional comprehensive program does not meet all of the needs for some student populations. Therefore, we are beginning a new line of service designed to provide better support for students with autism spectrum disorder and other related disabilities. The challenges for these students tend to be:1. Auditory processing-learning through course lectures; 2. Metacognition-thinking about their own and others; thoughts and motivation; abstract thinking and metaphorical language;3. Executive functioning-organizing self and workload; multi-step assignments;4. Social skills-establishing friendships; working in groups;5. Restricted routines and repetitive behaviors. The Social Transition Supplemental Program will provide enhanced services beyond the traditional comprehensive program to assist students in these areas. Students will begin preparing for their transition to UA with the coordinator of this program during the summer prior to their first semester. Throughout each semester, the student will work closely with the coordinator to learn and refine academic strategies, explore and practice ways to engage in the social opportunities on campus, and manage the array of transitions that occur within and between academic semesters.
 
79. Social Validity: A Focus on Treatment Acceptability
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
Breanna Marie Mosca (California State University, Northridge), DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Social validity is the social significance of goals for behavior change, the importance of the effects or the behavior change plan, and the acceptability of the procedures used to affect the behavior change. Assessment of social validity is a crucial enterprise for behavior analysts. In his initial article describing social validity, Wolf (1978) called for the use of indirect measures of consumer satisfaction as the primary means of demonstrating social appropriateness of the interventions (later literature calls this treatment acceptability), and social importance of treatment effects. From this point, wide use of indirect measures, typically in the form of surveys or semi-formal post treatment interviews, were used as the primary means of measuring social validity. However, less than 20% of surveyed articles from the ABA literature report any measures of social validity (Kennedy 1992; Carr et al., 1999). Studies examining social validity, specifically treatment acceptability, are limited in their experimental control, or examine multiple variables that may influence rating of treatment acceptability. This presentation reviews the literature on treatment acceptability; we also identify avenues of future research to evaluate treatment acceptability with the goal of identifying methods that support adherence to interventions by consumers.
 
80. Descriptive Tacting: Teaching a Student With Autism to Tact Color + Noun
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA ANN FRALEY CARDONA (8275933), Kendra McDonald (The Aurora School, Open Door Learning Center, and STEP-Up)
Abstract: Teaching students with autism to tact descriptive characteristics of objects is an important function to help develop manding and listener skills. Students who learn to discriminate between similar objects may expand their manding repertoires. Learning to tact the color of an object may transfer to more complex listener behavior and allow for discrimination of directions. Danny is a 17-year old male with autism attending The Aurora School, a private day school specializing in ABA/Verbal Behavior on Paxton Campus. Prior to the intervention, Danny was able to tact colors and objects in isolation using sign language. This intervention included a 4-step error correction and prompting procedure to teach him to tact an object and its color together. Danny was taught using pictures of objects (shoe, hat, and apple) that were 3 different colors each. Results show that after Danny learned to tact three colors of the same object using the frame color x, (i.e. "blue hat," "red hat," and "yellow hat") he was able to tact the objects fourth color using color x ("green hat") with little or no teaching. New frames of color x were emitted with 0-1 error correction teaching procedures. Additional probing indicated that Danny was able to emit novel "color x" frames for untaught tacts of color + noun, and emitted the frames for known objects not used in the intervention (e.g. shirt).
 
81. Establishing Cross-Model Verbal Behavior Skills in Children and Adolescents With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN GALLIFORD (Southern Illinois University), Lindsey Renee Ellenberger (Southern Illinois University), Sarah Cheyanne Ashe (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: A growing body of literature over the past decade has established the effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analytic procedures in developing the verbal behavior repertoire of children and adolescents with autism and related disabilities. Literature is however lacking in terms of procedures that make use of discriminative stimuli that contact sense modalities other than visual and auditory, or establish receptive responses other than those that are visual and expressive responses other than those that are vocal. The PEAK Relational Training System is a behavior analytic technology that contains several procedures for developing cross-modal relational responses in individuals with autism. We will present a line of research that shows how cross-modal relations can be established through direct training and stimulus generalization, as well as through procedures developed from Relational Frame Theory and stimulus equivalence accounts of language development. Studies will evaluate the efficacy of the procedures in teaching participants to tact sensory events, generalize tactile discrimination responses through augmentative communication, derive untrained mands through the development of gustatory-visual-vocal relations, utilize representational drawing as an expressive-visual response, and demonstrate the transformation of non-arbitrary and arbitrary relations including cross-modal stimuli.
 
82. Evaluating the Effects of Tact Training in Two Languages on the Acquisition of Tacts and Untrained Listener Responses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALBERTO LEON (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Ashley Arevalo (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract:

The present study evaluated the effects of tact training (labeling) when instruction was presented in English compared to instruction in two languages (English and the home language) for two participants with a developmental disability and/or a language delay that came from a bilingual home. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the rate of acquisition for tacts (labels) and we examined the number of untrained listener responses (receptive language) that emerged following training in both conditions. The language abilities of each participant were assessed using a verbal behavior assessment and two standardized language assessments prior to the start of the study. Additionally, parents completed a questionnaire that sought to obtain information regarding participants exposure to English and their home language. Both participants produced more correct responses during tact training in English than during tact training in two languages. Implications of results as they relate to verbal skill acquisition for this population are discussed.

 
84. Teaching Echoic Rehearsal to Establish First-Trial Performance in Completing Two-Step Instructions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN E VOSTERS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Abstract: Given that one goal of early intensive behavior intervention is to prepare children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to be effective in inclusive educational environments, teaching them how to follow multistep instructions is in line with this goal. Three children diagnosed with an ASD between the ages of four and six participated. We are using a multiple baseline design across children to evaluate the effects of teaching verbal-mediating responses (echoic rehearsals) on the acquisition and generalization of following novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., “Take out book; Put the cup on the table”). After we observed low levels of instruction following in baseline, we are teaching children to engage in echoic rehearsals (repeat the instruction aloud). We are gradually increasing the delays and complexity of our instructions to simulate the time associated with searching for objects in a room when completing two-step instructions. After teaching with a teacher, we are assessing generalization across setting and people, including the children’s caregivers. Implications for designing early intervention programming for instruction following using a conceptual analysis of joint control is discussed.
 
85. Teaching the Meaning of "Different": Establishing Derived Relational Responding in Patterns of Coordination and Distinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SIRI MING (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: The ability to identify similarities and differences between stimuli or concepts is a key skill in terms of development and academic success. In this study, two children with autism were trained to derive arbitrary relations of same/different using an iPad-based teaching protocol involving animals and their preferred foods. At baseline, neither child could derive arbitrary same/different relations either within the iPad game or based on a short text-based story. Following multiple exemplar training, both children could derive the relations with novel stimulus sets in both contexts. Implications for further research on same/different relations, curriculum development, and relevance for reading comprehension are discussed.
 
86. The Application of Relational Frame Theory in the Assessment and Treatment of Learning Deficits of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BECKY BARRON (Southern Illinois University), Ayla Schmick (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a behavior analytic account of human language and cognition that focuses on the derivation of language skills through arbitrarily applicable relational responding. The PEAK Relational Training System Transformation module (PEAK-T) uses a practical application of RFT for teaching children with autism and other disorders a variety of new language skills through families of relational frames. The current study will outline and evaluate psychometric evidence supporting the use of the PEAK pre-assessment battery (PEAK-T-PA; PEAK-E-PA) with individuals with autism including its correlations with school readiness, academic performance, autism severity, and intelligence. In addition, we will provide exemplars of single-case research evaluating the use of specific programs in the PEAK-T module with children with autism and other developmental disabilities. The single-case studies include teaching non-arbitrary relations, foundational perspective taking skills, and culturally relevant transformations of stimulus function in real world applications. Results of the initial psychometric analyses showed strong, significant correlations between the PEAK assessments and other common assessments used in application with children with autism. The initial results of the single-case analyses support the potential utility of this technological advance in the field of behavior analysis. Together, the aggregate results from this line of research have implications for the assessment and treatment of language and learning deficits with individuals with autism and other related disabilities.
 
88. Behavioral Dentistry: Recommendations for Research and Practice
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Adam Carter (Brock University), KIMBERLEY L. M. ZONNEVELD (Brock University), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: While a great deal of behavior analytic work has been devoted to the efficient development of skills and the reduction of maladaptive behavior, a relatively smaller body of behavioral research has addressed issues related to improving and maintaining the health of individuals with autism spectrum (and related) disorders. This poster will provide an overview of one area of research, termed behavioral dentistry, aimed at improving skills associated with participating in routine dental care. Specific research studies will be reviewed and analyzed and recommendations for practice will be described. In addition, calls for further research will be provided. In particular, the present poster will consider the feasibility of interventions in this area, and call for intervention research that can be carried out in a relatively brief amount of time, produce lasting effects which are socially meaningful to parents and other caregivers, and used with a range of individuals (e.g., both children and adults).
 
89. Combined Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior in Identical Twins With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AILA K. DOMMESTRUP (Kennedy Krieger Institute), R. Justin Boyd (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Haley Ford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in siblings is estimated to be 18% or greater (Ozonoff et al., 2011), while estimates of the concordance rate for ASD in identical twins have been as high as 70% (Zhao et al., 2007). For siblings who present on the autism spectrum with severe problem behaviors, individualized behavioral assessments may not only be time consuming, but result in treatments which lack social and external validity due to the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions in natural contexts (e.g., when both siblings are present with only one caregiver). To date, very few studies have evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of conducting a combined functional analysis or function-based treatment evaluation with siblings. Participants in the current study were three sets of twin boys diagnosed with ASD and severe problem behavior. For each twin pair, functional analyses were designed where simultaneous, but individualized contingencies were programmed for each child across test and control conditions. Individualized function-based treatments were evaluated in combined fashion for each twin pair. Finally, a single caregiver for each twin pair was trained to implement the intervention in both clinical and non-clinical settings while targeted reductions in problem behaviors were maintained.
 
90. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Two Children With Autism and Expressive Speech
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA VANORMER (University of South Alabama), Ashley Greathouse (University of South Alabama), Kimberly Zlomke (University of South Alabama)
Abstract: Youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display several problem behaviors, such as aggression and noncompliance. These problem behaviors may occur at such a high frequency that they interfere in educational or adjunctive therapies, leading parents to seek behavioral interventions. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based and manualized intervention developed for typically developing young children. Due to PCIT relying on social contingencies, children with ASD have previously been excluded from the intervention; yet, recent research has found that PCIT may be an effective treatment for behavioral disruptions in youth with ASD. The present study (A-B1-B2) included two three-year-old children with ASD to examine the effectiveness of PCIT. Both participants demonstrated expressive language ability of at least two-word utterances. Results indicate that both children demonstrated decreases in problem behaviors. Additionally, there was an increase in compliance and positive parental attending skills, which was measured by a standardized child observational system. These results suggest that PCIT may be an effective treatment for ASD youth who display expressive language abilities.
 
91. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Treatment Packages Used to Reduce Elopement in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOEMI TREVINO (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ana Ramirez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Kattie Guerrero (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ivette Andrade (Sharyland ISD), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Abstract: Elopement is a behavior that is more prevalent among children with autism compared to their typically-developing peers. With potentially fatal consequences (e.g., drowning, being run over, abducted), it is important to reduce or eliminate these behaviors. In the present study, we evaluate the assessment and treatment of elopement using a multicomponent treatment package to address the multiple functions of elopement for two children. For the third child, a treatment based on function was not effective in reducing elopement; therefore an alternative treatment package with a punishment procedure was put in place. Treatment for the first two children consisted of an antecedent treatment procedure, blocking and differential reinforcement of other behaviors with extinction (DRO w/ EXT). For the third child, the antecedent treatment procedure plus time-out was used. Results showed a significant reduction of elopement following treatment for all three participants. In general, it appears as though elopement may be a difficult procedure to treat effectively and even low rates of problem behavior can result in serious consequences.
 
92. Long-Term Functional Utility of Augmentative/Alternative Communication System Use in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Krysten Elizabeth Thompson (Brock University), JULIE KOUDYS (Brock University), Adrienne M. Perry (York University)
Abstract:

Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder with communication impairments are often introduced to augmentative/alternative communication (AAC) systems during Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI). Some AAC systems, such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Bondy & Frost, 1994), have been extensively researched and are considered evidence based practice for individuals with ASD (Wong, 2013). However, many other AAC systems are used in clinical practice, including "low-tech" and "high-tech" picture-based systems which range from "loose variations" of PECS, to those that bear no resemblance to PECS. Despite the clinical popularity of various versions of AAC systems, little is known about the long-term effectiveness of these systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term functional utility of AAC systems for adolescents with ASD. Data were collected from participants (n=4) of a larger study which explored long-term outcomes following IBI. Behaviours commonly associated with effective AAC use (i.e., spontaneity, social approach, accuracy of picture discrimination) were assessed. Performance criteria were established based on the phases of PECS. Interobserver agreement and procedural fidelity were assessed. Results indicate that participating AAC users demonstrate significant gaps in functional communication skills. Results are discussed in terms of implications for communication training.

 
93. Multiple-Stimulus Without Replacement Preference Assessment: Reducing the Number of Sessions to Identify Preferred Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID M. RICHMAN (Texas Tech University), Laura Melton Grubb (The Shafer Center), Layla Abby (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Lucy Barnard-Brak (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: Multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) is a systematic direct assessment method used to identify preferred items and activities that may serve as reinforcers for behavior reduction or skill acquisition programs. DeLeon and Iwata (1996) validated the original MSWO procedures that consisted of using an average of rank order preference of stimuli across 5-sessions. Carr, Nicolson, and Higbee (2000) extended research on the MSWO by suggesting that 1 to 3 sessions may be sufficient to identify preferred stimuli. The current study extended theses results by systematically examining the degree of correlation between 5-session MSWOs and 1, 2, 3, and 4-session MSWOs for nine adults with intellectual disabilities. For edible and activity 5-session MSWOs, 3 sessions were significantly and positively correlated with the outcomes from the 5-session MSWOs for all participants. Results are discussed in terms of potential financial cost and time saving by reducing the number of MSWO sessions, especially in clinical settings where frequent preference assessments are conducted prior to therapy sessions.
 
94. Resurgence of Problem Behavior Following Functional Communication Training With High- and Low-Preferred Mand Modalities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLA CROOK (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia), Maggie Ann Molony (University of Georgia), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Four participants diagnosed with a developmental disability and communication disorder were taught two different mands to replace problem behavior (i.e., functional communication training [FCT]). An assessment was then conducted to determine relative preference among the two modalities. Each participant demonstrated a clear preference for one of the modalities. Following the implementation of FCT, the two mands were then placed on extinction. During extinction, all four participants exhibited resurgence of problem behavior. Results indicated that for three of the four participants, resurgence was greater during the extinction component associated with the low preferred FCT modality. The results of this study replicated previous studies documenting the resurgence of problem behavior when FCT is disrupted (e.g., Volkert et al., 2009). However, the results of the current study further suggested that the level of resurgence observed might differ as a function of response-related variables. Specifically, extinction in contexts associated with a low preferred communication strategy may result in more resurgence than extinction in contexts associated with a high preferred communication modality. These findings have implications with respect to deciding what communication strategy to incorporate into FCT-based treatments, as communication modality variables influenced treatment relapse.
 
95. The Boss Hat: Treating Destructive Behavior Reinforced by Increased Caregiver Compliance With the Child's Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TODD M. OWEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Akers (Munroe-Meyere Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashten Grasmick (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Standard functional analyses (FA) sometimes do not identify momentary fluctuations in the function of destructive behavior (Bowman et al., 1997). In such cases, individuals may mand for the reinforcer that is currently most preferred, and destructive behavior may be evoked if this mand is not reinforced. In the current study, following inconclusive standard FAs, we conducted a mand analysis with a test condition in which mands produced reinforcement only following destructive behavior and a control condition in which mands produced reinforcement throughout. We then evaluated a function-based treatment colloquially referred to as the boss-hat protocol in which we provided differential or time-based reinforcement of mands in accordance with multiple or chained schedules that included reinforcement-schedule thinning to practical levels. By treatment's end, destructive behavior decreased by an average of 96% from baseline rates across all cases. We discuss these results relative to the importance of matching treatments for destructive behavior to operant functions even when those functions fluctuate from one moment to the next.
 
96. The Effect of Play Activity on Social Interaction of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quanifying With Motion Capture System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAKUYA ENOMOTO (JST CREST; Keio University, Advanced Research Center), Airi Tsuji (Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Tsukuba), Soichiro Matsuda (JSPS Research Fellow; Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Tsukuba University), Satoru Sekine (Graduate School of Human Relations, Keio University), Kenji Suzuki (Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Tsukuba), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Department of Psychology, Keio University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the physical and social activities of children with ASD (2- to 5 years-old) by quantitative measures using Motion Capture System. Performance of children with ASD was compared with the following four experimental conditions; 1) VTR watching with a therapist, 2) toy play, 3) ball play and 4) physical-activity play. The changing condition design was used to identify the effect of four conditions. The followings were served as dependent measures; a) approaching to a therapist, b) standing away from a therapist, c) looking at a therapist's face and d) positive affect (ex: smiling, laughing). The result indicated that children with ASD were more active in ball play and physical-activity play than in VTR and toy play. Ball play and physical activity play facilitated social interaction much more than VTR and toy play. These results suggest that social interaction of children with ASD occurs more in the conditions with physical activity. This study represents an important step toward clarifying the effect of physical activity on promoting social behavior of children with ASD and extending new intervention method. This research was supported by CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency.
 
97. Treatment Options for Challenging Behavior Maintained by Mand Compliance in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA RAMIREZ (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Kattie Guerrero (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Noemi Trevino (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Leonilo Gonzalez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Lorie Zamarripa (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Abstract: Mand compliance is a modified condition within functional analyses that is rarely evaluated in the literature (Bowman, Fisher, Thompson, & Piazza, 1997; Eluri, Andrade, Trevino, & Mahmoud, 2016; O'Connor, Sorensen-Burnworth, Rush, & Eidman, 2003). Treatment in the literature often includes a token system to reduce challenging behavior. The current study is evaluating two children whose challenging behaviors are maintained by mand compliance. The first of which a token system was used to reduce challenging behavior, while the other childs behavior is treated using a simple extinction procedure. Both treatments show some reduction in challenging behavior; however, a comparison of both cases will help us determine the benefits or drawbacks to using a token system over extinction for this lesser known function.
 
98. Using Mindfulness, Defusion, and Behavioral Skills Training on Job Interviews for Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA MAZO (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Kaitlyn Brazeau (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Samantha Smalley (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Samuel Nathan Krus (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), LaDonna Henson (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to help reduce anxiety experienced during an interview with three individuals with varying Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDD). A multiple baseline across participants with embedded probes was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention consisted of mindfulness and defusion exercises used directly before an interview was conducted. Data were collected during each interview using an interview checklist created specifically for this study. The checklist consisted of two parts: anxiety measures and an interview question portion. The checklist was used to help score the overall performance for each participant during an interview. A BST procedure was used for two of the three participants to help their skill acquisition of correctly answering interview questions. Secondary measures were taken for a pre and posttest that consisted of a modified state social anxiety scale. The results from the study indicated that the use of ACT helped decrease anxiety experienced during an interview and also helped increase their overall performance during an interview.
 
99. Using Script Fading and Video Modeling as a Treatment Package to Teach Reciprocal Play Skills to Children With Autism and Developmental Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Lia Becktold (S.E.E.K Arizona), KANDRA WISEMAN (S.E.E.K Arizona)
Abstract: Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities often show deficits in social skills such as reciprocal play, initiating play, and functionally engaging with toys. Overall, research has supported that the use of script fading and video modeling as a treatment package are effective in teaching and maintaining reciprocal play skills without additional prompting. The current study employed a multiple baseline design across play sets, to evaluate the effects of script fading and video modeling as a treatment package on reciprocal play skills for children ages 6-10, with Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors, and settings. A social validity survey was given to parents to determine the levels of social interaction that their child engaged in before and after treatment. Data was scored for each step in a play set. Each play set had seven steps. If the child independently completed the step without adult prompting, data was recoded as successful. If the child needed additional prompting data was collected as unsuccessful. If the child did not respond data was recorded as no response (NR).
 
100. Computer Automated Steering Logic for Teaching Picture-Aided Communication Prerequisites to Nonverbal Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
WILLIAM J. MCILVANE (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Joanne Kledaras (Praxis, Inc.), Christophe Gerard (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: We studied computer automated steering logic algorithms (CASLs) to support picture-aided functional communication training for nonverbal children with autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. Step 1 established the first instances of conditional discrimination and functional equivalence among pictures and objects. Step 2 expanded the relational discrimination repertoire. Step 3 established picture sequences to support picture-aided communication. Intended for use in computer-guided instruction, CASL algorithms were based on the "learning by exclusion" (LBE) method. They (1) specified stimulus displays to be presented, (2) allowed the therapist to enter data, and (3) queried child databases to make decisions about progression through the instructional sequences. In a validation study, ten children were taught a series of picture-object functional equivalences (i.e., Steps 1 and 2) with an error rate that was lower than the best LBE data (C & F) published to date (see Figure 1). A variant of the CASL from Steps 1 and 2 was developed to teach behavioral prerequisites for achieving Step 3. Ten additional children participated in its validation study. LBE learning outcome results were comparably positive. These data indicate that LBE CASLs are a promising new method for computer-aided instruction of nonverbal children.
 
101. An Evaluation of Group Contingencies to Decrease Disruptive Behavior in the Academic Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHELBY LYNN MCGREW (Mississippi State University), Antario Knight (Mississippi State University), Reeva Morton (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Early disruptive behavior in the educational setting has been linked to negative outcomes across the lifespan including impaired academic, behavioral, and social performance (Owens et. al., 2012). Group oriented contingency strategies have been shown to be effective in decreasing disruptive behavior in heterogeneous classroom settings (Gresham & Gresham, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to compare independent and interdependent contingency strategies in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum or a related disorder in the academic setting. Participants included sixteen children between the ages of six and fifteen with ASD or a related disorder. Procedures included an alternating treatment design between independent and interdependent contingencies targeting appropriate behavior occurrences. Participants were engaged in individual reading and math academic task demands as well as small group unstructured play activities. The data was analyzed using visual analysis of the alternating treatment design between independent and interdependent contingencies targeting appropriate behavior occurrences in three activities: math, reading, and unstructured play. Data indicated minimal differences between independent and interdependent group contingencies. Implications, limitation, and future directions are reviewed. Samples graphs are included below.
 
102. Behavioral Interventions in a Crisis Home Setting: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RUBY JADE LEWIS (Benchmark Human Services), Mirari Elcoro (Armstrong State University)
Abstract: Systematic examination of behavioral interventions in a crisis-home is imperative to maintain and improve services aimed at promoting independent living of adults diagnosed with developmental and intellectual disabilities. This is a case study of a 24-year old woman diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, living at a crisis home. After conducting a functional behavior assessment, treatments were designed to reduce disrobing, physical aggression, elopement, and pica. Such behaviors are dangerous; contribute to social stigmatization, thus challenging independent living. Level of supervision (i.e., one on one; arm's reach) was also examined. Data to establish the effectiveness of the protocols was frequency per day crossed checked with clinical notes. Problem behaviors increased with arm's reach supervision. Temporary increase in problem behavior occurred shortly after protocol implementation. Eventual reduction was obtained: disrobing decreased by 78%, pica by 94%, elopement by 84% and physical aggression by 54%. Aspects of implementation in a crisis-home setting, and decisions on level of supervision are discussed. Follow up interventions such as functional communication and hygiene skills training are briefly described. Consistent implementation across shifts and staff is essential; in practice, isolation of variables contributing to outcomes is difficult in an applied setting.
 
103. Successful Transition from a School Age Program to the Adult World for Students With Disabilities: The WE CAN Program and Plan of Action
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NOOR YOUNUS SYED (Hawthorne Foundation Inc.; Teachers College, Columbia University), Kim Arruda (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Through a New York State Education Department funded grant delivered during the 2015-2016 school year, the Hawthorne Foundation Inc. has created and fostered a Transition program to meet the New York State Career Development and Occupational Studies (NYS CDOS) for students diagnosed with autism in grades 9-12. All students who participated in this program were selected from a special education applied behavior analytic school program. To qualify for this grant, the Hawthorne Foundation met and collected data on 10 out of 12 mandated deliverables. Results of the developed Transition program indicate that 1 student obtained paid employment, 4 students successfully transferred from Alternate Assessment to State and Local Assessments, and all graduating students obtained Office for People with Developmental Disabilities services prior to graduation. Based off these data, grant requirements and deliverables met, Hawthorne Foundation has developed a cutting-edge innovate Transition Program and Career Development and Occupational Studies Plan of Action that crosswalks with the New York State NYS Blueprint for Improved Results for Students with Disabilities that enables all professionals within a team to be accountable for successful transitioning for older students diagnosed with autism.
 
104. The Effect of Behavioral Social Skills Training on Social Skills Related to Employment by an Autistic Adolescent
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHINYA YAMAMOTO (The Hyogo University of teacher education), Shinzo Isawa (Hyogo University of Teacher Education)
Abstract: The purpose of current study was to examine effectiveness of behavioral social skills training (SST) to acquire social skills related to employment by an adolescent with autism. In particular, we made a comparison between a behavioral SST in a controlled setting and a behavioral SST in a simulation setting. In the current study, an adolescent with autism participated in this study. He had great eagerness for finding employment after graduating a college. However, he didn't emit social skills related to employment. So, three targeted behaviors were selected; exchanging business card, consulting about a business with a person, and writing a memo about a instruction to do the job and working according to what is written in a memo. After behavioral SST were conducted, different results were showed each targeted behaviors. In brief, a behavioral SST in a simulation setting was effective to exchanging business card and consulting about a business with a person. On the other hand, a behavioral SST in a controlled setting was effective to writing a memo about a instruction to do the job and working according to what is written in a memo. This result showed that effective procedures differ depending on contingency of targeted behaviors.
 
105. Watch Me Wash My Hands: Using Video Self-Modeling to Teach Handwashing Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DIANA CHRISTIAN (Tyndale University), Caitlyn Winger (Tyndale University), Lyndsey Wagstaff (Tyndale University), Marsha Marzouca (Tyndale University), Teddy Kanters (Tyndale University), Sarah Potvin (Tyndale University), Amanda C. Azarbehi (Tyndale University)
Abstract: new skills and one promising new approaches is known as Video Self-Modeling (VSM). VSM involves children watching prompted and edited videotapes of themselves successfully performing tasks in order to speed up the learning and mastery of these new skills. VSM is cost effective when comparing it to other conventional therapeutic techniques because it requires minimal resources and staff training for this intervention to be effective. The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Self Modeling in teaching children with autism how to wash their hands thoroughly and independently. METHOD: Over the past 2 summers 30 children with autism were recruited to participate as a part of their summer camp programming at Tyndale Research in Autism and Community Educations (TRACEs). TRACE is a social skills focused reverse-integrated summer camp held for 2 weeks each summer. Baseline data was gathered on the first day of camp documenting participants pre-intervention hand washing skills, next VSM hand-washing training videos were created for each child participant. During the subsequent days the VSM program was implemented and data was gathered tracking how successful the children were in independently completing each of the steps involved in hand washing. RESULTS: Results showed that children significantly improved their hand-washing abilities from pre to post intervention. Thus, the results of the study provided support for VSM being an effective and cost efficient form of behavioral intervention that can be effective for children with ASD.
 
106. A Comparison of Alternative Activities within a Multiple Schedule During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), BILLIE RETZLAFF (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melissa Swartzmiller (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Abstract: Fuhrman, Greer, and Fisher compared the effectiveness of alternative activities embedded within the s-delta component of a multiple schedule to facilitate wait time for availability of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) in two children who engaged in problem behavior. For subject 1, therapist attention, chained task demands, and traditional (i.e., no alternative activities) s-delta conditions were compared within a multielement design. For subject 2, therapist attention, access to alternative tangibles, and traditional s-delta conditions were compared within a multielement design. Results for both participants indicated that the application of alternative activities during the s-delta component of a multiple schedule produced significant reductions in problem behavior from baseline levels and facilitated a wait time of 60s and 30s until availability of reinforcement for subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, therapist attention during the S-delta component of a multiple schedule resulted in more rapid and maintained reductions in rate of problem behavior as compared to the traditional S-delta condition for both participants. These results suggest strong implications for the application of alternative activities during a multiple schedule to facilitate waiting for the availability of reinforcement in the treatment of problem behavior.
 
107. A Comparison of the Effects of a Contingency-Saliency and an Error-Correction Procedure on Acquisition of Receptive-Identification Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER JOHNSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Jessica Niemeier (UNMC Munroe- Meyer Institute), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Some children with autism display persistent errors during discrete-trial training. Fisher, Pawich, Dickes, Paden, and Toussaint (2014) evaluated a contingency-saliency procedure that combined a second-order reinforcement schedule with response cost, which produced improved accuracy in completion of intraverbal and receptive tasks among children with autism. In the current study, we compared this contingency-saliency procedure with a common error-correction procedure during acquisition of receptive-identification tasks. Four children diagnosed with an autism participated. During baseline, we implemented a VR2 reinforcement schedule for cooperative behavior, while correct and incorrect responses produced no programmed consequences (i.e., extinction). During treatment, in the contingency-saliency condition we reinforced correct responses on a second-order FR3 [FR1] schedule and removed all accumulated reinforcers contingent on an error. In the error-correction condition, we reinforced correct responses on an FR1 schedule, and following an error, we repeated the trial until the participant emitted an independent correct response. Results showed that both procedures increased correct responding, but the error-correction procedure did so more efficiently for two participants and the contingency-saliency procedure did so more efficiently for two participants. We discuss these results relative to individual differences in responsivity to the discriminative effects of reinforcement and punishment during acquisition of new tasks.
 
109. An Evaluation of Conditional Manding Using a Four Component Multiple Schedule
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA AKERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The standard multiple schedule arrangement for functional communication training (FCT) includes one SD (fixed ratio 1) component and one S-delta (extinction) component for one trained functional communication response (FCR). In this arrangement an individual is responding to a simple discrimination. However, in the natural environment, an individual may request multiple reinforcers that may be available at different times, thus requiring conditional discriminations. The current study provides a demonstration of teaching a participant to respond conditionally to a four component multiple schedule in which each of the schedule components signaled the availability/unavailability for two different reinforcers. We used a multiple baseline across the three SD components of the multiple schedule to assess the effect of a combination of stimulus fading, schedule thinning and response blocking on conditional manding. The participant was an 8-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and referred for the treatment of aggressive, disruptive and self-injurious behavior. Results suggested that once we introduced treatment the participant was able to respond appropriately to a four component multiple schedule. The limitations and implications of the results are discussed.
 
110. An Evaluation of Vocalizations During Functional Analysis, Functional Communication Training, and Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGGIE ANN MOLONY (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia), Kayla Crook (University of Georgia), Karla Zabala (University of Georgia)
Abstract:

We investigated a participant's use of target vocal mands, untargeted vocal mands, and appropriate vocalizations through three distinct phases of functional communication training (FCT) and maintenance. The participant emitted word vocalizations (relevant and irrelevant) during functional analysis, but was not proficient at emitting target vocal mands during a pre-intervention assessment. Therefore, alternative, more proficient means of communication (e.g., microswitch press and card touch) were reinforced during FCT. The participant did not emit vocal mands (functionally relevant and irrelevant) during FCT. While the participant continued to emit words during FCT, these responses decreased to 0 by the end of FCT. Both target vocal mands and other word vocalizations reemerged during maintenance sessions (i.e., alternative responses on extinction). This reemergence of target vocal mands, while not reinforced during FCT, has at least two important implications. First, it suggests that reinforcing non-vocal communicative responses during FCT does not remove vocal responses from the individual's repertoire. Second, it suggests that placing a previously reinforced non-vocal alternative response on extinction may be a way to bring about target vocal mands.

 
111. An Examination of the Metacontingency Utilizing Activities With Embedded Interlocking Contingencies in Individuals With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Megan Fults (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), CHRISTINA L CHANCEY (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), Samantha Lee Kohn (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), Mariela Castro (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), William Root (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale)
Abstract: The current investigation examined the effectiveness of a metacontingency package in two experimentations. In experiment one, the metacontingency was utilized by embedding activities with interlocking behavioral contingencies to examine its effectiveness on reciprocal social interactions in two females diagnosed with an intellectual disability. Results demonstrated an increase of the dependent variable by the metacontingency activities. The results of experiment one were the premise for experiment two, which was to examine whether the metacontingency activities that were effective in increasing social interactions were due to the metacontingency or simply engaging in an activity together. Experiment two utilized two activity types, parallel and metacontingency activities, to determine their relative effect on self-talk behavior, reciprocal social interactions, and conversational units in two males diagnosed with an intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Results suggested that there were no relative effects demonstrated by the two activity types on self-talk behavior, however results demonstrated an increased effect by the metacontingency activities relative to the parallel activities on reciprocal social interactions and conversational units.
 
112. Assessment and Treatment of Severe Skin Picking and Lip Biting: A Clinical Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DIANA GINNS (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins ), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Bo Kim (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The current case study describes the longitudinal assessment and treatment of one adolescent male diagnosed with autism and intellectual disability who presented with significant skin-picking and lip biting behavior. All data were collected during the client’s nine month admission to a 16-bed inpatient hospital unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. Due to the nature and severity of the client’s self-injurious behavior, assessments included functional analyses, a restraint analysis, competing stimulus assessments, and a competing activity analysis. Effects of intervention were evaluated using an alternating treatments design with an extended baseline phase. The final intervention package consisted of: a) noncontingent reinforcement via competing activities and food on a rotating schedule with response interruption and redirection, and b) environmental manipulations, a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with tokens for compliance with tasks and response interruption and redirection. Rates of skin picking and lip biting were reduced to less than 80 percent of the rate at admission, and results were generalized across settings and people.
 
114. Behavioral Momentum: Comparison of the Effects of Functional and Arbitrary Reinforcers on Manding Responses by Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGHAN HERRON (Easter Seals Southern California), A. Duff Lotfizadeh (Easter Seals Southern California/CSULA), Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, LA)
Abstract: According to the behavioral momentum metaphor, a discriminated operant is more persistent in contexts that have been correlated with a higher frequency of reinforcers (contingently and noncontingently). In other words, increasing reinforcer density through a superimposed noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedule in a particular context increases response persistence in that context. While these effects have been obtained with NCR schedules that used the same reinforcer as the target operant (matched NCR) and with unmatched NCR schedules, studies have not compared persistence directly as a function of reinforcer density manipulations involving matched versus unmatched NCR schedules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the persistence of a particular mand in individuals diagnosed with autism across three stimulus contexts, one correlated with a matched NCR schedule, one with an unmatched NCR schedule, and one with no-NCR schedule. The results indicated that in the majority of cases responding was more persistent in contexts correlated with an NCR schedule than in the no-NCR context. Interestingly, responding was more persistent in the unmatched NCR context than in the matched NCR context. The results are discussed in terms of the implications they have with respect to how and when NCR schedules should be used.
 
115. Combining Free- and Forced-Choice Procedures to Decrease Resistance to Change
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA NIEMEIER (UNMC Munroe- Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jennifer Felber (Summit Educational Resources), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: A core symptom of autism is called “resistance to change” (Kanner, 1943; e.g., insisting on wearing the same shirt every day, refusing all non-white foods). In this study we used differential reinforcement and a forced-choice procedure to shift responding towards “acceptance of change” with three boys with various forms of resistance to change. During a free-choice baseline, we allowed each participant to choose between an established pattern of behavior (i.e., resistant behavior) and a new pattern of behavior (i.e., change behavior), and we delivered reinforcement for making a clear choice independent of which response pattern the participant selected. During differential reinforcement, we delivered a highly preferred item only if the participant chose the new response pattern. During forced-choice choice procedure, we prompted the participant to choose the new response pattern (i.e., escape extinction) and provided reinforcement following the forced choice. Results showed that all participants learned to independently select the new response pattern when the force-choice procedure remained in effect. In addition, after exposure to the force-choice procedure, two participants showed strong maintenance effects when we reintroduced differential reinforcement (without the forced-choice procedure). We discuss these finding relative to effects of differential reinforcement and escape extinction on resistance to change.
 
116. Correspondence Between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Stimulus Reinforcer Value for Social Interactions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Regan Weston (Baylor University), Kristen Lenae Padilla-Mainor (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Abstract: Effective training programs for individuals with disabilities generally involve the use of effective reinforcers. The use of social interactions as reinforcers has several advantages over tangible and edible stimuli in skill acquisition and behavior modification programs. For example, they are inexpensive, more practical, less stigmatizing, and promote greater generalization. This study examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions with individuals with developmental disabilities. A modified paired-choice preference assessment was implemented. Social interactions were presented to the participants on two iPads, each containing a 5-s video of the participant engaging in the specified social interaction with the experimenter. Contingent upon selecting a video, the child received the social interaction displayed on the video. Reinforcer efficacy of the high-, medium-, and low- preferred interactions were evaluated using a progressive-ratio schedule to determine the amount of work maintained by each social interaction. Results showed that higher preference stimuli produced larger break points than did lower preference stimuli. Implications for clinical applications will be discussed.
 
117. Decreasing Self Injurious Behaviors by Teaching Children With Autism to Wait for Preferred Items
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAN FUNG LAM (State University of New York at New Paltz), Rachel Cagliani (University of Georgia), Katie Smith (Comprehensive Behavior Change), Jennifer Lenz Alexander (Comprehensive Behavior Change)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders may engage in self injurious behaviors during the period of time between manding and receiving the specified stimulus. Although SIB must be prevented, it is not feasible in the natural environment for a communication partner to deliver the manded stimulus immediately following every mand. Eventually, the schedule of reinforcement schedule will need to be thinned to one more representative of that found in the natural environment. In this study, two children with ASD engaged in SIB when waiting for preferred items. The purpose of this study was to teach two children with autism to wait 30 s following a mand for a stimulus without engaging in SIB. A changing criterion design was used to systematically increase the wait interval before the communication partner delivered the reinforcer. If the participant attempted to engage in SIB during the wait interval, a therapist blocked the attempt, and the wait interval was reset. Results indicated that both participants met mastery criterion (i.e., waited 30 s without engaging in SIB) and maintained the behavior.
 
118. Functional Analysis: Varying Levels of Procedural Integrity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TINO LOVULLO (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea L. Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: In recent years, research in the area of procedural integrity has highlighted the impact of varying levels of integrity during skill acquisition and behavior reduction procedures. However, there is little evaluation of the impact of varying procedural integrity during behavioral assessments. Further, few published studies report levels of procedural integrity during experimental functional analyses (EFAs). The current study evaluated the impact of varying levels of procedural integrity during EFAs using a reversal design (ABA). The independent variable included implementation of EFA conditions at 100% or 50% integrity. The dependent variable was rate of challenging behavior. Participants included three males with autism spectrum disorder ages four and five years. Initial results suggest manipulating levels of procedural integrity increases the rate of target behavior in some conditions. The increase may be due to the fact that varying integrity is essentially varying the schedule of reinforcement. Initial results also suggest that one participant demonstrated an increase in non-target disruptive behavior. The authors conclude the presentation with a discussion of implications for practice and future research regarding errors of omission and commission.
 
119. Increasing Learning Opportunities Presented to Children With Autism Using Fluency-Based Instruction With Modeling and Feedback
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA BAROSKY (Bierman ABA; Simmons College), Nicole LeMaster (Bierman ABA)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of a three different staff training packages on the rate of trial presentation to children diagnosed with autism. The three packages consisted of a combination of fluency based instruction with feedback, feedback plus modeling and feedback plus modeling in vivo with the client. The experimenters implemented 20-minute fluency based staff trainings with one-minute trial presentation fluency drills. Training resulted in an increase in the number of trials presented from baseline probes across all three packages with the biggest gain during the modeling and feedback phases.
 
120. Parent-Implemented Trial-Based Functional Analysis for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE GEROW (Baylor University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Emily Gregori (Purdue University), Lisa Rodriguez Sanchez (Texas A&M University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the extent to which parent-implemented trial-based functional analysis leads to effective function-based interventions. Three children with autism, ages 3 to 7 years old, participated with their mothers. A Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) worked with the family throughout the study. Each mother implemented the trial-based functional analysis in her home, with coaching from the BCBA. Trial-based functional analyses consisted of ten 2-min trials per condition. The procedures varied by condition, but each trial consisted of a 1-min control portion followed by a 1-min test portion. Each trial-based functional analysis resulted in differentially higher rates of challenging behavior in at least one test condition. Interventions were developed based on the results of the trial-based functional analysis. A multiple-baseline across parent-child dyads design was used to evaluate the efficacy of the function-based intervention. The parent-implemented function-based interventions resulted in reductions in challenging behavior and increases in communication. Implications and directions for future research will be discussed.
 
121. Psychosocial Outcomes in Adolescents With Autism Who Received Intensive Behavioural Intervention as Young Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE KOUDYS (Brock University), Adrienne M. Perry (York University), Hilda Ho (York University), Meisha Charles (York University)
Abstract: Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) has been shown to result in increased cognitive and adaptive skills in many efficacy studies (e.g., Lovaas, 1987), as well as in community effectiveness studies (Flanagan, Perry, & Freeman, 2012; Perry et al., 2008). However, long-term follow-up studies are rare and generally explore IQ, adaptive skills, language, and school placement as outcome variables. Social-emotional-behavioural outcomes are rarely assessed. As such, little is known about long-term outcomes in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess the social-emotional-behavioural functioning of adolescents who received IBI as young children. The sample includes 12 youth (age 14-17 years) who previously received IBI and had good outcomes (improvements on cognitive, adaptive, and autism severity measures) in a previous short-term follow-up study (Prichard & Perry, 2010). Multiple measures were used, including the Achenbach System of Empirically-Based Assessment (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), a well-established approach to measuring social-emotional-behavioural problems in children and youth. Data were obtained from parents, teachers and youth themselves. Results indicate that the majority of the sample were rated as having no scores in the clinically significant range; although 3 participants displayed significant social-emotional-behavioural difficulties.
 
122. Promoting Caregiver Transfer of Treatment Effects During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective treatment for decreasing destructive behavior maintained by social consequences (Carr & Durand, 1985). Multiple schedule (mult) FCT has been used to thin the reinforcement schedule during FCT (Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001). In cases where FCT results in high rates of incorrect FCRs, response restriction has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative (Fisher, Greer, Querim, & & DeRosa, 2014). This study was conducted with four participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were referred for treatment of destructive behavior (i.e., aggression, disruption, self-injury). Caregivers were taught to implement functional analysis conditions using behavioral skills training (BST). Therapists then taught participants an FCR to access the functional reinforcer(s) and used mult FCT or response restriction to thin the schedule of reinforcement. Following reinforcement-schedule thinning, we used BST to teach caregivers to implement the terminal FCT schedule. Treatment was transferred to caregivers using a multiple baseline across functions, multiple baseline across caregivers, or reversal design. Modifications that were required to facilitate effective caregiver transfer are discussed. Results show that the use of discriminative stimuli during FCT schedule thinning may facilitate the transfer of treatment effects to untrained contexts (e.g., novels settings, therapists, or caregivers).
 
123. Reducing Resurgence of Destructive Behavior Following Functional Communication Training Using Behavioral Momentum Theory
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Valdeep Saini (Upstate Medical University), CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

The resurgence of destructive behavior can occur during functional communication training (FCT) if the alternative response contacts a challenge (e.g., extinction). Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) suggests that refinements to FCT could mitigate resurgence of destructive behavior during periods of extinction. Following a functional analysis and treatment with FCT (Study 1), we combined two of those refinements (i.e., the use of a lean schedule of reinforcement and increased duration of treatment exposure) and compared the magnitude of resurgence relative to a condition in which FCT was implemented in a traditional manner (Study 2). Participants consisted of four individuals (ages 3 to 16) who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were referred for self-injurious, aggressive, or disruptive behaviors. Results for the four participants suggested that the combination of the two refinements to FCT was successful in decreasing the resurgence of destructive behavior during an extinction challenge. The limitations and implications of the results are discussed.

 
124. Reduction of Aberrant Behavior of 8-Year-Old-Boy With Autism Through Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior With Escape Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSEY SNEED (Easter Seals Bay Area), Delinah Lopez (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Abstract: A reversal (ABAB) single subject design was used to demonstrate the efficacy of a DRO with Escape Extinction procedure for a client who engaged in high intensity and high frequency aberrant behavior. The client is an 8 year old boy who was diagnosed with ASD at age 4 through Kaiser; he was immediately referred to ABA services to assist him and his family in developing adaptive living skills and decrease the occurrence of problem behavior. Severe behavior occurred in the form of pinching other's skin, scratching, and bringing hands around another person's neck. A Functional Analysis on the aggressive behavior overwhelming indicated the function of aggression to be escape maintained. A behavior support plan was written based on the information to which a DRO was implemented at a 5 minute interval with escape extinction. To ensure the validity of the DRO with Escape Extinction procedure a reversal design was implemented to which the results were clear to have an effect on the reduction of behavior.
 
125. Teaching Complex Social Skills Using Video-Based Group Instruction for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAISY WANG (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Social skills deficits are a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and many social skills programs in community-based clinical settings take an eclectic approach. These programs often include discussions, role play, and group activities, leading to variable outcomes. A recent study documented a favorable outcome when using video modeling to teach complex social skills in a group setting. The current study seeks to replicate these findings and examine the effectiveness of using video-based group instruction for adolescents with autism. Participants in the current study were recruited from a community-based social skills training program. The participants have participated in the program between 1-3 years but video modeling had not been presented as an instructional strategy prior to this study. Preliminary results suggest that participants responded very favorably and expediently to the video models, demonstrating 100% success shortly after implementation; the high levels of success were maintained to date. It is an encouraging first step. The author anticipates monitoring long-term maintenance, as well as generalization to natural settings, with the current group. The efficacy of video-based group instructions will be further investigated with the instruction of different complex social skills and with learners of different ages.
 
126. Teaching Daily Living Skills to Individuals With Autism: A Comparison of Two Instructional Methods
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER WERTALIK (The Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exit high school lacking the skills needed to successfully transition into adulthood. As a result, many young adults with ASD experience poor outcomes across a variety of areas such as low rates of college completion, employment, independent living, and participation in their community. More concerning, many adolescents and young adults with ASD remain dependent upon others for support in day-to-day activities. Therefore, the development of independent behavior, specifically for daily living skills, proves critical as student's transition from the high school environment into adulthood. The present study sought to replicate and extend the findings of Wertalik and Kubina (in press) by comparing the effects of Video modeling and TAGteach to teach daily living skills to three learners (ages 12-13) with ASD. The experimenter implemented an alternating treatments design consisting of a five-minute video modeling condition and a five-minute TAGteach condition. A baseline condition (i.e., no instruction or feedback) also occurred along with the two experimental conditions in order to compare and evaluate the other two interventions. Results of the present study will help establish evidence for determining which instructional method will lead to improvements in accurate performance. Additionally, results will provide teachers and other professionals with efficient instructional methods for teaching daily living skills to individuals with ASD.
 
127. Teaching Student Behavior To Low Verbal Behavior ASD Children Using Alternative Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECA BENASSI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Camila Zampier (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Patricia Diniz (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Fernanda Magalhães (Associação Brasileira de Psicologia e Medicina Comportamental; Universidade Positivo), Josiane Knaut (Associação Brasileira de Psicologia e Medicina Comportamental; Universidade Positivo.)
Abstract:

The present study is part of a research that evaluated the performance in equivalence task stimuli, since the matching evaluation in children with ASD. The goal of this study was to set student behavior in individuals with ASD. The set behavior was to remain seated and the non-aggression. The participants was two students, 10 and 14 years old, both of them with previous ASD diagnosis and they were evaluated about their cognitive and verbal skills since the CARS (Childhood Autism Rating Scale). Sessions were conducted inside a room of a special education school in Curitiba, Brazil, in which should stay just the children and the experimenters. It was used as procedure for installation and reduction of the target behavior, the individual reinforcement. The reinforcements were given in gaps of 10 seconds, with this gap growing up gradually. Simple tasks should be performed by the participant when was sat. Data showed that proceeding this way has minimized the aggressive behavior, which frequency gone from 9 times to 0, in a 15 minutes session, establishing the conduct of being seated for at least 5 minutes during the sessions, a conduct considered necessary to realize the purposed tasks.

 
128. The Influence of Low-Intensity Behavior Interventions on Language Acquisition in Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAULA POMPA-CRAVEN (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract: Early intensive behavior interventions result in lasting outcomes for autistic individuals, particularly at younger ages (Luiselli, Cannon, Ellis, & Sisson, 2000; Peters-Scheffer, Didden, Korzilius, & Sturmey, 2011). Few studies have examined the influence of low intensity applied behavior analysis (ABA) interventions on language outcomes in individuals diagnosed with autism. The present study examined the influence of low intensity ABA on language outcomes in autistic individuals older versus younger than seven as measured by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP; Sundberg, 2008). A total of 280 subjects were randomly selected from a pool of 5,000 participants receiving ABA services from Easter Seals Southern California, a non-profit agency serving individuals with disabilities. The interventions were provided daily using ABA strategies to increase adaptive skills and to reduce maladaptive behaviors. The results suggested that treatment outcomes were significantly greater after two years than after one year for all groups, highlighting the importance of continued ABA services beyond the first year. The outcomes were similar for younger and older individuals after one year and both groups continued to make progress during the second year but the younger individuals had slightly greater language gains after two years than the older participants.
 
129. The Use of Video Modeling to Increase Greetings in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Mindy Miles (Miles ABA Services), MONA R FULUVAKA (Miles ABA Services), Heather Bernstein (Miles ABA Services), Rebecca Roberts (Miles ABA Services)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have marked deficits with social skills, particularly initiating greetings and in sustaining conversation. These deficits impact their ability to make and keep friends as they often lack the skill to join a group of peers that are already interacting. Often they will remain on the sidelines as the social interaction goes on around them. This study uses video modeling as a way to pre-teach the behavior expectation and track whether this method improves the integration into the social setting. This study looks at only the initiation of each part of a greeting. Using a 30 second video as a model of the expected greeting behavior, will the child enter the social setting and initiate that greeting with no additional support? A 6 step task analysis was used with each step being evaluated on an 8 point scale. Those scores were graphed both in baseline and treatment phase.
 
130. Using Stimulus Fading to Facilitate Discrimination of a Multiple Schedule During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA AKERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melissa Swartzmiller (Central Michigan University)
Abstract:

Multiple (mult) schedules and response restriction (RR) are two procedures that can be used to facilitate reinforcement schedule thinning during functional communication training (FCT). However, some individuals may have difficulty discriminating between the reinforcement and extinction components during mult FCT (Fisher, Greer, Querim, & DeRosa, 2014). Fisher et al. examined the effectiveness of RR FCT with individuals who exhibited difficulty discriminating between these two components of mult FCT. Results showed that RR FCT produced high rates of correct functional communication responses (FCRs), while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. One limitation of Fisher et al. was that when teaching the discrimination, gradual stimulus-fading procedures were implemented in RR FCT, but not in mult FCT. In the present case study, we employed Fisher et al.s stimulus-fading procedures used during RR FCT to facilitate discrimination during mult FCT. The participant was a three-year old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in aggression and self-injurious behavior. Our results provide some evidence that the gradual stimulus-fading procedures implemented during mult FCT were successful in teaching the successive discrimination of the multiple schedule. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

 
131. Using Video Modeling to Teach Sociodramatic Play With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA CLEMENTS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Claire Turbes (University of Nebraska Omaha/University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kendall Lanning (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Sydney Readman (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social communication and repetitive and restricted activities. One major area of concern is that children with ASD often lack appropriatesocial-play skills due to stereotypic use of play materials and resistance to change, which markedly impairs their interactions with peers. Given these deficits, when presented with play scenarios that require reciprocal responding to peers (e.g., during sociodramatic play) children with ASD often do not respond appropriately. In this investigation, three children with ASD learned to enact three different roles within a restaurant scenario using video modeling and prompting. All individuals watched a video of their therapists performing a restaurant scenario consisting of three restaurant roles; customer, waiter, and cook. If a child was not able to enact a role to criterion responding after watching the video, we used client-specific prompting procedures to teach the child to complete their roles in the restaurant scenario. All three children learned to enact all three roles, often with minimal to no prompting from the therapist.
 
132. Utilizing Technology to Fade Staff Involvement and Facilitate Skill Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN ERION (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Rickiesha March (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Gloria M. Satriale (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies; Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL))
Abstract: Transition to adult services is a challenging time for adolescents with disabilities and their families. These individuals require interventions that target maintenance of skills with faded staff involvement as resources are often more limited after transition. This study utilized Bluetooth technology along with Facetime to introduce remote monitoring to a 20 year old female with autism as she moved through the transition to adult services. The initial introduction of this intervention took place in her vocational setting. The Bluetooth was introduced to allow verbal prompting and instruct the student to set up the Facetime technology. Once independence with this task was reached, the Bluetooth was removed and all necessary prompting and direction was provided via Facetime, allowing the support staff to monitor from a farther distance. Tasks completed with a high level of independence were selectively chosen to target maintenance of skills as opposed to instruction. Results demonstrate an initial decrease in production followed by a return to baseline which maintained through removal of Bluetooth technology followed by a reduction in staff time and attention to intermittent check-in via Facetime. This research has implications in supporting the transition process and maximizing resources.
 
133. A Review of Interventions for Increasing Parallel, Associative, and Cooperative Play in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MICHELLE KUHN (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Laci Watkins (The University of Texas at Austin), Nicolette Sammarco-Caldwell (The University of Texas at Austin), Katherine Ledbetter-Cho (Texas State University)
Abstract: Play influences early childhood development and learning. The development of play skills is often hindered for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to the core deficits of the disabilities, therefore interventions to teach play skills are often needed. Previous reviews of the literature regarding play and ASD have focused on the functionality of play skills for children with ASD. The purpose of this review is to identify social play interventions to teach young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) parallel, associative, and cooperative play skills. Through the use of systematic search procedures for recent studies (1995-2015), this review aims to identify and describe the components utilized in social play interventions, offer an analysis of research strength and intervention results, and suggest directions for future research. Results suggest that interventions utilizing modeling, prompting, reinforcement, and direct instruction, can improve social play behaviors in young children with autism. Future research needs to focus on the generalization and maintenance of these skills.
 
134. Has Behavior Analysis Found its Heart? Assessing Social Validity Trends in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JOSEPH H. CIHON (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Kara Reagon (Beacon Services of Connecticut), Norma Torres (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract: Montrose M. Wolf (1978) outlined the importance of social validity measures within applied behavior analytic research. Carr et al. (1999) provided an analysis of social validity trends within the first 31 years (1968-1998) of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA). The purpose of the current study is to extend Carr and colleagues' analysis of social validity trends in JABA to include issues published since Carr et al., additional measures, and further analysis of social validity trends. Implications for the field of applied behavior analysis and future research are provided.
 
138. A Multi-Modal Training Package to Improve Parent and Staff Instruction in an Outpatient Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHONNET R. BRAND (Virginia Institute of Autism), Roxanne Michel Bristol (Virginia Institute of Autism), Tonya LeAnn Lambert (Virginia Institute of Autism), John W. Prickett (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract: Behavior analysis is associated with varying methods to aid staff and parents in delivering strategies with high fidelity, resulting in desirable outcomes for consumers (i.e. increased skills such as making appropriate requests, reduced problem behavior or reduced parent stress).Various means and measures have been used to assess the effectiveness of staff and parent-training methodologies (Baker-Ericzen, M.J., Brookman-Frazee, L, & Stahmer, A., 2005). The current study assessed a multimodal training package utilizing an on-line course of study and in-situ coaching using two different fidelity measures (The Instructional Session Performance Checklist and the Competent Learner Model Coaching Checklist). Social validity was assessed via a parent questionnaire (Parent Stress Index, 4th edition). Participants were five parents of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and five staff employed by an outpatient facility providing behavioral services for children with ASD in Virginia. Parents were taught to implement strategies to increase prosocial behaviors such as making requests and following directions. Fidelity measures indicated that parent participants use of effective instructional methods increased from an average of 95 to 97%; parent-trainer fidelity increased from 71 to 95%. Parent stress measures indicated a decrease of nearly 10%. Implications for delivering brief, effective and efficacious training packages will be considered.
 
139. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Workshops: Increasing Staff Interactions and Happiness Indices in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
WILLIAM ROOT (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Christina L Chancey (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), Donnell McCauley (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Interactions between adults with autism and the staff they work with daily provide not only rehabilitative services, but these interactions can also serve to enhance overall quality of life (Davis et al., 2004). The current study sought to determine the efficacy of three, 30 min Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) workshops to increase positive staff interactions, as operationalized by Schepis and Reid (1994). ACT workshops were conducted for three consecutive days, with Workshop I centering on work-specific values, Workshop II focusing on diffusion techniques, and Workshop III addressing self-as-context and re-visiting the values and committed actions from Workshop I. A secondary dependent measure of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between positive staff interactions and happiness indices, as an indicator of quality of life (Singh, 20014), for adults with autism. Happiness indices were operationally defined similar to those introduced by Green and Reid (1996). Utilizing a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, the primary and secondary dependent measures were recorded using 10-s partial interval recording for 10 min observation sessions. Participants will include three adults with autism and their respective daily staff member. Baseline data collected to date show levels below 20% for positive staff interactions and happiness indices.
 
140. Comparing the Efficacy of Peer Versus Staff Models on Observational Learning in Adults With Developmental Disorders: Implications for Skill Acquisition in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Mariela Castro (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), CHRISTINA L CHANCEY (Southern Illinois University of Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: We compared the effectiveness of a peer and staff model on observational learning by four adults with developmental disabilities. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of a staff-as-model and peer-as-model condition. Results indicated that all four participants acquired the skill at a faster rate in the peer-as-model condition. Generalization and maintenance of the skills acquired with both models was also evaluated. Implications of programming for observational learning in education and habilitation settings are discussed.
 
142. Effectiveness of Listening While Reading on a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHATHURI ILLAPPERUMA (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Two frequently used evidence-based interventions to improve oral reading fluency of typically developing children and children with disabilities included Listening Passage Preview (LPP) and Repeated Readings (RR). While children with autism often exhibit difficulties in reading, there is limited research on how these interventions work with them (Lee, Simpson, & Shogren, 2007). Most research conducted on reading for children with autism target phonological awareness, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies (Whalon & Hanline, 2008). Reisener, Lancaster, McMullin, and Ho (2014) reported that LPP and RR were effective interventions for improving oral reading fluency in children with autism. This study utilizes Listening While Reading (LwR) which is also an evidence-based intervention to improve oral reading fluency in children. An alternating treatment (A/ABCD/ABCD) design was used to investigate if LwR is an effective intervention to improve the oral reading fluency on a middle school student with autism. Resultssuggest that LwR helped the student to maintain an improved and almost constant level of words correctly read per minute throughout the intervention, compared to the LPP and RR.
 
143. Examining the Implementation of the Registered Behavior Technician Certification: Benefits, Limitations, Practicalities, and Implications
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CRESSE M. MORRELL (Virginia Institute of Autism), Ethan S. Long (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract: By establishing the Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) certification, the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) has provided an opportunity for provision of the specific training and supervision necessary for direct care staff to receive and maintain a valuable credential. Unique challenges may be discovered during the process of implementing the protocols and procedures needed for obtaining the required training and certification as well as maintaining the ongoing required supervision once certification is received. Specifically, planning for the impact on training procedures, staff proficiency, recruiting and retention, potential effect on the quality of services, administrative resources, monetary cost, and time commitment are all variables that should be considered when implementing adoption of this certification. In this poster, the benefits, limitations, practicalities, and implications of implementation of the RBT credential will be examined.
 
144. Experimental Functional Analysis: Generalization from Traditional to Trial-based Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HANNA C. RUE (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea L. Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Tino LoVullo (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Results of a recent survey of over 600 behavior analysts indicated only 77% received formal training in the use of experimental functional analysis (EFA). Further, 63% of board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) indicated they "never" or "almost never" used an EFA in practice. The objective of the current study was to determine if BCBAs could generalize the ability to implement a trial-based experimental functional analysis (TBFA) following training focused on "traditional" EFA methodology. Three BCBAs with no experience implementing EFAs acted as participants in the study. The independent variable included formal training in EFA methodology. The dependent variable was level of procedural integrity during implementation of a traditional EFA and a TBFA measured in a multiple baseline design. Participants implemented the traditional EFAs during a mock assessment. Participants implemented the TBFAs in an applied setting with clients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Initial results indicate that participants can implement traditional EFA methodology with relatively high levels of integrity. Results suggest two participants demonstrated challenges maintaining levels of integrity above 80% during the demand and control conditions. Participants will likely require additional feedback to maintain procedural integrity above 80% accuracy during TBFAs. Implications for training and practice are discussed.
 
145. Further Analysis of a Web-Based Program for Training Italian-Speaking Parents to Implement Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREW PIERCE BLOWERS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Megan E Vosters (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Maegan D. Pisman (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Erica Scandurra (ALBA), Alessandro Dibari (ALBA), Daniele Rizzi (ALBA)
Abstract: As services for children with autism spectrum disorders continue to increase, it is crucial to develop effective and widely accessible parent training procedures. Lack of access to bilingual service providers presents as a barrier to effective parent training. One approach involves training parents to deliver Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) over the internet via a virtual private network with the aid of a translator. In this way, non-English speaking parents can receive services from virtually anywhere in the world regardless of their native language. We are evaluating the effects of a 20-hour virtual training program which included e-learning modules and virtual behavioral skills training delivered by English-speaking Board Certified Behavior Analysts to Italian-speaking parents mediated by an Italian translator on teaching parents to implement EIBI programs. The dependent variables are the Behavioral Implementation Skills for Play Activities (BISPA) and the Behavioral Implementation Skills for Work Activities (BISWA). Three Italian-speaking parents two of which have completed pretest assessments and are currently receiving the virtual training. In pretest, all parents obtained 30% or lower of the BISWA and BISPA. Results will permit conclusions about the efficacy of using a translator to mediate virtual training provided to non-English speaking parents.
 
146. Stay, Play, and Talk: A Peer Mediated Social Skills Program for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Social-Communication Difficulties and Their Peers (Phase IV)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHERI MALLABAR (Brock University), Kimberly Maich (Brock University), Megan Nicole Henning (Brock University)
Abstract: With continued transformation happening in kindergarten classrooms in Ontario, Canada, and emphasis being placed on Inclusive Education, there is a growing need for more individualized evidence-based interventions to promote development for young children. This early intervention strategy is designed to support the unique needs of students with social-communication difficulties (including Autism Spectrum Disorder). The purpose of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of a peer-mediated social skills program called Stay, Play, and Talk (Laushey & Heflin, 2000). The program targets kindergarten students with social-communication difficulties by teaching all students within an inclusive kindergarten classroom environment and promoting more intensive triad training sessions with peers. Using a Multiple-Baseline across Subjects design, three student participants with social-communication difficulties participated in one Kindergarten classroom. A group design was also completed with a second, control classroom where educators filled out pre- and post-social skills questionnaires. Stay, Play, and Talk peer-mediated intervention was delivered to all students in the classroom and intensive triad sessions were completed with the target students and two peers 3 times per week at the back of the classroom. Preliminary findings demonstrate a significant increase in social communication acts between the target children and their typically developing peers across the three participants.
 
147. Reducing the Instances of Public Sexual Behavior in an Adolescent Male Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Lindsay Ward (The Homestead), KARA LYNNE JORGENSEN (The Homestead)
Abstract:

In the United States children with Individualized Education Plans are not required to attend standard school-based sexual education. This and other factors have resulted in many adolescents with Autism not being formally taught information related to sexual education. This program was designed to support an adolescent male in reducing public sexual behaviors in community and school settings. This person was systematically taught to identify public versus private locations and behaviors through visual performance and listener responding. Additionally a stimulus control procedure was implemented to teach the individual when and where sexual behaviors were appropriate. Results indicated a socially significant decline in the frequency of sexual behaviors, to a zero level in home and community settings. However, results from the clinical setting show a significant increase in frequency upon starting the school year.

 
148. Teaching Gestures as a Form of Nonverbal Communication
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ADRIENNE SCHULTZ (The Homestead), Lindsay Ward (The Homestead), Leah Miljkovic (The Homestead)
Abstract:

Many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder never acquire complex vocal language. A significant portion of these children will however learn and successfully use an alternative or augmented form of communication such as The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or a Voice Output Device (VOD). On occasion, the prerequisite skills required to advance past phase II or phase III of PECS never develop. This program was designed to overcome communication barriers by teaching a low-functioning, seven year old boy with autism how to communicate with those around him using gestures. This individual was systematically taught gestures outlined within the firstwordsproject? in order to increase his requesting, commenting and refusals. Results indicated a socially significant increase in gestures related to requesting and refusing, however gestures related to commenting were relatively low. Results are similar to previous research designed to teach gestures to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 
149. Using Concrete Manipulatives to Solve Divisions With Remainder on a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHATHURI ILLAPPERUMA (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Ample research is being conducted to teach children with autism essential literacy skills and functional life skills (Rayner, (2011). However, there is limited research investigating academic math interventions for children with autism (Ellis & Berry, 2005). Though simple, the four basic mathematical operations are yet the most crucial concepts that need to be mastered by individuals with disabilities for two reasons: (1) other mathematical skills are built upon these four operations and (2) simple living skills like money matters are based on these operations (Kirk & Gallagher, 1983). Manipulatives, both virtual and concrete, are a representational and evidence-based instructional methods used to teach mathematics to children with disabilities (Maccini and Gagnon 2000). However, there is less research conducted on the use of manipulatives on students with autism (Bouck, Satsangi, Doughty, & Courtney, 2014). This study used a withdrawal (A/B/A/B) to investigate the effect of concrete manipulatives, with a middle school student with Autism, to solve division problems with remainders. Results in Figure 1 suggest that when manipulatives were provided, the student was able to solve problems correctly, compared to when no manipulatives were provided
 
150. Values Clarification Workshops for Direct Care Staff Working With Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Mariela Castro (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), WILLIAM ROOT (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The identification of one's values and committed actions towards one's values is at the heart of the construct known as psychological flexibility, and its role in a staff training context could offer important contributions to the efficacy of these trainings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of values clarification and committed action on the engagement of direct care staff with their clients with severe intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder. Participants participated in several workshops in which values exercises pertinent to their job and their direct work with clients were completed and discussed. Committed actions were also established by each participant. Results from a multiple baseline across participants design showed that staff emitted anywhere from 11 to 16 more instances of engagement with clients following the values workshops relative to their baseline levels. Implications of values clarification plus committed action workshops as a regular component of staff training for human service staff working with individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder are discussed.
 
151. An Exploration of ABA Services in the Midwest
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KIMBERLY MARTELL (Ball State University), Neelima Duncan (Ball State University)
Abstract: In recent years there has been an increase in the number of providers offering applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorder. When selecting providers, parents and caregivers often review information available on agency websites. The primary purpose of the current study was to explore content regarding ABA services reported on websites by ABA providers in the Midwest. A secondary goal of this study was to compare the services reported by ABA providers to established quality indicators including intensity of services; the use of comprehensive programming and behavior analytic interventions; and staff qualifications. These goals were accomplished by reviewing and coding 175 websites for ABA providers in the Midwest. Websites were rated on a three-point scale for ease of use and the comprehensiveness of information included. Descriptive data are presented for intensity of service, ages served, assessment procedures, treatment areas, parent training, and staff qualifications. Suggestions for additional quality indicators are included. Limitations and implications are discussed.
 
152. Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS) at Western Michigan University
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The students in the Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS) program are trained as practitioners and complete coursework to become competent Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) in two years. Throughout the program our students acquire a solid foundation in the principles and concepts of behavior analysis through completion of two practical MA projects rather than an MA thesis. Our students also attain early, intensive, behavioral intervention skills, supervision experience, and time management skills.
 
153. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: Distance Learning and Clinical Supervision for Full-time Employees Working With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARK R. DIXON (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), William Root (Southern Illinois University), Andrea Mazo (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Full-time graduate studies can be challenging, if not impossible, for full-time employees working with children and adults with autism, despite the advantages of work experience for future ABA service providers. Time and work demands make travelling for on-campus programs unlikely, necessitating the development and continued improvement of graduate programs that train and supervise adults interested in working as ABA therapists or Board Certified Behavior Analysts. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale (SIUC) has delivered distance and online learning opportunities for students interested in studying the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis and the application of those principles with individuals with autism. Embedded within this progressive learning environment is a complex system of generating novel data on autism treatment from distance learners. Outcomes reported in off-campus student theses from our program since Spring, 2015 have included 15 theses related to autism (60%), where 9 (60%) have been single-case evaluations of treatment efficacy and 6 (40%) that have been correlational or reliability studies. Results provide preliminary evidence supporting distance and online programs in training students to assess and treat deficits commonly associated with autism.
 
 

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