Association for Behavior Analysis International

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Seventh International Conference; Merida, Mexico; 2013

Event Details

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Symposium #28
Basic and Translational Studies on Reading Acquisition
Monday, October 7, 2013
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Yucatan III (Fiesta Americana)
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brasil))
Discussant: William J. McIlvane (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: The studies presented in this symposium investigated the acquisition of reading and spelling repertoires, as a continuing effort to apply laboratory-derived methods to establish early instances of these repertoires and to develop a curriculum to build gradually the word attack skills that permit children to read new words with little or no training, via recombination of syllabic units. Derived from research on textual reading, a line of investigation on musical reading in musically illiterate individuals models a system that disentangles acquisition processes of symbolic relations from the past symbolic learning. Study 1, based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm, evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) and cumulative training on the development of stimulus classes and on recombinative performances. Study 2 used MEI to teach students to read several whole words containing the same target textual unit and verified whether they would read novel words containing the target units. In both studies results confirmed that MEI produces abstraction of complex (textual or musical) units so that students can read novel texts or musical coding containing these units. Study 3 investigated the effects of teaching spelling (constructed response matching printed letters to dictated words) on the development of reading.
Keyword(s): reading acquisition, equivalence
Some Determinants of Musical Score Reading: Finding Similarities and Differences with Textual Reading
ELENICE SEIXAS HANNA (Universidade de Brasilia), Erik R. Huber
Abstract: It is not a consensus that reading musical scores and written text are similar symbolic behavior. Two studies on symbolic behavior of reading musical coding, based on stimulus equivalence paradigm, investigated the effects of multiple exemplars and cumulative training on the development of stimulus class and recombinative performance. Fourteen undergraduate students learned to relate three-note melodic fragments (A) to musical scores (B) and to pictures with corresponding piano keys (C) – AB and AC – or learned AB and BC with matching-to-sample procedure. Reading increased with number of stimulus used during training with overlapping elements and training effects lasted longer with cumulative baseline. Those results are consistent with previous studies on textual reading, although scores of auditory-visual relations for music, but not for textual, were systematically lower than visual-visual relations. Visual relations required in musical reading, different from textual stimulus, are not totally arbitrary and may be derived from corresponding physical aspects, and music may require precise auditory discriminations that are not learned during language development.
Multiple Exemplar Instruction Produces Generalized Reading of Complex Textual Units
Viviane Verdu Rico (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), JULIO C. DE ROSE (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Many studies have showed that matching to sample procedures can be used to teach students to read words. Additional studies showed that when matching to sample is used for this purpose, textual units of the taught words may be recombined so that students can read words not explicitly taught. The present study used multiple exemplar instruction (MEI), teaching students to read several whole words containing the same target textual unit. Students were tested to verify whether they would read novel words containing the target units. Students were three typically developing children with reading difficulties at school. A multiple baseline across textual units was used. After MEI with each unit, students learned to read the trained words and increased the number of words containing the target textual units that they were able to read. Results confirmed that MEI produces abstraction of complex textual units so that students can read novel words containing these units.

Reading and Writing Whole Words, Derived From Matching-to-Sample Training, as a Function of the Baseline Training

Thaize Reis (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), DEISY DAS GRAÇAS DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)

Previous studies have shown that matching printed words to dictated words and matching pictures to the same dictated words engendered the formation of equivalence classes and also fostered derived textual behavior and dictation taking. The percentage of correct (derived) reading was systematically higher than dictation taking; an obvious question was whether this effect was a direct result of the tasks used in training. The present study investigated the effects of training spelling (through matching printed letters to a sample stimulus - CRMTS) on reading. The sample could be a dictated word, a picture, a printed word, or a compound (picture and printed word). Participants were 7 typically developing students with reading difficulties at school. A multiple baseline across two sets of 15 words each was used. All students completed the training with the two word sets. Reading and spelling increased across training for trained words, and also for novel words that combined elements of the trained words. Compared to the results of a previous study, this study generated more correct spelling than correct reading. The presentation will explore individual results and also, for comparison purposes, averaged data from this study and the previous study will be compared and discussed.




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